You are on page 1of 54

MEUW/WI REC 2017

Joint Superintendent's Conference


GPS Inventory, GIS Practices
&
Asset Management
Sarah Pink
Power System Engineering, Inc.
www.powersystem.org
January 19, 2017

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.


Agenda
# Topic
1 State of Industry
2 Present State - GPS Inventory
3 Present State - GIS Practices
4 Present State - Asset Management System
5 Hybrid System Next Steps

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 2


State of the Industry
The world is moving toward a digital model and real-
time information at the click of button.
This trend has been developing in the Utility Sector
since the introduction of the Smart Grid.
The idea isnt new however understanding the real
need and value that real-time data has to the bottom
line has become a new fact and target that should be in
the path for all Smart Grid owners.

(1) Image
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 3
Agenda
# Topic
1 State of Industry
2 Present State - GPS Inventory
3 Present State - GIS Practices
4 Present State - Asset Management System
5 Hybrid System Next Steps

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 4


Present State - GPS Inventory

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 5


GPS Inventory Present State
Research estimates that 60% of all electric utility employees work
in the field on assets that have spatial attributes. It also points out
that managing a field workforce is a significant challenge, when
data including location about assets in the field are missing or
incorrect(3).
Today data comes from smart meters, smart electronic devices, and
the unstructured data like Google, Facebook and other social
applications. At a residential level GPS data is already being
captured and the future could be shifted to focus at the consumer
level for geospatial technology (all GPS-enabled sensors) to enable
bundled waves of data and information about electric power
networks to be captured all of which involves GPS location.
It is forecasted that the utility GIS market will grow at 12.8%,
increasing from $1.8 billion in 2011 to $3.7 billion in 2017(2).

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 6


GPS Inventory Impacts Unearthed
According to American Public Works Association, in the United
States an underground utility line is hit on average every 60
seconds.
The total cost to the national economy is estimated to be in the
billions of dollars per year. In most municipalities in North
America, 2D as-builts of underground infrastructure are notoriously
unreliable(4). The result is that in most municipalities the location of
underground utilities is very poorly known. A number of studies
have concluded that the ROI of improving the accuracy of location
of underground infrastructure is significant, with estimates of the
benefits ranging as high as $21 for every dollar invested.
The volume of data generated by smart grid networks is estimated
to be 10,000 times greater than that of our existing electrical
networks(10,14).

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 7


GPS Inventory Impacts Flooding In
According to the American Water Works Association
(AWWA): The cost of repairing and expanding the United
States drinking water infrastructure will total more than $1
trillion between 2011-2035 and exceed $1.7 trillion by
2050(9).
The need will double from about $13 billion a year in 2012 to
almost $30 billion (in 2010 dollars) annually by the 2040's(9).
The $1 trillion estimate covers buried drinking water assets only (9).
The number of water main breaks across the country, from
Syracuse to Los Angeles, is staggering: 240,000 per year, according
to one estimate(5). The direct cost of these leaks is pegged at $2.6
billion per year(6).

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 8


GPS Inventory Example Summary
GPS Inventory Summary
Attribute In GIS Notes Secondary, Under-build and Service In
Poles NOTES
Conductor GIS
Type (Primary or Secondary) NO Placement (OH or UG) NO
Height and class (e.g. Pole 45 class 3). Pole Type of Conductor (XLP, EPR, PE,
material shall also be included in format if material YES
ACSR, AAC, CU, T2, Duplex, Triplex or NO
is other than wood
Utility Construction Units (e.g. A1, C1-3 C2-2, etc.).
Quadplex)
A list of pole construction units with descriptions YES Installation Detail (Describes the type
shall be provided. installation-Secondary, Service or NO
Attachments? YES Under-build)
Photo Link YES Manufacturer/Serial Number NO
Owner YES Date of Manufacture NO
Joint Use? Entities attached to pole YES In-service date NO
Birthmark? Age of Manufacture? YES Splice Count? Splice location(s)? Age
Date of Installation NO NO
of Splice(s)?
Pole inspection year, (e.g. inspection tag. If no tag
NO Date of Last preventative main.
is present then 0000) NO
Comments (note missing guy markers, etc.) NO inspection
Primary Conductor Photo Link NO
Placement (OH or UG) YES Feeder ID NO
Type of Conductor (XLP, EPR, PE, ACSR, AAC, CU, T2) YES Phase & Configuration (Phase Code A,
Manufacturer/Serial Number NO
NO
B, C, AB AC, BC, OR ABC)
Date of Manufacture NO Rated Operation Voltage NO
In-service date NO In-Service Energized Voltage NO
Splice Count? Splice location(s)? Age of Splice(s)? NO
Conductor/Cable Size NO
Date of Last preventative main. inspection NO
Photo Link NO
Conductor Rated ampacity NO
Feeder ID YES In-service energized ampacity NO
Phase & Configuration (Phase Code A, B, C, AB AC, Enabled (True if closed and False
YES NO
BC, OR ABC) if Normal Open Point exists)
Rated Operation Voltage YES Parallels Bundles- Multi-Run (Number
In-Service Energized Voltage YES of conductor runs paralleled for NO
Conductor/Cable Size YES secondary installations)
Conductor Rated ampacity NO Point Ground? Location of Point
In-service energized ampacity NO NO
Ground?
Comments YES
Comments NO

