You are on page 1of 21

Adverbs

Oxford Practice Grammar


(Advanced)

What are adverbs?

Adverbs can modify:


VERBS
ADJECTIVES
OTHER ADVERBS
SENTENCES
She always does everything really thoroughly
and seems totally dedicated to her job.

Position of Adverbs (I)


Usually immediately BEFORE the
ADJECTIVES and ADVERBS they modify.
Its nearly complete.
Is it politically correct?
She did it fairly easily.
He spoke very quietly.

Position of Adverbs (II)


When modifying VERBS or SENTENCES, adverbs can
appear IN FRONT or END POSITION of the clause or
sentence.
Usually I have a piece of toast and orange juice in the
morning. I might have a snack later.
In MID POSITION after BE or AUXILIARY.
Some people are always hungry when they wake up.
BEFORE the MAIN VERB
I really prefer to wait a while before eating.

We do not put adverbs between a verb


and its object:

(x) I drink sometimes coffee

Adverbs of PLACE and TIME


Used to add information on LOCATION or
DIRECTION
Usually in END POSITIONS
Before adverbs of time: recently, tomorrow
I slipped and fell backwards
I havent been abroad recently

Adverbs of FREQUENCY
Adverbs of DEFINITE FREQUENCY (annually,
daily, twice) in END POSITION.
Rooms are cleaned daily.
Ive seen that film twice.
Adverbs of INDEFINITE FREQUENCY (ever,
often, usually) in MID POSITION.
It usually rains in the evening.
Does he ever study?

Expectation Adverbs (I): ALREADY


Used to express a connection between
events and expectations
ALREADY: MID or END position (the
event is earlier than expected)
His plane has already arrived.
Mrs Black had left already.

Expectation Adverbs (II): STILL


STILL is used to say that something is
going on longer than expected, usually in
MID position.
We are still waiting.

Expectation Adverbs (III):


NO LONGER, NOTANY LONGER/MORE
Used when an event was expected to
continue but it did not. Usually in MID or
END position:
It no longer works.
We couldnt stay there any longer.
She doesnt live here any more.

Expectation Adverbs (III): YET


YET (=up to now) is used to show that an
event is or was expected. Usually at the
END of QUESTIONS, NEGATIVES and
EXPRESSIONS OF UNCERTAINTY
Have you read it yet?
Classes havent started yet.
Im not sure if hes finished yet.

Focus Adverbs: EVEN, JUST, ONLY


Used to draw attention to ONE part of the
sentence:
She was only joking.
He cant even swim.
Her research isnt just about English.
We can change the focus and the meaning by
changing the position of the adverb:
Mark only works here on Fridays (only Fridays)
Only Mark works here on Fridays (only Mark)

Degree Adverbs (I)


Used to say to what extent something is done or
felt. REALLY, COMPLETELY, TOTALLY,
He totally forgot.
She really hates fish.
We failed completely.
PRETTY, QUITE, RATHER: before adjectives
and adverbs
Theyre pretty good.
Its quite tasty.

A BIT, A LITTLE (we dont use them with

adjectives before nouns)


Shes feeling a little tired.
The music is a bit loud.
(NOT: Its a bit loud music)
We dont use VERY before verbs

Degree Adverbs (III)


MORE/LESS and MOST/LEAST are used as
degree adverbs in comparatives and
superlatives.
Going by train can be more convenient and less
expensive.
TOO before adjectives and adverbs; ENOUGH
after them
Its too difficult.
Is this box big enough?

Adverbs of MANNER (I)

Used to say how something is done.


Usually in END position.

Ill read it carefully.


They searched the room quickly and thoroughly.

Adverbs of MANNER (II)


Angrily
Anxiously
Cheerfully
Gloomily
Impatiently
Passionately
seriously

VIEWPOINT Adverbs
Used to describe the perspective or point
of view being considered. Usually in END
position or in FRONT position with a
comma.
It was not done scientifically.
Financially, the project makes sense.

COMMENT Adverbs (I)


Used to include a comment or opinion
about what is said or written. Usually in
FRONT or END positions. The adverb
PROBABLY can appear in MID position.
It was probably a misunderstanding.
Surprisingly, he failed.
Ill refund the cost, of course.

COMMENT Adverbs (II)


We use DEFINITELY and OBVIOUSLY to say
how sure we are.
Ill definitely call you tonight.
Obviously, someone forgot to lock the door.
We use FORTUNATELY and SERIOUSLY to
say how we feel.
Fortunately, no one was injured.
Were seriously thinking about moving.

COMMENT Adverbs (III)

Actually
Apparently
Certainly
Frankly
Honestly
No doubt
Presumably
sadly