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ORTHOGONAL FREQUENCY

DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (OFDM)

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION TO OFDM
PROBLEM
MY PROCEEDINGS
IMPLEMENTATIONS

EVOLUTION OF WIRELESS COMMUNICATION STANDARDS

MOTIVATION

High transmission rates over wire line and


wireless channels with protection from multipath
fading

Predicted technique in fourth Generation (4G)


mobile phones

Ideal for bandwidth hogging applications like


Video Conferencing, DAB, DVB, etc

Multiuser capacity possible using MC-CDMA

OBJECTIVES

Simulation of a baseband
communication system using OFDM
Using this system to transfer files
between computers using the sound
card
Simulation of wireless environment
using fading channels
Multi-User Capability using MC-CDMA
Plotting of BER curves and
constellations

ADVANTAGES OF OFDM

Allows carriers to overlap (no guard band), resulting


in lesser wasted bandwidth without any Inter
Carrier Interference (ICI)
High data rate distributed over multiple carriers
resulting in lower symbol rate (more immune to ISI)
Permits higher data rate as compared to FDM
Increased security and bandwidth efficiency
possible using CDMA OFDM (MC-CDMA)
Simple guard intervals make the system more
robust to multipath effects.

WHAT IS OFDM ??
ORTHOGONALITY IN FREQUENCY DOMAIN

Each carrier is modulated


using BPSK / QPSK / M-ary
QAM

Frequency response for


each carrier is a Sinc(X)

Overlap of frequency
response is possible as
against FDM where intercarrier spacing is a must

Frequency responses of
the carriers overlap at zero
crossings avoiding
Inter Carrier Interference

Power

Multi-Path
Components

MULTI-PATH PROPAGATION MODELING

MULTI -PATH RESULTS FROM REFLECTION, DIFFRACTION, AND S CATTERI NG OFF ENVI RONMENT S URROUNDINGS
NOTE: THE FI GURE ABOVE DEMONS TRATES THE ROLES OF REFLECTI ON AND S CATTERING ONLY ON MULTI -PATH

Time

Power

Multi-Path
Components

As the mobile receiver (i.e. car) moves in the


environment, the strength of each multi-path
component varies
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Time

Multi-Path = Frequency-Selective!
f=0

0.5

0.5
1

0.5
1 s

1 s

f=1 MHz
1

0.5

-1

0.5

1 s

1
0.5
-0.5
-1
1 s

-1

f=500 KHz

0.5

0.5

1 s

1
0.5
-0.5
-1
1 s
10

Multi-Path = FrequencySelective!
h(t)

|H(f)|
0.5

0.5

f (MHz)
1 s

0.5

1.5

A multi-path channel treats signals with different

frequencies differently
A signal composed of multiple frequencies would
be distorted by passing through such channel
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Orthogonal FDM
Is it possible to find carrier
frequencies f1, f2 fN such
that
T

cos 2f t cos 2f t dt 0
S

i j

1
cos
2f
t
cos
2f
t
dt

j
0 i
2

TS

TS

cos2 fi f j t cos 2 fi f j t dt

1 sin2 fi f j t sin2 fi f j
0 cos 2fit cos 2fjt dt 2 2 f f 2 f f
i
j
i
j

TS

TS

1 sin2 fi f j TS sin 2 fi f j TS
0 cos 2fit cos 2fjt dt 2 2 f f 2 f f
i
j
i
j

TS

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ORTHOGONAL FDM
Is it possible to find carrier
frequencies f1, f2 fN such
that
T

cos 2f t cos 2f t dt 0
S

i j

1 sin2 fi f j TS sin 2 fi f j TS
0 cos 2fit cos 2fjt dt 2 2 f f 2 f f
i
j
i
j

TS

TS

cos 2f t cos 2f t dt 0
i

2 fi f j TS n

fi f j

n
2TS

n=1,2,3, .... &

2 fi f j TS m

n=1,2,3, .... &

m
f f 2T
i

m=1,2,3, ....

m=1,2,3, ....

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ORTHOGONALITY OF SUB-CARRIERS
Ts

THE SINUSOID SIGNALS


WITH FREQUENCIES F1, F2,
F3, F4 ARE ALL MUTUALLY
ORTHOGONAL OVER THE
SYMBOL PERIOD TS

f1

1
2Ts

f2

1
Ts

f3

3
2Ts

f4

2
Ts

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ORTHOGONALITY OF SUB-CARRIERS
Ts

The sinusoid signals


with frequencies f1, f2,
f3, f4 are all mutually
orthogonal over the
symbol period Ts

f1

1
2Ts

f2

1
Ts

t 2t

sin

T
T
s
s

sin
Ts

s
t 2t

t
s 3t
sin
sin
dt

cos
dt

0 Ts T s
0 Ts
0 cos Ts dt

sint
t 2t

T s sin 3t
T s
sin
sin
dt

0 Ts Tt

s
s T 3ts T

Ts

Ts

0
0

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GUARD TIME & INTER-CARRIER INTERFERENCE


Rx Signal
OFDM Symbol
Ts/8

Consider the receiver for f1=1/Ts


2t Ts
that correlates over Tsin
s with

Ts

T
s

Guard
Time
Correlation at Rx over Ts

Not
Orthogon
al

+
InterCarrier
Interferenc
e
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CYCLIC PREFIX
Rx Signal (Cyclix Prefix)
Cyclic
Prefix
Ts/8

Ts

Consider the receiver for f1=1/Ts


2t Ts
that correlates over Tsin
s with

Ts/8

Correlation at Rx over
Ts

T
s

Orthogon
al

+
No InterCarrier
Interferenc
e

CYCLIC PREFIX (SUMMARY)


ASSUME FI, FJ ARE TWO OFDM SUB-CARRIERS AND IJ IS THE PHASE
SHIFT ASSOCIATED WITH THE CYCLIC PREFIX AND MULTI-PATH CHANNEL
Ts

sin 2f t sin 2f t dt
i

ij

Ts

sin 2f t sin 2f t cos cos 2f t sin


i

ij

dt

ij

Ts

t sin
2f
sin 2f
t dt

cos

ij

t cos
2f
sin 2f
t dt

sin

Ts

ij

Ts

sin 2f t sin 2f t dt 0
i

ij

Cyclic Prefix eliminates Inter-carrier Interference


(ICI)
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DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION

THE ENVIRONMENT:
Windows OS
MATLAB (R12) + Toolboxes

THE DESIGN APPROACH:


Modular
Tandem development of Tx and Rx

THATS ALL FOLKS

P r o f e s s o r h a r r is , m a y I b e e x c u s e d ?
M y b r a in is f u ll.