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Drilling and Intervention

Drill Bits
Types and Selections

+ University of Petroleum & Energy


Studies
+ 25-Jan-2017
11

Agenda

Drilling and
Intervention

NOV Drilling & Intervention


Capabilities
Drill Bits
Roller Cone Bits
Fixed Cutter Bits
Bit Selection
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Drilling and Intervention

Introduction

Drilling and
Intervention

Bit Classification
Drill Bits
Fixed
Cutter

PDC

Roller
Cone
Mill
Tooth

Diamon
d
Natural
Diamon
d

Impreg

Hybrid
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Insert

Drilling and
Intervention

Milltooth Bits

Advantages
Fast ROP
Good Stability
Steerable
Low unit cost least expensive bit type
Potential Limitations
Tooth Wear Rate the least durable of all
cutting structures
Bearing Life if run long enough the bearing
will fail
Gauge wear roller cone bits tend to suffer
more gauge wear than PDC bits
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Drilling and
Intervention

Insert Bits
Advantages
Cutting Structure Durability
Range of Formations
Interbed Tolerance
Steerability and Stability
Potential Limitations
Slower ROP
Bearing Life

Drilling and
Intervention

PDC Bits
Advantages
Very Fast ROP
Long Life Potential
Adaptability
Potential Limitations
Impact Damage - brittle
Abrasiveness
Steerability tool face control issues
Stability tend to induce bit whirl, or
stick slip
High Unit Cost
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Drilling and
Intervention

Diamond Bits
Advantages
Very Durable
Hard Rock Capability
Low Junk-in-Hole Risk
Potential Limitations
Slower ROP
RPM Sensitive turbine requirement
High Cost Applications

Drilling and Intervention

Roller Cone
Bits

Drilling and
Intervention

Roller Cone Bit


Terminology

Tungsten Carbide
Inserts or
Cutters
Heel

Cone

Heel Pak or G Pak


Inserts

Shirtt
ail
Nozzle

Pin
Shoulder

Pin
Connection
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Drilling and
Intervention

IADC Nomenclature
Formation

Series/Ty
pe

Cutting Element

Soft to Hard

11- to 34-

Mill Tooth

Soft to Hard

41- to 84-

Tungsten Carbide
Insert

Reading the IADC Code

Seri
es

Type

7
Bearin Special
g
Featur
Gauge
es

5
11

IADC Nomenclature
Mill Tooth Bits

Soft
Hard

Formation Hardness

Insert Bits

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Drilling and
Intervention

Chip Formation
Tooth load overcomes rock compressive
strength to generate crater
Scraping helps to remove chips from
craters

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Chip Removal
Removal of chips is required to allow for
new chip formation
Hydraulics help to remove chips

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Bit Frame Components

Journal Angle
Offset or Skew Angle
Cone Profile
Journal

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Journal Angle
Journal angle influences:
Load distribution between
journal and thrust face
Cutter diameter
Gage bevel length
Cutter shell thickness
As journal angle increases, the
thrust portion of the load
increases
8% difference between 33 and
36 degree journal angle
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Load Components
For Vertical load (WOB), V,
there is an Radial component, R,
and a Thrust component, T,
such that:
T = V sin
R = V cosT

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Journal Angle

Hard Formation Bits 36


Soft Formation Bits 33
Thinner Cutter Shells Thicker Cutter Shells
Less Gage Scraping
More Gage Scraping
High WOB
Moderate WOB

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Offset or Skew Angle


Offset and skew angle portray the same
thing
Offset influences:
Amount of inward thrust loading
Amount of gage wear
Shape of gage insert
Durability/Aggressivity index
Lower offset -more durable
Higher offset -more aggressive

19

Drilling and
Intervention

Effects of Offset or
Skew

Reduced Offset
0
Reduced Gage Scraping
More Durable
Slower Drilling
Hard / Abrasive Formations
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Drilling and
Intervention

Increased Offset
5
Increased Gage Scraping
Less Durable
Faster Drilling
Soft / Sticky Formations

Drilling and
Intervention

Cone Profiles

Flat Cone Profile


Minimum Bottom Scraping
More Durable
Slower Drilling
Hard / Abrasive Formations
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Round Cone Profile


Increased Bottom Scraping
Less Durable
Faster Drilling
Soft / Sticky Formations

Tooth Cutter Design

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Drilling and
Intervention

Insert Cutter Design

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Drilling and
Intervention

Bottom Hole Coverage

Drilling and
Intervention

Bottom hole patterns


are generated in the
Drill lab and provide a
footprint of bit contact
with the formation
A good pattern will
show minimal uncut
rock with no evidence
of tracking

