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LEAVES

The leaf is
generally an
expanded and
flattened green
structure
growing out at
the node of the
stem. Its green
color is due to

Blade
A thin,
flattened
green
structure

Leaf stalk or Pet


A cylindrical or
flattened narrow
structure which
supports and holds the
blade upright.
Provides maximum
exposure of the blade
to sunlight.
Serves for conduction
With petiole
petiolate; without a

In some monocots:
Petiole is lacking
The blade is supported by
a flattened structure
called the leaf sheath
which clasps the stem.

Leaf Sheath

Outgrowths at the
junction of the sheath
and blade may be
present and are
collectively referred to
as the ligule.
This performs a
protective function of
preventing water and
dirt from accumulating
between the sheath
and the stem.

Stipule
A pair of
appendages or
outgrowth at the
base of some
dicotyledonous
leaves.
With stipule
stipulate; without
stipule exstipulate.

Apex
Leaf Blade
Leaf Margin
Base

Leaf
variation

Nature of Leaf Blade


Simple leaf
The blade consists
of only one piece.
Petiole of a leaf is
directly attached to
the stem.

Compound Leaf
The blade is divided
into separate segments
called leaflets.
Stalk of leaflets is the
petiolule.
Outgrowth, usually in
pairs, may be found at
the base of the
petiolule stipel.

Pinnately Compound L
Leaflets are attached to a
rachis which is an extension
of the petiolule.

Simple pinnately compound l


There is a single rachis to
which the leaflets are
attached.

Bipinnately
compound leaf
First rachis or
primary rachis
branches into
secondary rachises
where the leaflets
are attached.

Tripinnately
Compound
Leaf
There are rachises
of the first, second
and third order.

Palmately
Compound
Leaf
Leaflets radiate
from the upper
end or tip of the
leaf stalk.
Central rachis

Venation
Arrangement of veins
or vascular strands of
a leaf blade.

Netted Leaf Vena


The veins branch
profusely and form a
network over the
blade.
Commonly found in
dicots.

Pinnately Netted
Midrib is present from
which smaller veins
and their branches
ramify or spread out
in all directions
throughout the blade.

Palmately Netted
Several principal veins
arise from the tip of the
petiole and spread
fanlike through the
blade.
The principal veins
produce smaller veins
that from a network.

Radiately netted
Several principal
veins radiate from
around the tip of the
petiole and break
up into smaller veins
to form a network
throughout the
blade.

Parallel Leaf Vena


The veins do not
form a network.
Common among
monocots.

Parallel venation
with the veins at
acute or right angles
to the midrib

Parallel venation
with the veins
parallel to the
midrib

Phyllotaxy
The system of leaf
arrangement on the
stem.

Alternate or Spiral
Only one leaf develops at each node

Texas sugarberry tree (Celtis laevigata)

Opposite
Two leaves develop
opposite each other
at a node.

Whorled or Verticil
Three or more leaves
develop equidistantly
around the node.

Fasciculate
Two or more leaves
develop at only one
side of the node.

Midrib Cross Section


Upper Epidermis
Xylem
Phloem

Lower Epidermis

Dicot Leaf Cross Section

Upper Epidermis
Palisade
Parenchyma
Xylem
Phloem

Lower Epidermis

Trichome

Stomata

Monocot Leaf Cross Section


Upper
Epidermis with
cuticle
Mesophyll
layer

Stomat
a

Vascular
bundle

Lower Epidermis
with cuticle

Monocot Leaf Cross Section

Phloem
Xylem
Bundle Sheath

There is no differentiation of mesophyll into spongy


and palisade parenchyma (Isobilateral or Equifacial

Isobilateral or Equifacial Leave

There is no differentiation
of mesophyll into spongy
and palisade parenchyma
These vertically
oriented leaves have
their two surfaces
receiving direct
sunlight.

Bulliform cells
Large, bubble-shaped
epidermal cells that
occur in groups on the
upper surface of the
leaves of many grasses.
Loss of turgor pressure
in these cells causes
leaves to "roll up"
during water stress

Monocot Leaf Cross Section

Dorsiventral or Bifacial Leaves

Have their upper or adaxial surfaces darker green in color


Presence of palisade mesophyll (upper) and spongy mesophyll
(lower) layers

For
Support

Supporting leaf bases


that grow close
together to form a

Hooks

Floaters

Tendrils

For
Absorption

Thin, uncutinized
epidermis

Insectivorous leaves

For
Attraction

Petalloid bracts

Bright coloration of
entire blade or portion
of the blade

For
Reproduction

Leaf and plantlet develop at


certain parts of the leaf

Tip, base or
margin

Leaf Cuttings

Tip of petiole

For
Protection

Bud Scales

Spiny Leaves

For
Protection

Stipular spines

Leaves reduced
to spines

For
Protection

Apical or
Marginal Spines

For Storage

Fleshy or
thickened blades

Bulbs

Pocket leaves