ecc implement

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ecc implement

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in Finite Fields

F={1,2,3,,p-1}

Pick secret,

Pick secret, random Y from F

random X from F

gx mod p

gy mod p

Alice Bob

Compute k=(gy)x=gxy mod p

Compute k=(gx)y=gxy mod p

Eve has to compute gxy from gx and gy without knowing x and y

She faces the Discrete Logarithm Problem in finite fields

Elliptic Curve on a finite set of

Integers

Consider y2=x3+2x+3(mod5)

x=0y2=3nosolution(mod5)

x=1y2=6=1y=1,4(mod5)

x=2y2=15=0y=0(mod5)

x=3y2=36=1y=1,4(mod5)

x=4y2=75=0y=0(mod5)

Then points on the elliptic curve are

(1,1)(1,4)(2,0)(3,1)(3,4)(4,0)

and the point at infinity:

Using the finite fields we can form an Elliptic Curve Group

where we also have a DLP problem which is harder to solve

Definition of Elliptic curves

An elliptic curve over a field K is a nonsingular

cubic curve in two variables, f(x,y) =0 with a

rational point (which may be a point at infinity).

numbers, reals, rationals, algebraic extensions

of rationals, p-adic numbers, or a finite field.

examined with the underlying fields of Fp (where

p>3 is a prime) and F2m (a binary representation

with 2m elements).

Generic Procedures of ECC

Both parties agree to some publicly-known data items

The elliptic curve equation

values of a and b

prime, p

The elliptic group computed from the elliptic curve equation

A base point, B, taken from the elliptic group

Similar to the generator used in current cryptosystems

Each user generates their public/private key pair

Private Key = an integer, x, selected from the interval [1, p-1]

Public Key = product, Q, of private key and base point

(Q = x*B)

Example Elliptic Curve

Cryptosystem Analog to El Gamal

Suppose Alice wants to send to Bob an encrypted

message.

Both agree on a base point, B.

Alice and Bob create public/private keys.

Alice

Private Key = a

Public Key = PA = a * B

Bob

Private Key = b

Public Key = PB = b * B

Alice takes plaintext message, M, and encodes it onto a

point, PM, from the elliptic group

Example Elliptic Curve

Cryptosystem Analog to El Gamal

Alice chooses another random integer, k from the interval

[1, p-1]

The ciphertext is a pair of points

PC = [ (kB), (PM + kPB) ]

from PC and his private key, b

b * (kB)

Bob then takes this product and subtracts it from the

second point from PC

(PM + kPB) [b(kB)] = PM + k(bB) b(kB) = PM

Bob then decodes PM to get the message, M.

Example Compare to El Gamal

The ciphertext is a pair of points

PC = [ (kB), (PM + kPB) ]

The ciphertext in El Gamal is also a pair.

C = (gk mod p, mPBk mod p)

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bob then takes this product and subtracts it from the

second point from PC

(PM + kPB) [b(kB)] = PM + k(bB) b(kB) = PM

In El Gamal, Bob takes the quotient of the second

value and the first value raised to Bobs private value

m = mPBk / (gk)b = mgk*b / gk*b = m

Diffie-Hellman (DH) Key Exchange

ECC Diffie-Hellman

Public: Elliptic curve and point B=(x,y) on curve

Secret: Alices a and Bobs b

a(x,y)

b(x,y)

Alice, A Bob, B

Bob computes b(a(x,y))

These are the same since ab = ba

Example Elliptic Curve

Diffie-Hellman Exchange

Alice and Bob want to agree on a shared key.

Alice and Bob compute their public and private keys.

Alice

Private Key = a

Public Key = PA = a * B

Bob

Private Key = b

Public Key = PB = b * B

Alice and Bob send each other their public keys.

Both take the product of their private key and the other users public

key.

Alice KAB = a(bB)

Bob KAB = b(aB)

Shared Secret Key = KAB = abB

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