You are on page 1of 31

REACTIONS

UNIT 10 IN AQUEOUS
SOLUTION
SOLUTION
It is a homogenous mixture of 2 or more
substances.

The solute is(are) the substance(s)


present in the smaller amount(s).
The solvent is the substance present in
the larger amount
Example Soft drink (Sugar/CO2 in H2O)
Air (O2/Ar/CH4 in N2)
Solder (Sn in Pb)
PROPERTIES of a SOLUTION
An electrolyte is a substance that, when
dissolved in H2O, results in a solution that
can conduct electricity.
A nonelectrolyte is a substance that,
when dissolved, results in a solution that
does not conduct electricity.
CLASSIFICATION OF
ELECTROLYTE
Strong Electrolyte 100% dissociation

Weak Electrolyte not


completely dissociated
PROPERTIES OF SOLUTION
Hydration is the process in which an ion is
surrounded by water molecules arranged in
a specific manner.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLUTES
IN AQ. SOLN.
REACTIONS IN AQUEOUS
SOLUTION
Double Displacement Reactions
Precipitation Reactions
Neutralization Reactions

Oxidation-Reduction Reactions
Combination/Synthesis
Decomposition
Single Displacement Reactions
Disproportionation Reactions
PRECIPITATION REACTION
A reaction that involves formation of an
insoluble solid (precipitate) that separates
from the solution.

molecular equation

ionic equation

net ionic
equation
molecular equation

Molecular (Formula) Equation


Gives the overall reaction stoichiometry
but not necessarily the actual forms of the
reactants and products in solution.
Reactants and products generally shown as
compounds.
Use solubility rules to determine which
compounds are aqueous and which
compounds are solids.
Solubility is the max. amt of solute that will
dissolve in a given quantity of solvent at a
specific temperature.
ionic equation

Complete Ionic Equation


Represents as ions all reactants and
products that are strong electrolytes.
net ionic
equation
Net Ionic Equation
Includes only those solution components
undergoing a change.
Show only components that actually
react.

Spectator ions are not included (ions that


do not participate directly in the reaction).
Na+ and NO3 are spectator ions.
EXERCISE
Write the correct formula equation,
complete ionic equation, and net ionic
equation for the ff. reactions:
1. Cobalt(II) chloride and sodium hydroxide
2. Potassium chromate and barium nitrate
3. Sodium phosphate and calcium nitrate
ACID AND BASE
Arrhenius acid is a substance that
produces H+ (H3O+) in water.
HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl
Arrhenius base is a substance that
produces OH in water.
NH3 + H2O NH4+ + OH

A Brnsted acid is a proton donor.


A Brnsted base is a proton acceptor.
Classification of Acid
NEUTRALIZATION REACTION
A reaction between an acid and a base.
acid + base salt + water

A salt is an ionic compound made up of


cation (other than H+) and an anion (other
than OH and O2).
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) NaCl(aq) + H2O
H+ + Cl + Na+ + OH Na+ + Cl + H2O
H+ + OH H2O
EXERCISE
Predict the product(s) produced in the ff.
reactions. Then balance the equation.

1. HF(aq) + KOH(aq)
2. H2SO4(aq) + NaOH(aq)
3. HNO3(aq) + NH3(aq)
OXIDATION-REDUCTION
REACTION
A reaction in which one or more electrons are
transferred.
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) 2NaCl(s)

Oxidation state (oxidation number)


It provides a way to keep track of
electrons in oxidation-reduction reaction.
It refers to number of charges an atom
would have in a molecule (or an ionic
compound) if electrons are transferred
completely.
RULES in ASSIGNING
OXIDATION
Free elementsSTATES
(uncombined state) have
an oxidation number of zero.
Na, Be, K, Pb, H2, O2, P4 = 0

In monatomic ions, the oxidation number


is equal to the charge on the ion.
Li+, Li = +1; Fe3+, Fe = +3; O2-, O = -2

The oxidation number of oxygen is usually


2. (except O22- where it is 1)
RULES in ASSIGNING
OXIDATION
The oxidation STATES
number of hydrogen is +1 .
(except when it is bonded to metals in
binary compounds where it is 1)

Fluorine is always 1.

The sum of the oxidation numbers of all


the atoms in a molecule or ion is equal to
the charge on the molecule or ion.
The oxidation numbers of elements in their
compounds
EXERCISE
Assign oxidation number of element in the ff:
1. NaIO3
2. Cr2O72
3. Cl2
4. SO2
5. HCO3
6. MnO4
OXIDATION-REDUCTION
REACTION
Consider the reaction:
2Mg(s) +O2(g) 2MgO(s)
Oxidation is a half-reaction that involves
loss of electrons.
Reduction is a half-reaction that involves
gain of electrons.
2Mg 2Mg2+ + 4e- oxidation
O2 + 4e- 2O2- reduction
2Mg(s) +O2(g) 2MgO(s)
EXERCISE
Identify oxidizing and reducing agents in the
ff. redox reactions:
1. Zn(s) + CuSO4(aq) ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
2. Cu(s) + 2AgNO3(aq) Cu(NO3)2(aq) + 2Ag(s)
BALANCING REDOX EQUATIONS
1. Write the unbalanced equation for the
reaction in ionic form.
2. Separate the equation into two half-
reactions.
3. Balance the atoms other than O and H.
4. For reactions in an acidic medium, add
H2O to balance O and H+ to balance H.
5. Add electrons to one side of each half-
reaction to balance the charges. Equalize
the number of electrons in two half-
reactions.
EXERCISE
Balance the ff. redox reactions using ion-
electron methods:
1. Fe2+ + Cr2O72 Fe3+ + Cr3+ acidic
2. S2O32 + I2 S4O62 + I acidic
3. MnO4 + I MnO2 + I2 basic
4. CN + MnO4 CNO + MnO2 basic
TYPES OF REDOX REACTIONS
1. Combination Reaction

2. Decomposition Reaction
TYPES OF REDOX REACTIONS
3. Single Displacement Reaction
ACTIVITY SERIES OF METALS
ACTIVITY
SERIES OF
F2 HALOGENS
> Cl2 > Br2 >
I2

TYPES OF REDOX REACTIONS


4. Disproportionation Reaction
Element is simultaneously oxidized and
reduced.
EXERCISE
Classify the following reactions:
1. Ca2+ + CO32- CaCO3
2. NH3 + H+ NH4+
3. Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
4. Ca + F2 CaF2
5. Na2CO3 + 2HCl 2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
6. 2NaI + Cl2 2NaCl + I2
7. CaCO3 CaO + CO2