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CIVIL DEPARTMENT

BRIDGE DESIGN
Comparison of Transom Design

as Strut & Tie Model

CIVIL DEPARTMENT
BRIDGE DESIGN

Dated:- 25-OCT-2009
CONTENTS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

ELASTIC THEORY

STRUT AND TIE MODEL

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

Reinforced concrete beam theory is based on

equilibrium, compatibility, and the constitutive behavior of
the materials, steel and concrete.

Models used in the analysis and design of concrete

structure have been based on elastic theory and the basic
assumption that plane section remain plane, regardless of
the loading. However, it well known that disturbance do
occur in region near discontinuities, for example, at
concentrated load and at abrupt changes in member
dimensions.

A rational method for dealing with disturbed regions

subsequent to cracking is the use of Strut & Tie Models.
These models can give an excellent representation of the
flow of forces in disturbed regions of cracked system.
ELASTIC THEORY

BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM UNDER ELASTIC

THEORY

BERNOULLI HYPOTHESIS

DESIGN EXAMPLE

STRUT AND TIE MODEL

INTRODUCTION

ST.VENANTS PRINCIPLE

STM BASIC PRINCIPLE

ASSUMPTIONS OF STM

DESIGN EXAMPLE BASED ON STM

BASIC ASSUMPTIONS OF ELASTIC THEORY

The bending stress f at any point depends on the strain at

that point in a manner given by the stress-strain diagram of
the material.

The distribution of the shear stresses v over the depth of

the section depends on the shape of the cross section.

Owing to the combined action of shear stresses (horizontal

and vertical) and flexural stresses, at any point in a beam
there are inclined stresses of tension and compression.

The horizontal and vertical shearing stresses are equal and

the flexural stresses are zero at the neutral plane.
BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM UNDER
ELASTIC THEORY

Figure 1.1
Behavior of
reinforced
concrete beam
under elastic
theory
BERNOULLI HYPOTHESIS

Bernoulli hypothesis states that:

" Plane section remain plane after bending

Bernoulli's hypothesis facilitates the flexural

design of reinforced concrete structures by
allowing a linear strain distribution for all
capacity
DESIGN EXAMPLE BASED ON ELASTIC THEORY

This pier design example is based on AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design

Specifications. The design methods presented throughout the
example are meant to be the most widely used in general bridge
engineering practice.

Material Properties:
Concrete density: Wc =0.15 kcf
Concrete 28-day compressive strength: fc = 4.0 ksi
Reinforcement strength: fy = 60.0ksi
RELEVANT SUPERSTRUCTURE DATA:

Girder spacing: S =9.75 ft

Number of girders: N=5
Deck overhang: DOH = 3.9375 ft
Span length: Lspan =120.0ft
Parapet height: H par = 3.5 ft
Deck overhang thickness: to = 9.0 in
Web depth: Do = 66 in
Bearing height: H bearing = 5.0 in
Superstructure Depth: H super = 10.23 ft
Design Step 8.2 - Select Optimum Pier Type

A single column (hammerhead) pier was chosen. A typical

hammerhead pier is shown in Figure 8-1.

Figure 1-2 Typical Hammerhead

Pier
Design Step 8.3 - Select Preliminary Pier Dimensions

Figure 1.3 Preliminary Pier Dimensions

DESIGN STEP 8.4 - COMPUTE LOAD EFFECTS

Braking Force
Wind Load From Super Structure
Wind Load On Vehicle
Wind Load On Sub Structure
Design Step 8.5 Design Pier Cap

Prior to carrying out the actual design of the pier cap, a brief
discussion is in order regarding the design philosophy that
will be used for the design of the structural components of this pier.

Piers have been designed using conventional methods of strength

Of materials regardless of member dimensions. In this approach,
it is assumed that longitudinal strains vary linearly over the depth
of the member and the shear distribution remains uniform.
Furthermore, separate designs are carried out for vu and mu at
different locations along the member.

As stated in Design Step, the critical section in the pier cap is

where the cap meets the column, or 15.5' from the end of the cap.
The governing force effects and their corresponding limit states
were determined to be:
Mu = 10706 k-ft
Vu = 1509 k
Design for Flexure

Mu = 10706 k-ft
f = 0.9

b = 60 in

= 0.002565

As = 31.20in2

Vu = 1509 k
v = 0.90

Av = 0.57 in2

smax = 24.00 in
INTRODUCTION

The Strut-and-Tie is a unified approach that considers all load

effects (M, N, V, T) simultaneously

The Strut-and-Tie model approach evolves as one of the most

useful design methods for shear critical structures and for other
disturbed regions in concrete structures

The model provides a rational approach by representing a

complex structural member with an appropriate simplified truss
models

There is no single, unique STM for most design situations

encountered. There are, however, some techniques and rules,
which help the designer, develop an appropriate model
ST. VENANT'S PRINCIPLE

" The localized effects caused by any load

acting on the body will dissipate or
smooth out within regions that are
sufficiently away from the location of the
STM BASIC PRINCIPLE

Strut-and-Tie Model: A conceptual framework where the

stress distribution in a structure is idealized as a system of

1. compression struts concrete

2. tension ties reinforcement
3. Nodes concrete

Concrete is Strong in Compression

Compression Struts
Steel is Strong in Tension
Tension Ties
ASSUMPTIONS OF STM

Ties yield before struts crush (for ductility)

Forces in struts and ties are uniaxial
Tension in concrete is neglected
External forces applied at nodes
Prestressing is a load
Equilibrium must be maintained
DESIGN OF B - & D REGIONS

The design of B (Bernoulli or Beam) region is well

understood and the entire flexural behavior can be
predicted by simple calculation

Even for the most recurrent cases of D (Disturbed or

Discontinuity) regions (such as deep beams or corbels),
engineers' ability to predict capacity is either poor
(empirical) or requires substantial computation effort (finite
element analysis) to reach an accurate estimation of
capacity
B - & D REGIONS FOR SIMPLE SPAN BEAM

B- &
DRegions
for
Simple
Span
Beam
EXAMPLES OF STM MODELS
DESIGN EXAMPLE BASED ON STM
DESIGN STEPS

1. Visualize flow of stresses and Sketch an idealized

strut-and-tie model
2. Check size of bearing nodal zone stresses
3. Select area of ties
4. Check strength of struts
5. Provide adequate anchorage for the ties
6. Provide crack control reinforcement
7. Sketch required reinforcement
STEP 1 DRAW IDEALIZED TRUSS MODEL OF PIER CAP
STEP 2 SOLVE FOR MEMBER FORCES
STEP 3 CHECK STRENGTH
STEP 4 CHOOSE TENSION TIE REINFORCEMENT

a) Top Reinforcement
over Column, Tie AB :

Ast = Pu/ fy

Use 6 No. 9 bars As = 6.0 in2

b) Bottom Reinforcement

at Midspan

Ast = Pu/ fy

Use 12 No. 9 bars As = 12.0 in2

c) Stirrups, Ties BG & CH

n = Pu/ Ast fy

Provide No. 5 double-legged stirrups at 12 in

STEP 5 CHECK CAPACITY OF STRUT

Strut FB is most critical

fcu controlled by tensile strain
in tie at smallest angle to strut

Es = Pu/ Ast Es
= 295/ 60 X 29000 = 1.695 X 10-3
STEP 5 SKETCH THE REQUIRED REINFORCEMENT
CIVIL DEPARTMENT