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Tank Builders

Scaffold
Guidelines
Presented by:
STI/SPFA
Safety & Health Committee

NOTES

The following materials have been developed by STI/SPFA to generally illustrate industry
practice. In developing these guidelines, STI/SPFA makes no judgment as to whether such
industry practice reflects reasonable care. These materials merely set forth a general method by
which scaffolding for tanks and vessels may be erected, used, maintained, and inspected, and
by which personnel may gain a preliminary background in the hazards of Tank Builders
Scaffold. These Guidelines are not in any manner to be construed as superseding or
supplementing the OSHA Guidelines promulgated under 29 CFR 1926.450 through 1926.454
and as listed in Appendix A, or any other OSHA Guidelines or applicable federal, state or
municipal laws, regulations and ordinances. Each employer has the responsibility to follow, and
ensure that its employees comply with the OSHA Guidelines and all other applicable laws,
regulations and ordinances concerning Tank Builders Scaffold and the erection, use,
maintenance, inspection and employee training and safety in regard thereto. There Guidelines
shall in no manner be construed as imposing any liability upon STI/SPFA for any bodily injuries
or damage to personal property resulting from the implementation of any of the information
contained within there Guidelines. Further, STI/SPFA accepts no liability for the use, misuse,
interpretation, or misinterpretation of any of the information contained herein by any person or
entity. STISPFA DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ALL
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
By taking possession of these Guidelines, the holder hereof understands that IN NO EVENT,
WHETHER AS A RESULT OF A BREACH OF WARRANTY, BREACH OF CONTRACT,
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE, SHALL STI/SPFA BE LIABLE FOR DAMAGES RESULTING
FROM THE REFERENCE TO OR RELIANCE ON THESE MATERIALS, INCLUDIN ANY
ACTUAL OR ECONOMIC DAMAGES, LOSS OF PROFITS OR INCIDENTAL OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF STI/SPFA IS ADVISED FO THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE. These materials may be revised or withdrawn at any time without prior notice
by STI/SPFA.

Lesson Overview
Purpose:
To provide workers with introductory information about
Tank Builders Scaffold.
Topics:
1. Scaffold use hazards
2. Installation procedures
3. Inspection requirements
4. Dismantling procedures
5. General rules for Scaffold use
Note: This training is designed to compliment the Steel Tank Institute/Steel Plate
Fabricators Associations written Tank Builders Scaffold Guidelines.

What is a Tank
Builders Scaffold?
A supported scaffold consisting of a platform resting on
brackets. The brackets are either directly attached to a
tank, or attached to devices, e.g., clips, which are in turn
attached to such a tank.

Scaffold Use
Hazards
Survey the jobsite for hazards
Electrical hazards
Loose materials on scaffold
Falling objects
Slips, trips, and falls
Misuse of scaffold and scaffold failure
Improper access or egress

Scaffold Use
Hazards
Falls to a different level
Incorrect erection and dismantling.
Accessing the work area by climbing the
structure.
Absence of or incomplete guardrails.
Scaffold platform not fully decked.
Breakage of work
Precautionary Measure:
platform.
Personal Fall Arrest System
and/or Guardrail required

Scaffold Use
Hazards
Falls to the same level
Because of lack of housekeeping on
the working platform surfaces (tools,
mud).
Inclement weather (snow, ice, rain)

Falling objects on workers


Unguarded work platform (tools not
secured in a tool tray/container, no
Precautionary
barricade below scaffold or toe board).
Measures:
Platform breakage.

Striking objects
Especially to the head, but also the
arms, hips and legs.

Hard hats, good


housekeeping,
secure loose tools,
remove snow and ice

Scaffold Use
Hazards
Collapse of the structure
High wind
Some solid scaffold barriers
and unsecured scaffold boards
increase the potential.
Secure bracket bolt(s) in a way that
prevent their dislodgement (if
used).

Precautionary Measures:
Scaffold components must be
inspected prior to use.

Scaffold Use
Hazards
Electrical contact
Direct or indirect by
proximity to high or low
tension electric lines
which are either aerial
or building mounted.
Power cords of
portable tools and
extension cords.

Competent
Person
Tank Builders Scaffold must be supervised by
a Competent Person.
Who is a Competent Person?
Capable of identifying existing and predictable
hazards
Has authorization to take prompt corrective
measures to eliminate the hazards (1926.450(b)).

Competent Person
Inspection Frequency
How often should the competent
person inspect the scaffold system?

Pre-Assembly Inspection Start of Job


Set-up (jump/move)
Assembly Inspection
Daily
Safe Use/Access
Daily
Pre-shift Inspection

Scaffold Component
Inspection
Check bolt size, grade and that
the nut cant back out (if used).

Inspect Scaffold components for:


Bent, cracked, deformed angles that can weaken the
structure of the bracket.
Cracked or deficient welds
Improper bolts and nuts (if used).

Damaged scaffold components shall be tagged


out of service and/or removed from the
worksite.

