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Job Analysis &

Design

Class Agenda

Job Analysis

An overview of job analysis (KSAOs)

How do we get this information (analysis tools)?

How do we use this information?

The changing nature of jobs

Job Design

An overview of job design

Approaches to job design

Maximizing enjoyment

Maximizing efficiency and safety

Job Analysis

Textbook definition:

The process of systematically identifying the


tasks, duties, and responsibilities expected to
be performed in a single job, as well as the
competenciesknowledge, skills, and abilities
(KSAs)employees must possess to be
successful in the job.

The process of getting detailed information about


jobs in organizations

Before you can know what kinds of people to


recruit and select, what to train them on, and
on what basis to evaluate and compensate
them, you must understand the job they will

Job Analysis

Many specific tools exist. Most of them utilize the


same basic steps:

Job Description

List every dimension of the job

List every task within each dimension

Rate all of those tasks according to importance

Job Specification

Come up with the KSAOs needed to perform the


most important tasks (job specification)

So, what are KSAOs?

Job Analysis

Job Analysis
K

K nowledge
K now W hat

Skills
K now How

A
O

Job Analysis
K

K nowledge
K now W hat

Skills
K now How

Abilities
Can Do

Job Analysis
K

K nowledge
K now W hat

Skills
K now How

Abilities
Can Do

Other Factors
Personality, experience, etc...

Job Analysis
K

K nowledge
K now W hat

Skills
K now How

Abilities
Can Do

Other Factors
Personality, experience, etc...

These are
trainable;
People are not
born with these

Job Analysis
K

K nowledge
K now W hat

Skills
K now How

Abilities
Can Do

Other Factors
Personality, experience, etc...

}
}

These are
trainable;
People are not
born with these
These are less
trainable;
People are born
with them to
some extent
and changes
occur slowly

Job Analysis Example

Which player would you offer a scholarship and


why?
I mportant
Selection C riteria

Recr uit A

Recr uit B

K icking form

Perfect

Awful

Leg strength

Lower than Average

Perfect

Football knowledge

Perfect

Awful

Personality/Experience

Poor

Very Good

Job Analysis

Sometimes the distinctions among the KSAO


categories are fuzzy

I can know what is wrong with my computer but not


have the skills to fix it

K vs. S

I can be taught to read a map but still not have a


good sense of direction

S vs. A

How Do We Get This


Info?

Job Analysis Tools

There are many specific tools that can be used to


do a job analysis

Job Element Inventory

Position Analysis Questionnaire

Fleishman System

Occupational Information Network (O*NET) and


Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

Job Element Inventory

Video: Scrubs

As you are watching the


video, jot down the
following:

Tasks that the medical


interns perform

Qualities that make


someone good doctor (or
medical intern)

Job Element Inventory

In-class Exercise: Scrubs

Step 1: What are the job dimensions of a


medical intern?

Step 2: What are some tasks within those


dimensions?

Job Element Inventory

The JEI provides a list of 150 specific tasks and


uses a novel and unique approach to rating task
importance

It uses 3 questions to rate the importance of


specific tasks (on a scale of 1 = very unlikely to 5 =
very likely):
1. How likely is it that a barely acceptable worker could
perform this task well?
2. How likely is it that a superior worker could perform
this task well?
3. How likely is it that trouble will result from poor
performance?

Job Element Inventory

Task: Collect basic patient information

Rank

Barely Acceptable Worker Can Do I t


Superior Worker Can Do I t
How Likely is Trouble

Do we want to use this in hiring?

Job Element Inventory

Task: Diagnose patient problems

Rank

Barely Acceptable Worker Can Do I t


Superior Worker Can Do I t
How Likely is Trouble

Do we want to use this in hiring?

Job Element Inventory

In-class Exercise: Scrubs

Step 3:

Rate two tasks using the Barely AcceptableSuperior-Trouble Likely scales. Which of these
two is more important? How did you come to
this decision?

Job Element Inventory

The JEI does not include any special tools for


identifying KSAOs

In-class Exercise: Scrubs

Step 4:

For the more important task, create a list


of 1 K, 1 S, 1 A, and 1 O that is needed
to perform it well.

