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MELO TRAVEL (AZORES)

ACE TOURS (Uk) AZORIS ROYAL


GARDEN

Azores
A book of
Volcanology

Nuno Dias Pereira


December, 29, 2016

OVGA is a non-profit Gelological Association, integrated in the Azores Science Centers net.
OVGA promotes scientific outreach in Geology, Volcanology, Seismology, Geothermy,
Petrology, Paleontology and Geoenvironments.

The Azores Region

Volcanism and the volcanic explosivity


index

Submarine
Eruption

Hawaii
an

Strombolia
n

Serreti
an

Vulcania
n

Surtseya
n
Proposta de V. H. Forjaz,
OVGA, 2015

Plinian

Pillow

Serretia
n

Surtseya
n

VEI VOLCANIC EXPLOSIVITY INDEX


Comparison between several volcanoes of
the world

S. Miguel
Island

Nordeste Volcanic
Complex

Pillow Lavas: Result of the


efusion of fluid sumarine lava

Nordeste Volcanic Complex

Submarine phase: Surtseyan/ Capelinian


volcanism

Nordeste Volcanic Complex


~ 4 Ma/ ~ 1 Ma
Volcanic activity, mainly effusive and
fissural (shield).

Pahoehoe Basaltic Lava

Vide
o

Povoao Volcanic
Complex
~ 3,4 Ma/ ~
0,6 Ma

Located west of the VC of Nordeste. Its a Coomposite volcano that


ended in a calderic phase, a depression where the volcanic activity no
long exists and the erosion processes smothed the borders, filled the
interior and broke the drainage system

Povoao Volcanic
On its base,
the formation is mainly basaltic (SiO < 50/ 52%).
Complex

It was
followed by plinian type emissions with several explosive phases that
produced pumice and Ignimbrite Pedra da Povoao. Last phase was
the formation of a Colapse Caldeira.
2

Ignimbrite

Pumice

Ignimbrite with fiamme

Evolution of a Colapse Caldeira


1 Construction of a large
stratovolcano

2 Colapse of the central sector after big


drenage of the magma chamber, trought
pumice and ignimbrite emissions.

3 Stabilization of the volcanic landscape


including impermiability of the colapsed area.
Many times this stage is followed by intracaldeira
volcanic activity (Sete Cidades, Furnas, etc.

Furnas Volcanic Complex


~750 thousands years. Its a potencially active volcano. Trough the
centurys this volcano has shown evolutive characteristics similars to
Povoao VC. Presently , the manifestations of secondary volcanism are
an evidence that this volcano is dormant.

Furnas Volcanic
Complex

Dome: Structure formed by the


cooling of highly viscous lava.

Sete Cidades Volcanic Complex


~ 500 thousand years

Sete Cidades Volcanic Complex


Map with the epicentres distribution in Sete Cidades
volcano between March 1982 up to July 2009.

Sete Cidades Volcanic Complex


Pico das Camarinhas
(Ferraria) - ~850 years.

Lavic Faj of Ferraria

Detritic Faj Relva (S. Miguel Island)

Fogo Volcanic
Complex
~ 250 thousand years

Rich in springs and small water couses


(ribeiras) with economic interest.

Picos Volcanic
Complex

< 50 Thousands of years

Pico Joo Ramos - historical eruption in Picos Volcanic


Complex - 1652

The Picos Volcanic Complex, formed since 50 thousand years, seen


from the Sete Cidades, east slopes.

Picos Volcanic
Complex

Pahoehoe lava

Ilhu de Vila Franca do


Campo
Vulcanismo Surtseyano/ Capeliniano

Historical
Eruptions

Pico do Sapateiro (1563)

Historical
Eruptions

Sabrina Area

(1638)

(1811)

Historical
Eruptions

Capelinhos, Faial (1957/ 1958)

Historical
Eruptions

Serreta, Terceira (1998/ 2002)

(Forjaz, et al.,
2000)

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Thank
Obrigado!

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