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Islamic

Philosophy
in Education
Dr. Aisha Salim Al-Harthi
For
EDUC 2003: Foundations of Education
College of Education
Sultan Qaboos University

What is Islamic philosophy?

Three Perspectives in Islamic


Philosophy
Ibn Rushd
Ibn Tufail
Al-Baironi
Al-Kindi

Ikhwan Alsafa :

Focus on the individual development and


rationality
A group of teachers in the
forth Hijri century in AlBasra, who created a group
Lovers of Philosophy , who
published numerous
messages about social and
political reform.

Ibn Khaldoun:

Use of knowledge to
build the Islamic nation

Taha, H.(2007). Contemporary Educational hinking and its philosophical Roots. Jordan: Dar Al-Mssira

Al-Gazzali: more religious


explanation of education

Metaphysics=Reality

Oneness is an important metaphysical concept and answers


the riddles of the universe (Unified world, integrated
universe)
Universe - uniformity, purposefulness and interdependence
Universals exist before things

All mankind are expected to believe in Allah


Fitrah/: Recognition of Allah is imprinted on the souls of
all Adams descendents
Clarifies the true position of mankind as the vicegerent ( )of
Allah on Earth
Gives man complete trust in Allah (real submission to Allah)

Testimony of Faith

Metaphysics=Reality

Relationship between man and universe -> harmony not


conflict.
Guides to happy life committed to virtue, purity, justice, and
peace.
Leads to obeying Allahs commands
Other pillars of faith depends on pure monotheism

EpistemologyKnowledge
The

totality of life: spiritual, intellectual,


religious, cultural, individual, etc.
Religious and intellectual
Islamic education deals with all field of
knowledge
Man: mind & spirit

Mind & senses

Axiology- Values

Unchanging Religious Values:


Individual

and society

Principles of Education in
Isalm

.These principles are based on Al-Azhar philosopher Mohammed Abdo


.(Taha, H.(2007). Contemporary Educational Thinking and its philosophical Roots. Jordan: Dar Al-Mssira)

Principles of Education in
Isalm

.These principles are based on Al-Azhar philosopher Mohammed Abdo


.(Taha, H.(2007). Contemporary Educational Thinking and its philosophical Roots. Jordan: Dar Al-Mssira)

Purposes of Education

The ultimate goal for creating mankind:


To know and worship Allah

Prepare Muslim youths in a balanced


way (life and after-life)
Develop goodness, piety, fear of Allah
in the individual, tolerance,
brotherhood, love, rightness, ability of
self-expression and shouldering
responsibility, opportunity to the
individual to live an ideal, pure and
happy life.

Curriculum

Curriculum: based on Holy


Quran and Sunna
Religious and intellectual
Islamic education deals
with all field of knowledge

Teaching Methods

Dialogue, induction, deduction, personal experience, intuition,


discussion, note-taking, and analogy
Ethics: islamic ethics in curriculum, morals, teaching and
managing the classroom.
Al-Gazzali:
Practical application of knowledge
Divine Intuition: learners use inductive methods to learn about the physical
world helped by divine revelation of the truth. (learners try and Allah help
them succeed)

Ibn Khaldoun: Human mind is limited and directed by Allah.


Self-study: reasoning; seek knowledge; why; rationalization of things

What is reasoning???

To use all mental efforts in order to produce legislative rules


for the text, whether it is Quran or Sunnah.
Many texts in Quran and Sunnah are not clear or definitive in
their meaning
Rules are changeable from time to time- flexible rules
Face new matters people face
Analogy (only for scholars)

Related to reasoning= new matters similar to old matters take the same
judgment
Drugs=alcohol

Classroom Management
Al-Gazzali:

Learning environment is characterized with love


and the teacher is looked as a guardian
Teachers are role models for their students.

Role of the Teacher

Teachers: inheritors of prophets' knowledge


Teachers morals= affect students behaviors

Al-Gazzali: teachers should display strong commitment to Islamic


ethics and values.
Teachers motivation and ethics
More responsibilities; honest; loyalty for the job=Allah

Deal better with students; humility, brotherhood; shouldering


the responsibility
Teach students to use reasoning= everything is created for a
reason= reflect on the universe; evidence

Role of the Learner


Students: seekers of knowledge & obligated to learn
Al-Gazzali: Learner should display total commitment to
learning

Evaluation
Evaluation

of what?

Process: formative evaluation


Product: What is the product?

Behavior:

observation
Attitude: self report
Thinking: tests
For

what?

Modifying behavior?
Level of understanding?

Dilemmas in Education

Muslim teachers ethics: do they observe Islamic ethics in practicing


their profession of teaching? (e.g. teacher demonstration?)
Is education still valued today as the Islamic philosophy emphasize it
to be?
Is there a duality of education in Muslim educational system between
the needs for development in Islam and in the Western view of
development?
Are teacher education programs in Muslim universities more
westernized, and teach teachers to teach youths in western ways,
aims, and visions?
Do educational philosophies in Muslim countries reflect the
principles of education in Islam?
.