Position Analysis
Questionnaire
The PAQ provides a list of 194 tasks that fall under

these overall dimensions


Decision/communication/general responsibilities
Clerical/related activities
Technical/related activities
Service/related activities
Regular day schedule versus other work schedules
Routine/repetitive work activities
Environmental awareness
General physical activities
Supervising/coordinating other personnel
Public/customer/related contact activities
Unpleasant/hazardous/demanding environment
Nontypical work schedules

Position Analysis
Questionnaire

The PAQ rates the importance of tasks using 6


scales:

Extent of use

Amount of time

Importance to the job

Possibility of occurrence

Applicability to job

Position Analysis
Questionnaire
P R OS
The dimensions are linked to a
general aptitude test

The dimensions are broad (it

covers input, output, processes,


and work context)

CON S
Requires a reading level of

college graduate to complete


the test

Standard format leads to an


abstract characterization of
jobs

Fleishman System

Fleishman deals
only with abilities
Provides

a list of
52 abilities

(rated

with a 7 point
scale that includes
behavioral benchmark
examples)

Fleishman System

Fleishman deals
only with abilities
Provides

a list of
52 abilities

(rated

with a 7 point
scale that includes
behavioral benchmark
examples)

Fleishman System

Example: Ability to understand written sentences and


paragraphs
How would you rate your job as a student on this
ability?

Fleishman System
P R OS
Measures abilities directly

(unlike PAQ which measured


items that were then translated
to tasks)

Helpful in making the

sometimes fuzzy distinction


between As and Ss

CON S
Leaves out K s, Ss, and Os

O*NET and DOT

The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is


an online resource that describes the tasks
involved in many jobs, along with their KSAOs (
http://online.onetcenter.org/)

It replaces an earlier resource called the


Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT)

O*NET and DOT

O*NET and DOT

O*NET and DOT

How Do We Use This


Info?
Recruitment

The important tasks


get grouped into a Job
Description that
defines the job.

The accompanying
KSAOs are included
in the job posting.

Selection
Legal I ssues in Selection
Training
Performance Management
Compensation

How Do We Use This


Info?
Recruitment

Selection
Legal I ssues in Selection
Training
Performance Management
Compensation

The KSAOs become


the things we look for
in resumes,
references,
interviews, ability
tests, personality test,
etc...

How Do We Use This


Info?
Recruitment
Selection
Legal I ssues in Selection
Training
Performance Management
Compensation

Important tasks
become essential job
functions under the
Americans with
Disabilities Act.
Companies can refuse
to hire disabled
applications if they
cannot perform these
functions (vs. marginal
job functions), with
some exceptions.

How Do We Use This


Info?
Recruitment
Selection
Legal I ssues in Selection
Training
Performance Management
Compensation

We design training to
improve the Ks and Ss
inherent in important
tasks. They also form
the basis for our
evaluation of training
success.

How Do We Use This


Info?
Recruitment
Selection
Legal I ssues in Selection
Training
Performance Management
Compensation

Performance of the
important tasks (&
KSAOs) is what gets
measured with our
evaluation instruments.

How Do We Use This


Info?
Recruitment

The KSAOs become


compensable factors
used in Job Evaluation
to assign a base salary
to a given job. The rarer
the KSAO, the more
money the organization
must pay for it.

Fulfillment of important
tasks becomes a key
input into merit-based
pay plans.

Selection
Legal I ssues in Selection
Training
Performance Management
Compensation

The Changing Nature of


Jobs

What happens if jobs change?

Many factors can change that may significantly


affect jobs and hence job analysis

Changes in structuring of work

Computerization

Automation

Mergers or acquisitions

Downsizing

The Changing Nature of


Jobs

Green Jobs

The Changing Nature of


Jobs

The Changing Nature of


Jobs

In todays organizations, job analysis contains a


critical additional step

Anticipating the changes that will occur

How will those impact tasks?

How will those impact KSAOs?

Do they change tasks and KSAOs or merely alter


importance?

