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Transformers

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 15

Magnetic Circuits and

Transformers

1. Understand magnetic fields and their inte

with moving charges.

2. Use the right-hand rule to determine the

of the magnetic field around a current-ca

wire or coil.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

3. Calculate forces on moving charges

and current

carrying wires due to magnetic fields.

coil by a

changing magnetic flux or in a

conductor

cutting through a magnetic field.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

6. Apply magnetic-circuit concepts to

determine

the magnetic fields in practical

devices.

mutual

inductance of coils given their

physical

parameters.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

9. Understand ideal transformers and

solve

circuits that include transformers.

transformers to determine their

regulations

and power efficiencies.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

MAGNETIC FIELDS

that are close together where the field

is strong and farther apart where the

field is weak.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Flux lines leave the north-seeking

end of a magnet and enter the

south-seeking end.

compass indicates north in the

direction of the flux lines.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Right-Hand Rule

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Forces on Charges

Moving in Magnetic

Fields

f qu B

f quB sin

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Forces on Current-

Carrying Wires

df idl B

f ilB sin

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Flux Linkages and

Faradays Law

B dA N

A

Faradays law

of

magneticd

e

induction:

dt

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lenzs Law

polarity of the induced voltage is

such that the voltage

would produce a current

(through an external resistance)

that opposes the original change

in flux linkages.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Voltages Induced in

Field-Cutting

Conductors

e Blu

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Magnetic Field

Intensity and Ampres

Law

B H 0 4 10 Wb Am

7

Ampres Law:

r

0 H dl i

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Magnetic Field Around

a Long Straight Wire

I

B H

2r

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Flux Density in a

Toroidal Core

NI

B

2R

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

MAGNETIC CIRCUITS

In many engineering applications, we

need to

compute the magnetic fields for

structures that lack sufficient

symmetry for straight-forward

application of Ampres law. Then, we

use an approximate method known as

magnetic-circuit

analysis.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

magnetomotive force (mmf) of

an N-turn current-carrying coil

N I

reluctance of a path for magnetic flux

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Advantage of the

Magnetic-Circuit

Approach

The advantage of the magnetic-circuit

approach is that it can be applied to

unsymmetrical magnetic cores with

multiple coils.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fringing

We approximately account for

fringing by adding the length of the

gap to the depth and

width in computing effective gap

area.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

A Magnetic Circuit with

Reluctances in Series and

Parallel

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

INDUCTANCE AND

MUTUAL INDUCTANCE

N 2

L L

i

di

eL

dt

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Mutual Inductance

11 22

L1 L2

i1 i2

21 12

M

i1 i2

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Dot Convention

Aiding fluxes are produced by currents

entering like marked terminals.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Circuit Equations for

Mutual Inductance

1 L1i1 Mi2

2 Mi1 L2i2

d1 di1 di2

e1 L1 M

dt dt dt

d 2 di1 di2

e2 M L2

dt dt dt

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

MAGNETIC MATERIALS

linear for the types of iron used in

motors and transformers.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Energy Considerations

B

W

Wv H dB

Al 0

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Core Loss

Power loss due to hysteresis is

proportional to frequency, assuming

constant peak flux.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Eddy-Current Loss

proportional

constant

peak flux.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Energy Stored in the

Magnetic Field

B 2

B B

Wv dB

0

2

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

IDEAL TRANSFORMERS

N2

v2 t v1 t

N1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

N1

I 2 rms I 1rms

N2

p2 t p1 t

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Transformer Summary

all of the

windings of both coils and that the

resistance of the coils is zero. Thus,

the voltage across each coil is

proportional to theNnumber of turns

on the coil.v 2 t

2

v1 t

N1

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

2. We assumed that the reluctance of

the core is

negligible, so the total mmf of both

N

coils is i2 t 1 i 2 t

zero. N2

3. A consequence of the voltage and

current

relationships is that all of the

power

delivered to an ideal transformer

by the

source is transferred to the load.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Analysis of a Circuit

Containing an Ideal

Transformer

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Impedance

Transformations

2

V1 N 1

Z L Z L

I1 N 2

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

REAL TRANSFORMERS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Variations of the

Transformer Model

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

Regulation and

Efficiency

Vno-load Vload

percent regulation 100%

Vload

Pload Ploss

power efficiency 100% 1 100%

Pin Pin

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.

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