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 9


GPS Inventory Example Summary
Consumers In GIS Notes
Utility Meter Number (found on the faceplate
YES
of the meter)
Location Number YES
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Meter Install Date NO
provided
Meter Form (found on the faceplate of the Maybe found in supporting documentation not
NO
meter) provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Meter Last Service Date NO
provided
Customer ID or Name YES
Comments YES
Lights
Type Light fixture (Security, Street, Mongoose, Maybe found in supporting documentation not
NO
Decorative, LED, WA) provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Owner NO
provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Light identifier (when available) NO
provided
Wattage (Size of bulb: 48, 73, 100, 150, 175, Maybe found in supporting documentation not
NO
250, 400, 1000 or unknown) provided
Lamp Type (S=Sodium, MH=Metal Halide, Maybe found in supporting documentation not
NO
MV=Mercury Vapor or LED) provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Historical Date of Fixture (DOB, DOS) NO
provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Photo Link NO
provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Comments NO
provided
Pedestals, Cabinets and Vaults
Phase & Configuration (Phase Code A, B, C, AB Maybe found in supporting documentation not
NO
AC, BC, OR ABC) provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Type (Fiberglass, Concrete, Fibercrete) NO
provided
Tag/Device Number YES
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Map-number NO
provided
Maybe found in supporting documentation not
Feeder
2016 ID Engineering, Inc.
Power System NO
provided 10
Big Data Needed
GPS Inventory must be completed
If you dont know what you have how can you plan for
replacement?
If you dont know what you have how can you plan for
service?
If you dont know what you have how can you
confidently insure it is safe to operate on the system?
If you dont know what you have how can you have a
smart grid?

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 11


Low GPS Inventory Solutions
Esris Collector application allows you to utilize any smart device
to do a field inventory with real-time editing in the field and
location based off the GPS signal from the device you are using.

Improve your data quality with easy-to-use map-driven forms while you
collect and update information in the field and users can take the maps/data
offline to sync changes when connected
Supports - iOS, Android, and Windows 10
Achieve data collection with ensured spatial accuracy for critical assets
No need for expensive GPS inventory equipment & minimal training need to
operate
Photos can be captured with the mobile device
Updates can be reviewed if preferred and approved for additions to the GIS
are automated
(8) Image & Application Information
Data quality + visible information = Reduced Expense
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 12
Agenda
# Topic
1 State of Industry
2 Present State - GPS Inventory
3 Present State - GIS Practices
4 Present State - Asset Management System
5 Hybrid System Next Steps

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 13


Present State - GIS Practices
(9) Image

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 14


GIS Present - Purpose
The main purpose of most GIS platforms is to determine
spatial relationships. Location, location and locationthis
then allows you to link and automate routine tasks to
ideally; simplify workflows and business processes.
Display Information
Perform Analysis
Develop Applications
Provide Solutions
Take it to the Field
Make it Accessible on the Web
Create Maps
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 15
GIS Present - Practices
Most GIS databases are updated at different rates. It is
extremely common for the utility to experience deferred
data maintenance and update of the GIS(10,14).
Why is this bad???
Although redlines or mark ups have been recorded on paper field
maps, they have not been entered into the GIS and thus, render the
GIS data obsolete, untimely updates of the GIS are often the result
of delayed work order completion and closeout, and also due to
inefficient business process and technology alignment.
Data quality also suffers when the GIS has data, but it does not
represent the actual system in the field. Location or GPS
inaccuracy, these issues are often the result of misaligned design/
build process and poor communication with field crews.

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 16


GIS Present - Processes
Redundancies with other systems are common: data is captured in
many systems by different staff, the likelihood of inconsistency is
high. Storing similar data in multiple systems require duplicate data
entry which is usually inefficient and confusing(10,14).
Since most GIS platforms were developed with the plan to mostly
focus on location of the attributes in the platform, the system as a
whole typically has large Data Gaps related to the actual details
about the asset features (major pieces of equipment). This is
typically either an error carried from initial conversion or through
incomplete maintenance.
Gaps can be geographic or non-geographic.
Data which have not been collected and therefore limit the utilitys
knowledge of field facilities.

