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PHYSICS 1

Experiment 5
EQUILIBRIUM

OBJECTIVES

To determine the mass of a meter


stick using the principle of moments.
To compute sum of moments of force.
To Identify the position of two or more
masses in a straight lever in order to
balance.

MATERIALS

Set of Masses (200g, 100g, 50g)


Meter stick
Platform Balance
String
Knife-edge or any fulcrum
Force frame

PROCEDURE
Center of Gravity
1.

Balance the meter stick on a fulcrum and record this as


center of gravity.

2.

Position the 25cm mark of a meter stick in the fulcrum


and hang a mass of 100g mass m2 at the left side of the
fulcrum to balance. Record this as d1. Record the
distance of the 100g mass from the fulcrum as d2.

3.

Find the mass of the meter stick m1, using the principle
of moments : m1gd1 = m2gd2 / m1d1 = m2d2.

4.

Find the actual mass m of the meter stick using the


platform balance. Determine the percent error where
actual m is the accepted value:
/m1-m2/
x 100
m

TABULATION OF DATA
CENTER OF GRAVITY
Center of Gravity of Meter Stick

CG

50cm

Fulcrum

40cm

Distance of COG from

D1

25cm

Hanged Mass

M2

100g

Distance of m2 from fulcrum

D2

25cm

Mass of meter stick

M1

100g

Mass of meter stick (actual)

Error
Percent Error

110g
10g
9.09%

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:

Required:

M1d1 = m2d2

M1 = Mass of the meter


stick using the principle of
moments

Given:
M2 = 100g
D1 = 25 cm
D2 = 25cm

Solution:
M1 = m2d2
d1
M1 = (100g)(25cm)
(25 cm)
M1 = 100g

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:
/m1-m2/

Required:
x 100

Percent Error

m
Given:
M1 = 100g
M2 = 110g
M = 110g

Solution:
= /100-110/ x 100
110
= 9.09%

PROCEDURE
Straight Lever
1.

Suspend a meter stick in a force frame at its midpoint.


Adjust the position of the meter stick until it balances.
The point of suspension shall be the fulcrum. Hang a 100g
mass m1 at a distance 40cm d1left of the fulcrum. To
balance, properly position a 200g mass m2 on the other
end. Record its position in the meter stick as d2.

2.

Determine the moments T1 on the left side and the


moments T2 on the other side where:
T1 = m1gd1
T2 = m2gd2

3.

Compare T1 and T2 and compute the percent difference.


% Difference = |T1 T2|
T1 + T2
2

x 100

TABULATION OF DATA
STRAIGHT LEVER
Mass on the left side of F

M1

100g

Mass on the right side of F

M2

100g

Distance of M1 from F

D1

40cm

Distance of M2 from F

D2

20cm

Moments on the left side of F T1

39200 dyn-cm

Moments on the right side of F T2

39200 dyn-cm

Difference between T1 and T2


Percent Difference

0 dyn-cm
0%

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:

Given:

T1 = m1gd1

M1 = 100g

T2 = m2gd2

M2 = 200g

Required:

D1 = 40cm

T1 and T2

D2 = 20cm

G = 9.8

Solution:

T1 = (100)(9.8)(40)
T1 = 39200 dyn-cm
T2 = (200)(9.8)(20)
T2 = 39200 dyn-cm

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:

Required:

% diff. = |T1 T2| x 100

Percent Difference

T1 + T2
2

Given:
= 39200
T1

T2 = 39200

Solution:
% diff. = |39200 39200| x 100
39200 + 39200
2
% diff. = 0

PROCEDURE
Sum of Moments
1.

2.

3.

Hang the meter stick in equilibrium position from the

force frame. Place a 50g mass m1 and 100g mass m2


on the right side of the meter stick at different
distances (d1, d2) from the fulcrum. To balance, find
the point where a 200g mass m3 must be placed on
the right side of the fulcrum. Record its distance
from the fulcrum as d3.
Compute for the sum of moment on both sides:
Right side : T1 + T2
Left side : T3
Compare left side moments with the right side
moments. Find the Percent Difference.
% diff. = | (T1 + T2) T3 | x 100
[(T1 + T2)+T3] /2

TABULATION OF DATA
SUM OF MOMENTS
Masses on the Left side of F

M1

50g

Masses on the Left side of F

M2

100g

Distance of M1 from F

D1

40cm

Distance of M2 from F

D2

20cm

Mass on the right side of F

M3

200g

Distance of M3 from F

D3

20cm

Weight of M1

W1

49000 dyn

Weight of M2

W2

98000 dyn

Weight of M3

W3

196000 dyn

Moments on the Left side of F

T1

19600 dyn-cm

Moments on the Left side of F

T2

19600 dyn-cm

Moments on the Right side of F T3

39200 dyn-cm

Sum of Moments on the left side of F

39200 dyn-cm

Difference between (T1+T2) and T3

0 dyn-cm

Percent Difference

0%

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:

Required:

Weight to dyn = (w)(980)

Weight to dyn

Given:
W1 = 50
W2 = 100
W3 = 200

Solution:
W1 = (50)(980)
W1 = 49000
W2 = (100)(980)
W2 = 98000
W3 = (200)(980)
W3 = 196000

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:

Given:

T1 = m1gd1

M1 = 50

T2 = m2gd2

M2 = 100

T3 = m3gd3

M3 = 200

Required:
Moments

Solution:

T1 = (50)(9.8)(40)
T1 = 19600
T2 = (100)(9.8)(20)
T2 = 19600
T3 = (200)(9.8)(20)
T3 = 39200

D1 = 40
D2 = 20
D3 = 20

COMPUTATION
Formula to be used:
% diff. = | (T1 + T2) T3|

Required:
x 100%

Percent Difference

[(T1+T2) + T3)/2]

Given:

T1 = 19600

T2 = 19600
T3 = 39200

Solution:
% diff. = |(19600+19600) 39200| x 100
[(19600+19600)+39200)/2]
% diff. = 0

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
Does the center of gravity coincide with the fulcrum?
Yes the center of gravity coincide with the fulcrum,
because the fulcrum supports the meter stick. The
Center of Gravity of the meter stick was lined with the
fulcrum. The Center of Gravity was determined because
it is where the mass is concentrated.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
Is the equation w1d1 = w2d2 equivalent to m1d1 = m2d2?
How?
No. It differs in a way that weight is different from mass.
Mass is a fundamental quantity while weight is a derived
quantity.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Why does a meter stick balance if the moments in one


side equals the moment on the right side?
It balances because there is an equal amount of masses
on both sides of the meter stick.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

In a straight lever. Why is a relatively low percent


difference obtained?
We got a 0% Difference because the moments we
computed are equal.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

Is the equation m1d1+m2d2 = m3d3 equivalent to


(m1+m2)(d1+d2) = m3d3? Why?
Yes. Because the Associative Property of addition was
applied.

ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

When do you solve for percent difference? Percent Error?


We solve for percent difference to get the percentage
difference of given moments while we solve for Percent
Error when we will determine the percentage error
between the computed mass and the actual mass of an
object.

GROUP 4
PIMENTEL
MADLANGBAYAN
NAZARENO
GUARIN
ESPAOLA
ORENCIANO
CAPINGCOT
COCO