Job Design

Job Analysis focuses on jobs that already exist

Job Design (and job redesign) focuses on jobs that


are either being created or changed in some
manner

Textbook definition: Determining the tasks and


responsibilities that employees in a particular
job are expected to perform as well as how they
need to interact with their coworkers to realize
those contributions

The process of defining the way work will be


performed and the tasks that will be required in a
given job

Job Design

There are several common approaches to job


design

Approaches
Motivational
Mechanistic
Biological
Perceptual-Motor

Goal: maximize
intrinsic
enjoyment
Goal: maximize
efficiency &
safety

Motivational Approach

Key arguments:

Human resources are easier to manage if jobs are


designed to be intrinsically enjoyable

This places less pressure on many specific areas of


HRM, including:

Performance Management

Compensation

Retention

But, if intrinsic enjoyment is lacking, then other areas


of HRM must supply more of the extrinsic satisfaction
needed to motivate and retain employees.

Motivational Approach

Job Characteristics Model

Jobs are more intrinsically enjoyable when work


tasks are challenging and fulfilling

Five core job characteristics combine to make


some jobs more rewarding than others.

MotivationalJobApproach
Characteristics

Model
Variety
Identity

Meaningfulness
of Work

Significance

I ntrinsic
Enjoyment
of Job

Autonomy

Responsibility
for Work

Feedback

K nowledge of
Results

Motivational Approach

Core Job Characteristics

Variety

Job has different activities


and uses different skills

Identity

Job results in a whole,


identifiable piece of work

Significance

Job affects the lives of other


people

Autonomy

Job holder has freedom and


discretion

Feedback

The job itself provides


feedback on performance

Motivational
Approach
Critical Psychological

States
The five core characteristics create
three critical psychological states:
Belief that the job has a
meaningful outcome

Belief that worker


controls the outcome
Worker is aware of the
job outcome

MotivationalJobApproach
Characteristics

Model
Variety
Identity

Meaningfulness
of Work

Significance

I ntrinsic
Enjoyment
of Job

Autonomy

Responsibility
for Work

Feedback

K nowledge of
Results

Motivational Approach

Video: Hot Topic

Do the employees at Hot Topic seem


intrinsically motivated?

In terms of the Job Characteristics Model, why or


why not?

Motivational Approach

The core job characteristics tend to be strongly


correlated with job satisfaction.

The characteristics even trump most other job


factors, including:

Pay

Promotion Opportunities

Coworkers

Supervision

Motivational Approach

The job characteristics can be used to compute a


satisfaction score for any job using the Job
Diagnostic Survey (JDS)

Motivational Approach

Article: A modern conundrum: When works


invisible, so are its satisfactions

What is invisible work?

What are the motivational implications of invisible


work? Why?

What are we most missing in terms of core job


characteristics?

What can we do about it?

How do these solutions make sense in terms of


JCM?

Motivational Approach

Pomodoro Technique

Other Approaches

The other 3 job design approaches focus on


maximizing efficiency and safety:

Mechanistic Approach

Biological Approach

Perceptual-Motor Approach

Mechanistic Approach

Micromotion Analysis

Record employees doing their job at slow speeds.


Analyze the tape to eliminate or combine steps

Mechanistic Approach

Memomotion Analysis

Record employees doing their job at fast speeds.


Analyze the tape to orient the placement of equipment
in the room.

Mechanistic Approach

Initial analysis

Mechanistic Approach

After redesign

Mechanistic Approach

Article: In New Office Designs, Room to Roam

Mechanistic Approach

Process Engineering

Identifies the sequence of steps needed to fulfill a job.


Seeks to discover which steps could be performed by
machines, or which steps could be eliminated or
combined to make work more efficient.

Biological Approach

Structure job tasks and the work environment to


reduce physical fatigue and health problems.

Herman Miller:
http://www.hermanmiller.com/Products/Aeron-Ch
airs

Perceptual-Motor
Approach

Similar to Biological Approach, but focuses on


mental capacities and limitations rather than
physical

Examples:

Decrease amount of information and memorization

Increase lighting and make visual displays clear

Provide easy to follow instructions

Trade-offs in Job Design

Key question:

Are some of the job design approaches at odds


with one another?

i.e. What are the trade-offs from one approach to


another?

Trade-offs in Job Design

Next Time

Planning and Recruitment

Now that we know what the job is, how do we


find people to hire?

Who is a riskier hire: Percy Harvin (wide


receiver) or Chas Henry (punter)?

Reading:

Outsourcing at crux of Boeing strike

How to minimize the risks of hiring outside


stars

Recruiter target practice

Phillips & Gully, Chpts 4 (pp. 99-114) and 5