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 17


Optimal Aligned GIS Route to AMS
For optimal alignment with the GPS Inventory and the
AMS, the GIS must become more than the System of
Record for Location and instead must become, an
Intelligent GIS Data Location Model (16). Other (Field, PM); 17%

Shared Serv.; 8%
Eng.; 17%

IT; 8% Ops.; 25%

What does this mean?


G IS Tech.; 25%

Clear GIS data ownership & access rights.


Defined link with other business areas.
Developed processes and practices to fill asset feature data
gaps.
Processes to correlate multiple data sources: Creating a single
source of GIS data with reduced duplicated data entry.
Fully implemented work process to enable efficient and
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 18
Example of Intelligent GIS Details
Forecast Capital budget needs Service
Create & manage capital Projects Customer
Portal
Requests
Analyze "what-if scenarios Document & Track
Service
Reporting
Request Requests for action
Eternal or internal record
Planning
Forecasts
Work Order

Assets Work
Requests
ArcGIS Server
Projects
Maps Employees
Faculties Fleet
Non-spatial Assets Create & Track W.O.s
Manage Time, $, labor
and Eq.
Risk-Based Risk Inventory
Manage QTY., $, &
AMS location for inventory
Track condition, depreciation and value. Valuation Condition
Analyze and prioritize consequences of Information Source: (12)
failure.
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 19
Inspections Simplified
Esris Survey123 app. for ArcGIS speeds up the collection
process with predefined questions that use logic and provide
easy-to-fill answers, embedded audio and images, and offer
multiple languages that can be customized with the included
templates in an XLS spreadsheet format.

Data captured in Survey123 for ArcGIS is immediately available


in the ArcGIS Platform to optimize your field operations,
understand your data and make the best decisions, and
communicate and share your work.

(15) Information & Image


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 20
Agenda
# Topic
1 State of Industry
2 Present State - GPS Inventory
3 Present State - GIS Practices
4 Present State - Asset Management System
5 Hybrid System Next Steps

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 21


Asset Management Review

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 22


AMS Present State Conditions
Aging infrastructure
Diminishing technical knowledge in labor pool
Larger and more sophisticated facilities
Loss of system experts with personnel retirements
Public resistance to rate increases
Increase in operational costs
Increase in demand & cost for major equipment
with longer lead-times
Increase in requirements to monitor assets
Limited availability to increase funds to adapt
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 23
AMS Present State Resulting Trends
An analysis done by GE in 2015 stated that; asset
performance management is the single most
valuable initiative for the electricity industry over
the next 10 years, at an estimated value of $387
billion (18).
Transition from building and operating to managing
assets
Extending asset life
Optimizing maintenance and renewal
Developing accurate long-term funding strategies
Sustain long term performance
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 24
Asset Management 101
You know you need an asset management system.
Everyone keeps telling you.
Better cared-for systems
Fewer unplanned service
disruptions
Confidence about what you
own
Extend the life of assets
More effective scheduled
maintenance
Better budget estimates
(capital and operations)
(17) Information & Image Source
Save money
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 25
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 26
Why No Asset Management Yet?
The idea is overwhelming with so much to do
Now is not the right time
I dont know enough about it
We dont have enough staff
You need really expensive software for that
I need to hire someone with expertise
I dont see the value
We are doing fine now, so why change?
Our other projects are more important

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 27


Different Approaches to Asset Management
Approach Method Applicability Comparison
Non-critical assets with 10X plus when
Reactive Run to failure and then repair
low impact from failure failure occurs
Service in a fixed time or Failures increase with age 2X maintenance
Preventive
cycle interval or usage costs
Monitor process data, identify Simple systems where
1X maintenance
Predictive (condition monitoring) bad trends, & alert prior to single variable math
failure predicts a failure costs
Complex systems where Unscheduled
Equipment-specific data
Proactive (analytics & multiple multiple variables and
variables)
acquisition W/algorithms,
analytics can predict
downtime approach
analytics, &/or a model es zero
failure
Source : http://www.arcweb.com/Blog/Post/260/Proactive-Asset-Management-with-IIoT-and-Analytics?_cldee=Y2h1ZHNvbkBpbnN0ZXBzb2Z0d2FyZS5jb20%3d

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 28


Top Management Decisions
1. What are my work crews doing, where are they doing it
and why?
2. What Capital Improvement Plan (CIP) projects should
be doneand when?
3. When should I repair, when should I rehabilitate, and
when should I replace?
These decisions typically account for over 80% of a
utilitys annual expenditures..

