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SITE AND LANDUSE

INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS LANDUSE?
Management & Modification of natural
environment into built and semi natural
habitats.

USES OF LAND:
Land is one of the Earths most precious resources
- essential to support life
- provides many of the resources required to enable human activities
- provides space for human inhabitation.

HUMAN ACTIVITY ON LANDUSE:


Agriculture
Mining Grassland to desert
Impacts
Forestry & Urbanization Forest to agricultural land
ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT
WHAT IS ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT ?
An accounting system for biocapacity that tracks how much biocapacity there is,
and how much biocapacity people use. (Measure of human demands on earths
ecosystem.)

WHY IS IT NEEDED?
When humanity's ecological resource demands exceed what nature can supply,
we reach ecological overshoot.

CAUSES:
Collapsing fisheries,
Carbon-induced climate change, If this trend continues by end of this
Species extinction, decade three more earth like planets
Deforestation, Would be required to satisfy our
Loss of groundwater. needs!!!
SUSTAINABLE SITE & LANDUSE
SELECTION OF SITE: MINIMISING THE IMPACT OF
Efficient Public transport facilities. DEVELOPMENT:
Potential links for pedestrians and Protect natural habitats.
cyclists. Enhance existing and to
Land with low ecological value.
introduce new planting.
Development which would benefit the
community.
Enhance potential for
pedestrians and cyclists.
LAND EFFICIENCY: Include food production
Needs of the community to be opportunities wherever possible
considered.
Creating viable and attractive
developments.
Mixed use developments.
Viable high density developments.
Reuse of used and waste lands.
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE SUSTAINABLE
LANDUSE

Compact cities In harmony with nature


Appropriate high densities Enabling natural ecology to
Comprehensive planning flourish
Sharing nature
Reducing transport impacts Creating planted corridors
Desirable city centre living Green roofs
Car free development Building in character with
Efficient and reduced vehicle nature
use
Local food production
Producing food on site
Community food gardens
COMPACT CITIES
WHY COMPACT CITIES?
Half of the global population lives in cities,
and this figure is expected to rise to 60 per cent
by 2030.
According to World Bank 2004 In developed
countries already more than two-thirds live in
cities
Australia: 91 % UK: 90 %
Germany: 88 % US: 78 %
Austria: 68 % Switzerland: 67 %
Urban growth leads to high consumption rates
which in turn leads to high ecological footprint.
It is believed that compact cities can reduce some
of these impacts and develop sustainable
communities.
CHARACTERISTICS OF SUSTAINABLE CITIES
compact living
mixed land uses
public transport-oriented designs
pedestrian-friendly streets
well-defined public spaces
integration of nature in developments
developments based on walking and cycling distances
EFFICIENCY OF A COMPACT CITY
Compact cities are provided with efficient
public transport which reduces car
dependence.
More proximity between buildings, reducing
the amount of energy used.
Easy access to culture, leisure facilities, and
employment, attract many people aspiring to
a high quality of life.
Provides efficient working settlement
configuration increasing the prospect of
employment.
Offers less stress and unhappiness.
AIMS
Compared to rural areas cities have higher rates of crime,
unemployment, poverty and death rate due to a more stressful life.In
the UK more people are moving out of cities than moving into cities.
To bring back life to all social groups and not just catering to the
needs of a privileged few.
That is Employment, housing, education, culture and leisure
facilities should be available to all.
To configure cities to human scale with self sufficient
neighbourhoods linked by efficient public transport with the
advantages of low car dependency, more leisure time, strong
community feeling and a high quality of life.
To create communities where people will want to live in the longer
term.
COPMREHENSIVE
PLANNING
Solar City Pichling,
Linz, Austria

A high density development not isolated from the services that


people need, including access to transport, work, and essential
facilities such as grocery shops, schools, leisure facilities and green
spaces.
The solar City is intended as a model of sustainable city
development with use of the sun, which ranges from providing
passive and active heating and electrical needs.
It consists of two, three and four bedroom and an underground Car
parking creating places for landscape and childrens play.
At its centre is a commercial and community centre, which includes
general facilities like grocery shop, bakery, medical centre,
pharmacy, bank, citizens advice office, hair dress and bookshop.
South side is a school and north side
is a landscaped park.
The tram stop at the commercial and
community centre is designed to be
no more than approximately 300
metres from any of the houses, thus
encouraging people to walk and use
public transport rather than cars.