Scaffold General
Requirements
Scaffold must be capable
of supporting its own
weight and ___
4X maximum
intended load
Must have Guardrail
System

Scaffold
Handrails

Guardrail System
Top rail
Smooth surface and 42 inch height
Taut wire rope or equivalent member
No more than 3 inches of deflection
Note: State specific handrail height may apply

Scaffold
Handrails (Cont.)
Guardrail System (Continued)
Intermediate rail
Installed midway between the top rail and the scaffold
platform

Posts

Handrail
Rating

What is the rating for a standard top rail?


Answer:_____
200 lbs
What is the rating for a standard mid rail?
Answer:_____
150 lbs
What is the rating for a standard toe-board (if used)?
Answer:_____
50 lbs

Handrail Safety
Never leave openings in scaffold platforms
or guardrails.
Do not lean against top rails or mid rails.
Do not hang weld cables, hoses, electrical
cables, etc. from top rails or mid rails, they
should be hung from the scaffold guardrail
posts.

Installation
Procedure
Scaffolds shall be
installed, moved,
dismantled, or
altered only under
the supervision and
direction of a
competent person.

Installation of
Scaffold Clip
The scaffold clip
location shall not
exceed 10 feet 6
inches.
Inspect scaffold clip
for proper level.

Installation of
Scaffold Clip

Only Certified Welders shall weld scaffold


clips to tanks.
DO NOT leave a scaffold bracket clip partly
welded, knock it off before leaving the work
area.

Installation of
Scaffold Clip
Must be welded
across the entire top

Is this
acceptable?

Scaffold Clip
Inspection
Who must inspect the scaffold clip?
The Competent Person on the worksite

When must the clip be


inspected?
Before attaching the
scaffold bracket to the
scaffold clip

Scaffold Clip
Inspection

The Competent Person shall:


Ensure weld slag is removed prior to inspection
Inspect the welds for proper size and quality
Initial the weld after acceptance

Scaffold Boards
and Decking
Use only approved scaffold boards
DO NOT rip or notch scaffold boards
Ensure boards and decking are not
cracked
Remove damaged boards from service

Inspect Boards
Prior to Use

Scaffold Platform
Installation
Scaffold boards shall be supported at each
scaffold bracket location with a minimum of
________
_________
6 inches and a maximum of 18
inches of
overhang.

Is this acceptable?

Scaffold Platform
Installation
Overlap boards in one direction to prevent
movement.
Boards shall be installed against the
scaffold post per regulation and to prevent
shifting.

Scaffold Platform
Installation (Cont.)

Max space between boards = 1 inch.


Secure boards in windy environments to
prevent shifting and to serve as a support to
the tank shell (i.e., tie-wire, chain binder).

Scaffold Platform
Installation
Opening between the scaffold platform
and tank greater than 12 inches shall be
closed by a safety line supported on the
brackets.
If spacing between the first line and the board
or tank shell is greater than 12 inches, then a
second line is required.

Scaffold Platform
Safety
Do not store heavy
tools and equipment on
the scaffold.
Place loose hand tools,
debris and other small
objects in tool
containers secured to
the scaffold.

Overhead
Hazard
Barriers or Toeboards?
Barriers (if used): Shall be
established below the scaffold area
designating potential overhead
hazard
Yellow and black caution tape, flagging,
or equivalent markings

Toeboards (if used): Shall be


capable of supporting 50 lbs. and
be 3.5 inches high.

Scaffold Bracket
Review

What do all acceptable scaffold brackets have in


common?
Scaffold brackets must support 4 times the intended load

When is tank builders scaffold considered complete?

Includes a guardrail system


a platform with a minimum width of 18 inches
Includes

When wood planks are used, two 12-inch wide boards are
required. In California, three 10-inch wide boards.

Safe Access
If the distance between the scaffold platform
and the point of access or egress is greater
than 24 inches,
Then stairs, ladder(s) or a ramp shall be used for
access.

Temporary or permanent ladders used for


scaffold access,
Must have a rest platform at 35 foot maximum
vertical intervals
Or include climbing fall protection on the ladder.

Scaffold Tag
System
RED

Scaffold under construction, not completed


(erectors only), when feasible use
personal fall arrest system.

YELLOW

Scaffold requires personal fall arrest


system for use.

GREEN

Scaffold is complete and safe to use.

Altering/Dismantl
ing Procedure
Altering/Dismantling operations shall be under
the supervision of a Competent Person.
When feasible, personal fall protection should
be used when altering/dismantling scaffolds.
Scaffold components shall not be dropped or
thrown from elevated work locations.

Scaffold
Inspection
Inspection shall include but is not limited to:
1. The correct scaffold assembly
2. Guard rails in place and adequate
3. Scaffold platform is correctly planked and
secured.
4. Scaffold barricade erected under scaffold or
toe boards installed.

Scaffold
Inspection
Inspection shall include but is not limited to:
5. Adequate scaffold access has been provided
6. Scaffold tags (Green, yellow,
or red) are in place.
7. Tools and equipment are
stored safely on scaffold and
scaffold is not overloaded.

Questions?

References
Steel Tank Institute/Steel Plate Fabricators
Association, Tank Builders Scaffold
Guidelines, April 2009 Revision.
29 CFR 1926 Subpart L - Scaffolds