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# Chapter 15

## Magnetic Circuits and

Transformers

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 15
Magnetic Circuits and
Transformers
1. Understand magnetic fields and their inte
with moving charges.
2. Use the right-hand rule to determine the
of the magnetic field around a current-ca
wire or coil.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
3. Calculate forces on moving charges
and current
carrying wires due to magnetic fields.

## 4. Calculate the voltage induced in a

coil by a
changing magnetic flux or in a
conductor
cutting through a magnetic field.

## 5. Use Lenzs law to determine the

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
6. Apply magnetic-circuit concepts to
determine
the magnetic fields in practical
devices.

## 7. Determine the inductance and

mutual
inductance of coils given their
physical
parameters.

## 8. Understand hysteresis, saturation,

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
9. Understand ideal transformers and
solve
circuits that include transformers.

## 10. Use the equivalent circuits of real

transformers to determine their
regulations
and power efficiencies.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAGNETIC FIELDS

## Magnetic flux lines form closed paths

that are close together where the field
is strong and farther apart where the
field is weak.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flux lines leave the north-seeking
end of a magnet and enter the
south-seeking end.

## When placed in a magnetic field, a

compass indicates north in the
direction of the flux lines.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Right-Hand Rule

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forces on Charges
Moving in Magnetic
Fields
f qu B

f quB sin

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Forces on Current-
Carrying Wires

df idl B

f ilB sin

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
B dA N
A
of
magneticd
e
induction:
dt
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lenzs Law

## Lenzs law states that the

polarity of the induced voltage is
such that the voltage
would produce a current
(through an external resistance)
that opposes the original change

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Voltages Induced in
Field-Cutting
Conductors

e Blu
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnetic Field
Intensity and Ampres
Law
B H 0 4 10 Wb Am
7

Ampres Law:
r
0 H dl i

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnetic Field Around
a Long Straight Wire

I
B H
2r

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flux Density in a
Toroidal Core

NI
B
2R

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAGNETIC CIRCUITS
In many engineering applications, we
need to
compute the magnetic fields for
structures that lack sufficient
symmetry for straight-forward
application of Ampres law. Then, we
use an approximate method known as
magnetic-circuit
analysis.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
magnetomotive force (mmf) of
an N-turn current-carrying coil
N I
reluctance of a path for magnetic flux

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Magnetic-Circuit
Approach
approach is that it can be applied to
unsymmetrical magnetic cores with
multiple coils.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fringing
We approximately account for
fringing by adding the length of the
gap to the depth and
width in computing effective gap
area.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
A Magnetic Circuit with
Reluctances in Series and
Parallel

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
INDUCTANCE AND
MUTUAL INDUCTANCE
N 2
L L
i
di
eL
dt

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Mutual Inductance

11 22
L1 L2
i1 i2
21 12
M
i1 i2

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Dot Convention
Aiding fluxes are produced by currents
entering like marked terminals.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Circuit Equations for
Mutual Inductance
1 L1i1 Mi2
2 Mi1 L2i2
d1 di1 di2
e1 L1 M
dt dt dt
d 2 di1 di2
e2 M L2
dt dt dt
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAGNETIC MATERIALS

## The relationship between B and H is not

linear for the types of iron used in
motors and transformers.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Energy Considerations

B
W
Wv H dB
Al 0

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Core Loss
Power loss due to hysteresis is
proportional to frequency, assuming
constant peak flux.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Eddy-Current Loss

proportional

## to the square of frequency, assuming

constant

peak flux.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Energy Stored in the
Magnetic Field

B 2
B B
Wv dB
0
2

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
IDEAL TRANSFORMERS

N2
v2 t v1 t
N1
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
N1
I 2 rms I 1rms
N2

p2 t p1 t

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Transformer Summary

## 1. We assumed that all of the flux links

all of the
windings of both coils and that the
resistance of the coils is zero. Thus,
the voltage across each coil is
proportional to theNnumber of turns
on the coil.v 2 t
2
v1 t
N1
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
2. We assumed that the reluctance of
the core is
negligible, so the total mmf of both
N
coils is i2 t 1 i 2 t
zero. N2
3. A consequence of the voltage and
current
relationships is that all of the
power
delivered to an ideal transformer
by the
source is transferred to the load.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Analysis of a Circuit
Containing an Ideal
Transformer

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Impedance
Transformations

2
V1 N 1
Z L Z L
I1 N 2
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
REAL TRANSFORMERS

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Variations of the
Transformer Model

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS, Third Edition, by Allan R. Hambley, 2005 Pearson Education, Inc.
Regulation and
Efficiency