PLAN SHOWING
THECOMMERCIAL/COMMUNITY CENTRE IN
THE CENTRE
SURROUNDED BY HOUSING. GREEN SPACES
AND A LAKE ARE TO THE NORTH
SCHOOL IS IN THE SOUTH-EAST SECTION OF
THE SITE.
A TREE-LINED BOULEVARD CONNECTING
THE DEVELOPMENT CENTRE
FROM THE SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHEAST.
REDUCING TRANSPORT IMPACTS
WHY SHOULD WE REDUCE?
Most vehicles run on fossil fuels, the burning of which is
associated with global warming.
Vehicle emissions pollute the local environment and are
linked to increases in respiratory illnesses.
Road accidents cause more deaths than wars.
World-wide a third of urban land is allocated to car use.
The dominance of cars has changed the way people live,
reducing the extent to which people walk- prevents the
development of closer communities.
Because of no physical exercise increased risk of cardio
vascular diseases.
This trend is not sustainable and changing it requires that
alternative lifestyles, which are not dependent on car use, be
made attractive and easily adopted.
WHAT CAN BE DONE?
Public transport can be made affordable and efficient.
High raised buildings.
Safe cycle and pedestrian ways in the streetscape.
Making car ownership more problematic, for example, by reducing
public and private parking places.
Proximity to public transport networks made easy.
DESIRABLE CITY CENTRE LIVING
The Point Bristol, UK FACILITY DISTANCE

The Point housing development has many of Toddlers play area 100 m
the characteristics that make a development
Community garden 200m
an attractive and desirable place to live.
Bristols Old City, with its restaurants, Bus stop 300m

theatres and art centres is a ten-minute walk Playground, primary 400m


away. school

Shopping centres and the main train station Railway station 600m

are approximately a mile away. Health centre 800m


The Point does not include car parking, for
Secondary school 1000m
areas involving day-to-day activities.
The Point offered the potential to reduce District centre 1500m
Leisure centre
carbon dioxide emissions associated with
Technical college 2000m
transport to 56 percent due to efficient Major green space
planning.
Maximum recommended distances from homes
Much of the car parking is in underground to local facilities (Burton 1995).

with communal park and seating on top.


CAR FREE DEVELOPMENT
Slateford green Edinburgh,UK

The site between Slateford Green Road


and Gorgie Road, located miles from
Edinburgh has been considered for two
proposals a retail development and
private housing.
So a request was given to the council for
laying new roads connecting Slateford
and Gorgie road.
The cost of road construction made
developments financially unattractive
and could be avoided only by creating
car free development.
Only Limited car parking is made available in the neighbourhood.
The road at the perimeter of the site surrounding the housing is for
pedestrian, bicycle and emergency vehicle use only.
The success of this development depends on two factors
a) Close proximity and efficient public transport
b) only 22 cars were made available for 400 persons by the city car club.
The cars can be booked over the phone or internet, up to six months in
advance or at the last minute.
members receive a monthly bill based on the hours of use and mileage
driven.

Inner courtyard with a perimeter service


access road surrounding the dwellings.
IN HARMONY WITH
NATURE
IMPORTANCE OF NATURE
Satisfies basic human needs and improves the quality of human life.
Helps in water & air purification
Regulates global and local climate by providing cooling, shading & shelter.
Helps people at psychological and physical level.

PROTECTING THE BIODIVERSITY:


Loss of an ecosystem would mean extinction of specific plants and animal
species which in turn reduces the genetic diversity causing disturbance in
ecosystem resulting to
Floods
Droughts
Pollution
And climatic changes
PRINCIPLES TO ENHANCE BIODIVERSITY
Biological resources should be made sustainable.
Wise use of non- renewable resources.
Conservation requires involvement of individuals, communities and
Governmental processes.
To be made an integral part of policies and actions.
As urban developments increases natural environment
shrinks in size.
Resulting to isolation and migration of wildlife.