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Bearing Types and Their


Use

Drilling and
Intervention

Journal Bearings (also known as Friction Bearings)


Generally used in higher unit loading / lower
RPM applications
Roller Bearings (also known as Antifriction
Bearings)
Generally used in lower unit loading / higher RPM
applications
Surface speed of the bearing determines bearing
type to use
Generally, bits larger than 12 are roller bearings
12 can be either journal or roller depending on
the application
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Roller Cone Bearing


Designs

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

RC Bearings

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Roller Bearings

Drilling and
Intervention

Roller bearings have two


or three roller races
Recessed roller race for
maximum journal
diameter
Crowned rollers for
improved load
distribution
Encapsulated ball race
with large diameter balls
to reduce race spalling
Specially formulated
28 grease to further reduce

Journal Bearing System


StelliteInlay
Main race load side
Friction pin
Floating Load Response
Bushing
Silver-plated Stellite
thrustwasher
Additional wear
surfaces
Silver solid lubricant

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Drilling and
Intervention

Seal Gland Designs

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Seal Squeeze
Calculation

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Pressure Compensation
System

Drilling and
Intervention

Two Major types of pressure


compensation systems
Vent Through Cap
Vent to Bowl
Both act to equalize pressure across
the seal interface with annual
pressure
Bearing pressure increase due to
frictional heat
Annular pressure increase due to
depth and mud weight
In a closed system, seal interface
pressure should be neutral
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Drilling and
Intervention

Hydraulics

Conventional nozzle
directed between cones at
bottom of hole
Directed nozzles -directed
tangent to interlock row
insert tips and bottom of
hole

33

MudpickII nozzles directed


tangent to gauge row insert
tips and above corner of the

Drilling and Intervention

Fixed Cutter
Bit

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Fixed Cutter Bits

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Drilling and
Intervention

Steel Body FC Bits

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Drilling and
Intervention

Matrix Body FC Bits

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Design Decisions
Cutter
Sizes

Tip Profile
Cutting
Structure
Number of
Blades

Body
Material

Stability

Body
Hydraulics

Gauge

Drill
Bit
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Design Considerations
Bit Profile
Cone
Deeper cone, Greater stability
Nose
Heavy set, Greater durability
Shoulder
Longer shoulder, Greater cutter
count
Flatter profile, Greater steerability

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Drilling and
Intervention

Design Considerations

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Tip Profile

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Cutter Selection

Even wear
Optimum Life
Acceptable Sideforce
Stability

Drill a broad range of formations.


Provide a consistently high ROP.
Long Bit Life.
Low Cost
A compromise is generally required.
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Drilling and
Intervention

Cutter Selection The


Compromise

43

Drilling and
Intervention

Design Compromise

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and
Intervention

Rake Angles

45

Drilling and
Intervention

Backrake
Low back rake
more aggressive
High back rake
less aggressive

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Design Considerations

47

Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and Intervention

Bit Selection

48

Drilling and
Intervention

Bit Abilities

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The Application

Drilling and
Intervention

Lithology
-Rock Strength/Abrasiveness/Clay
Content/Drillability
Interval
-Single Bit Run/Multiple Bit Run
Direction
-Build/Turn/Drop/Hold Drive Type - Specifics
Mud
- Type/Bit Type
Other
- Drill Out/Junk
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Drilling and
Intervention

Offset Data
Geography/Application/Time
Large Scale

Bit: type, manufacturer, serial number, IADC Code,


nozzles
Interval: depth in, depth out, footage drilled
Parameters: WOB, RPM (motor & surface),
Hydraulics: nozzles (TFA), flow, HSI,
Mud: type, weight, PV, YP, sand content
Dull Condition:
Formations: lithology

Small Scale Logs


Formation: gamma, sonic, density, porosity
Parameters: wob, torque, rpm, flow,
Mechanical: Vibration, shocks, collar RPM.
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Cost per Interval


Equation

Bit Cost
Rig Cost per hour
Drill Time -derived from R.O.P.
Trip Time -Round trip
Interval Drilled -proposed well

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Drilling and
Intervention

Bit Selection Process

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Drilling and
Intervention

Drilling and Intervention

Thank You

5454

+ Rupam.Sarmah@nov.
com
+ 91 7506 374 792