You are on page 1of 48

ENVIRONMENTAL

PROTECTION

Background
Different types of port pollution
The environment and its cost
Environmental protection policy
BACKGROUND

AWARENESS

< 1980 INDUSTRIALISED COUNTRIES


INDUSTRIALISATION DAMAGE TO
THE ENVIRONMENT
> 1980 REGULATIONS
PROTECTIVE MEASURES

TODAY EVERYBODYS CONCERN


1987: World Commission on Environment
and Development
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

responds to present needs


not compromising the capacity of future
generations to respond to their needs

LINK between - economic growth


- environmental protection
1992: Rio de Janeiro Conference on the
environment
and development

Environment should be

taken into account


protected
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

3 PILLARS

Economic development
Environmental protection
Equitable sharing of benefits and costs
International Organisations

A. UNCTAD

1992 8th Conference

Economic growth and environmental


protection are complementary
International Organisations

B. IMO - 3 major conventions

1. Prevention of pollution by sea (1975)


(London Dumping Convention)

2. Prevention of pollution by ships (1983)


MARPOL 73/78

3. Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Co-


operation OPRC 1990
International Organisations
C. PIANC / IAPH
recommandations
technical studies
surveys

Problems for ports:

dangerous goods (see Module 3)


pollution of the water
dredging
disposal of dredged material
Port environmental policies
Impact assessment studies
risk prevention
limit water pollution
reduce atmospheric pollution
waste reduction and recycling
green zones
rules dealing with polluters
TYPES OF PORT POLLUTION - 1

Structural

Operational

Accidental
TYPES OF PORT POLLUTION - 2

Water

Soil

Atmosphere

All of them affecting life, habitats and


ecosystems
Generation of Pollution
1. By ships
- Collision / grounding
- Spills
- Regulation
- MARPOL + appendixes
- Port reception facilities
- Discharge of water
- Emmissions/noise
2. By handling bulk cargo
- Dust / hindrance of other activities
- 1 % loss
- Vaporisation, sprinkling
- Inflammable, toxic
- Spillage
Health
Soil
Emission
3. By handling general cargo

- Dangerous goods

Explosion
Fire
Soil pollution
Health
Noise
4. By storage of cargoes
- Dust

- Leakage / degradation
Water
Soil
Dock bottom

- Odours
5. By maintenance of
facilities/equipment

- Dredging
- Maintenance of ships

Explosions
Anti-fouling paints
6. By building of harbour facilities

- Dredging, quays, construction


- Alters natural environment
- Breeding grounds, birds
- Modification of currents
7. By port industries

- Atmospheric pollution
Noise
Emissions
- Cooling water
- Soil pollution
- Dumping sites
- Traffic
8. By activities in port-city interface

- Accumulation of effects
- Road congestion
- Noise
- Air pollution by fumes
- The requirements of residential areas
- green areas
- Limits to congestion/noise
THE ENVIRONMENT AND ITS COSTS

- Cost of damage

- Cost of protection

- Notion of RISK
COST OF DAMAGE
CLASSIFICATION CRITERIA

- Reparable / not reparable


- Direct cost / indirect cost
- Actual damage / remedial measures
- Immediate costs / postponed costs
PARAMETERS
A. Atmospheric pollution
= smoke, dust, gases, smell

- Wind
- Intensity
- Composition
- Frequency
- Height
PARAMETERS
B. Water
= principal concern for ports

- Currents
- Type of pollution
- Adhesion to soil
- Stability
PARAMETERS
C. Soil
= contamination of soil, ground water

- Composition
- Ground water currents
- Adhesion
CALCULATION OF COSTS
Accidental costs
- Can happen any time
- Serious impact
- (fire, explosion, oil spills, )
- Long term damage

heigh risk / cost = ?


CALCULATION OF COSTS
Structural costs

- Constant in time
- Due to operations
- Individual minor contamination
- Cumulative effect
- (dust, smoke, emissions,)

COST = accumulation of small costs


RISK
Frequency
- Past experiences
- Scientific analysis (probabilistic)

Scope

- Monetary terms
- Past experiences
RISK = FREQUENCY X SCOPE
COST OF PROTECTIVE MEASURES

- Legal measures
- Investments
- Operational restrictions
- Monitoring

costs
DIRECT COSTS

- Human resources, training


- Capital investments
- Maintenance of equipment
- Preparation of rules and regulations
INDIRECT COSTS
- Delays

- Commercial losses

- Reputation
e.g. (Green Award)
Protection Examples
A. Water

- Boats / specialised facilities


- Waste reception facilities MARPOL
- Storage tanks
- Separation and treatment facilities
Protection Examples

B. Atmosphere
- filter installations
- eliminating dust

sprinkling devices
watering carts
construction of verges
quick-growing trees
sprays
covered belts
DECISION

COST OF PROTECTION

should be lower than

COST OF DAMAGE
DEGREE OF PROTECTION
- The more we want zero pollution

- The higher the cost

- Search for optimum point

- Definition of acceptable degree of

pollution
SUMMARY TABLE
(see page 41 of manual)

- Interesting exercise

- Mostly approximations

- Tool to take decisions


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
1. Objectives

- Determination of desired levels of protection

- Short / medium / long term

- Assignment of quantitative aims

- Priorities
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
2. Co-ordination unit (focal point)

- Role for port authority


- Special task force / committee
- Responsible officer
- Consultative body
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
3. Consultation

- Public and private partners

- Declaration of environmental policy


Environmental charter

Environmental code of conduct

- Strategic plan
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
4. Legal framework

- Legislation: international
regional
national
- International guidelines: IMO, PIANC, IAPH
- Own port regulations
- Make your own compilation
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
5. Planning the port layout

- Port Environmental Impact Assessment


detection of potential conflict situations
corrective measures
moderate undesired effects

- In the initial stage of a project


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
6. Port Tariffs

- Strategic tool for environmental policy

- Generation of revenue for possible expenses

- Who pays the bill?


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
Principle: The pollutor pays

- Prevention / restoration of acceptable


environment to be paid for by pollutor

- Zero-pollution not realistic

- Community assumes part of the responsibility


ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
Principle: Free service

- Port authority responsible for facilities


(e.g. waste reception facilities)
- Free of charge
- Expenses recovered by general taxes
- All potential pollutors pay
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY

7. Application and control

- Keep it simple
- Qualified persons
- International agreements
e.g. MOU on Port State Control
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
8. Emergency Intervention Plan

- Assessment of most probable accidents


- Elaboration of emergency plans
- Involvment of all actors
- Clearly defined command structure
- Training, drills
ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
POLICY
9. Education, training, sensitisation

- Change attitudes
- Improve capabilities
- Awareness
- Responsibility
Terimakasih