DESIGNING FOR NATURE CONSERVATION


Brownfield sites preferable to that of green field sites
Survey of site ecology.
Retention of natural ecosystem should be a priority
Minimal interventions are the best.
Removal of invasive non-native plants.
Link between development sites and other natural
environments.
Enabling the Natural Ecology to Flourish
Lyola Pavilions
Aim:
Maleny, Queensland, Australia To re-establish primary rainforest and
provide natural habitats for local flora
and fauna
Strategies:
2 Pavilions Hide & Seek
Built on timber post high above
ground Minimum site disruption
allows vegetation to grow below
Timber structure , windows, and
corrugated metal cladding ,blend
with the surrounding
Tree canopy shades the buildings,
large windows, protected by fly
screens this allows cross ventilation
For minor temperature adjustments
a fire & electrical fan is provided
Sustainable design features
Site and ecology
The buildings minimise the disruption to the natural
environment and allow its regeneration.
Community and culture
Hide is fully wheelchair accessible,
Health
Has a restorative effect on visitors. The materials used are
mainly natural and nontoxic.
Materials
Renewable materials such as timber were used.
Energy
Designed to enable cross-ventilation.
Minimal heating is required in winter and provided by a
wood-burning stove.
Water
Dual flush WCs are installed.
Sharing Nature
solarCity
Pichling, Linz, Austria Largest ever settlement built on the
basis of sustainable architecture,
basic principle to promote low cost
building methods internationally
Aim:
Integrating an easily accessible natural
environment within a housing
development
Planning:
benefits from the Kleiner Weikerlsee
lake and Traun-Danube riverside
3 main areas:
a sculptural landscaped strip
a park for the use of the residents
nature reserve of the Traun-Danube
riverside and the lake.
Sculptural landscaped strip
planted mounds from development spoil
(visual barrier between - houses and the park)
The landscape can be enjoyed at low level with
benches and at high level from the top of the
mounds
Park for the residence
Existing lake-forms a bathing area and a
beach , around this a grassed area for leisure
timber and steel bridge forms a boundary
between lesuire and natural reserve
A cycle and pedestrian pathways
Natural Reserves
Structured natural trails are laid for people to
visit the heart of the reserve
This helps to control the croud and thus
preserves environment from human
interventions
Creating Planted Corridor
Mile End Park
London, UK

The park consists -


(running north-south):
The Play Arena - f, The
Ecology Park , wind
turbine and climbing
wall, The Arts Park,
The Green Bridge, The
Terraced Garden, The
South Park, Adventure
Park, Sports Park
LOCAL FOOD PRODUCTION
Local Food
Locality or region in which the final product is marketed,the total distance
the product is transported is less than 400 miles from the origin of the
product. (e.g. farmers selling directly to consumers at regional farmers
markets or to schools)
Local Food Production
Effort to build more locally based, self-reliant food economies - one in which
sustainable food production, processing, distribution, and consumption is
integrated to enhance the economic, environmental and social health of a
particular place.
Why is it Important ?
To reduce the impacts associated with food production and distribution.
(pollution; affect land use; affect the health and social and economic well-
being of communities)
Sustainable Food Production
sustainable food production means more than expanding the food supply. It
also encompasses social, economic and ecological considerations, such as
infrastructure, storage, waste reduction and improving and preserving water
qualityall of which are critical to achieving global food security.
Benefits of Local Food Network

greater access to fresh, seasonal


produce, leading to healthier diets
increased employment and
recycling of money in the local
economy
closer links between farmers and
consumers
community involvement in
production and greater self-
sufficiency
reduced pollution and congestion
encouragement of sustainable land
management systems
reduced risk from BSE, foot-and-
mouth, chicken-flu and other food-
Designing to Minimise Impacts
Associated With Food
Opportunities and space for growing
food on buildings or in gardens.
Allocate a portion of communal
space for the production of food in
the form of allotments or community
gardens.
Consider planting fruit trees where
possible.
Encourage city farms, and other
local food growing facilities.
Provide opportunities for farmers
markets.
At an urban level, ensure that land
adjacent to the city is retained as
agricultural.
Community Food Gardens
Argonne Child Development Center
San Francisco, US

First green school, sharing


their largest community
garden producing organic
food . TBA-38,248ft
Building Footprint -6,120
ft

All existing trees were


preserved & was landscaped
with native, drought-resistant
plants that require no
permanently installed
irrigation.
Site and ecology
built on a brownfield site in a densely populated part of the city.
The location close to excellent bus connections
avoids the need for driving and therefore car parking.
Community and culture
The centre contributes to the quality of life in the neighbourhood,
creates spaces for children to play safely and for adults to relax
Health
The passive and active contact with nature provides the
opportunity for relaxation.
Materials
materials were selected for their reduced impact
on health, and recycled materials (e.g. soy bean panels)
were selected to reduce the use of primary materials.
Energy
The building is naturally ventilated, is well insulated and
requires minimal heating.
PVs are integrated in the roof light glazing over the toilets
Natural light is available everywhere and is controllable, by
means of window blinds, to suit external light levels and the
need for privacy.
Water
Low flush WCs and aerated taps were installed.
The minimal driveway and paved areas and the predominance of planted
surfaces on the site minimise rainwater run-off.
Producing Food on Site
Hockerton Housing Project
Southwell, UK

The Hockerton Housing project is a completely carbon


zero, pollution free community, proving some of the
most energy efficient housing in the UK & Europe.
perfect example of how eco-communities can exist side
by side local wildlife habitats.
All eco-houses generate their own energy, provide own
water supply through rainwater harvesting and recycle
any waste produced.
Recycled waste products are then turned into compost
and used to regenerate the vegetation and local
woodland
eco-friendly setting marvel at the ingenious energy
saving technology -
solar hot water system,

wind-powered electricity,
Green roofs, water harvesting
compost toilets, photovoltaics
1. Bike shelter
2. Vegetable patch
3. Duck pond
4. The bund
5. The reservoir
6. Sand filter
7. Standing stones
8. Hockerton homes
9. Eco roof
10. Sump and septic
tank

11. Gardens
12. Sustainable resource
13. Wind turbine
14. Iskra wind turbine
15. The pond
16. Bridge sculpture
17. The lake
18. Reed fed treating systems
19. Compost bins
20. Orchard and beehive
1.Bike Shelter In the start of the
housing, cabin is made from Green
Oak 5. The reservoir water is collected
from nearby fields and gardens
,collected in sump then pumped to
2.Vegitable Patch Several the reservoir non drinking purpose
vegetables grown in poly tunnel
,using organic and perm culture
principle

3.Duck Pond valuable water


source for the organic land. Water
is collected from drainage systems
on local barn roofs and pumps 6. Sand Filter water from
water to a holding tank, in the reservoir is passed through these
center before using it.

4. The Bund Soil excavated


from lake used to create bunds,
helps reduce noise pollution and
also creates a basin for reservoir
7. Standing stones- stones 11. Gardens
were placed to mark the Every house has private
gardends recreational
original medieval site of purpose or to grow organic
the village. products
8. Rear view of
Hockerton homes

9.The Eco roof-


Photovoltaic cells on the
12. Sustainable Resource
southern side harvest the suns Centre -an area where exhibitions
energy ,generates energy to the could take place and also hosting a
house project office

10.The Sump & Septic Tank


Waste from the houses enters the
13. Wind Turbine-
septic tank and eventually after a
period Generates 6000kwhrs of
of settlement is deposited into a wind energy to homes
floating reed bed
14.Iskra Wind Turbine-
18.Reed Fed treating
Generates similar amount ,goes
for powering sustainable
system treats the outflow
resources taken from the septic tanks
(Electric car) through a highly active eco-
system , bacteria in the water
gets a plentiful supply of
15. The Pond natural pond is oxygen from the reeds, this
fish free, attract many in turn is able to digest the
invertebrates such as dragonfly, pathogens within the
provides moisture for aquatic sewage. Water is tested on
(marginal) plants regular basis an always
meets bathing water quality.
16. Bridge Sculpture 19. compost bins-
connects 2 sides of the lake , resulting compost is
built from reclaimed wood , used to grow
access from the centre to open vegetables and grow
space for events vegetation.
20. The Orchard & Bee Hive
The apple trees benifit from being
17. The Lake used for fish
pollonated by the bees and the trees
farming (crap and rudd)and
provided nectar & pollen for the
boating , base for
bees. Nature working in Harmony
Reed fed sewage treating system