(17) Source
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 29
Decisions with AMS Deployed
Operational recommendations can be generated in real time by
using data captured from connected devices, plant equipment
and sensors, and applying algorithms to this data.
Plant managers can immediately identify actions that decrease
production costs, and can predict and prevent unplanned
downtime.
Engineers can be more productive by making better-informed
decisions; this can eventually lead to a smaller, more skilled
workforce.
Overall, real-time analytics help a business better
understand the trade-off between asset life and revenue
generation, as there may be times when it makes sense to
work a machine harder if a generator can take advantage of
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 30
Five Core AMS Questions
1. What is the current state of my assets?
What do I own?
Where is it?
What condition is it in? What is its performance?
What is its remaining useful life?
What is its remaining economic value?
2. What is my required level of service (LOS)?
What is the demand for my services by my stakeholders?
What do regulators require (if anything)?
What is my actual performance?
3. Which assets are critical to sustained performance?
How does it fail? How can it fail?
What is the likelihood of failure?
What does it cost to repair?
What are the consequences of failure?
4. What are my best O&M and CIP investment strategies?
What alternative management options exist?
Which are the most feasible for my organization?
5. What is my best long-term funding strategy?
(17) Source
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 31
AMS Planning Process

Determine
Develo Assess Determin Set Target
Life Cycle &
p Asset Performance, e Levels of
Replacemen
Failure Residual Service
t Costs
Registr Modes Life (LOS)
y

Determine Optimize Optimize Determin


Build
Business O&M Capital e
AM
Risk Investmen Investmen Funding
Plan
(Criticality) t t Strategy

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
AMS Planning Process Defined
System Condition Demand Anal.;
Expected
Layout; Data Assessment Valuation; Balanced
Life Tables;
Hierarchy, Protocol; Life Cycle Scorecard;
Decay
Standards, Rating Costing Perform.
Curves
and Inventory Methodologies Metrics

Determine
Develo Assess Determin Set Target
Life Cycle &
p Asset Performance e Levels of
Replacemen
Failure Residual Service
t Costs
Registr Modes Life (LOS)
y

Determine Optimize Optimize Determin


Build
Business O&M Capital e
AM
Risk Investmen Investmen Funding
Plan
(Criticality) t t Strategy

FMECA; Root Confidence Asset Mgmt


Business Cause; Level Rating; Renewa Plan; Policies
Risk Exp.; RCM; PdM; Strategic l and Strategy;
Delphi ORDM Validation; Annuity Annual Budget
Techniques B/C ORDM
Analysis

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
Asset Management A Framework

Asset Management can be thought of as an


object - a box or framework

Fragile!!!
This Box Contains

Asset Management

Lots of Assembly
Required

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
Inside the AM framework

Business Risk Exposure

Condition Assessment
Fragile!!!
This Box Contains

Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Asset Management

Lots of Assembly
Required

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
Inside the AM framework

Business Risk Exposure

Condition Assessment
Fragile!!!
This Box Contains

Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Asset Management

Lots of Assembly
Required

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
Inside the AM framework

Business Risk Exposure

Condition Assessment
Fragile!!!
This Box Contains

Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Asset Management

Lots of Assembly
Required

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
The AMS Facts
The incentive is clear: the US Department of Energy
found that 75% of breakdowns are eliminated by energy
companies that have implemented predictive
maintenance (19).
Industry Value at Risk (20)

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 38


Understanding the Past
Experience indicates
Failure can be subjected to systematic study a science
30-70% of equipment maintenance activity is typically misdirected
and it is not cost effectively deterring failure
From the science of failure - tools for proactive
management
Root cause analysis
Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis (FMECA)
Condition-based monitoring, failure/survival curves
Predictive maintenance (PdM)
Proactive maintenance (zero breakdown, reliability centered
maintenance, total productive maintenance)
(17)
Reliability centered
Information & Image Source management (design, O&M)
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 39
How Assets Fail

(13) Image

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 40


Managing Asset Deterioration

Excellen

Initial design capability


t

Managed asset
Performanc

deterioration
curve
Managemen
t zone
e

Minimal performance Inherent asset


level deterioratio
Poor

n curve

Decreasing
Increasing Tim
Failure isthe inability of any asset to doe what users want it do to.
-John Moubray

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 41
Monitoring Performance is a Key to Reliability

Excellen

Decay curve
t

Vibration
Performanc

Oil loss

Noise
e

Heat
Poor

Failur
Decreasin Increasin
g Tim e g
e

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 42
Plan for the Future
Failure mode-based management logic
Failure
s

Are Are Not


Significan Significan
t t

Cannot Be Can Be Preventio


Prevented by Prevented by n
Maintenance Maintenance Effective?

Yes No
Redesign, Schedule
Repair &
Replace, for
Monitor
Overhaul Maintenanc
e

Run to
Failure,
Repair

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 43
Agenda
# Topic
1 State of Industry
2 Present State - GPS Inventory
3 Present State - GIS Practices
4 Present State - Asset Management System
5 Hybrid System Next Steps

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 44


GPS, GIS and Asset Management
The industry demands unprecedented levels of visibility, safety and
reduced risk, allowing utility operators to make informed decisions
ahead of time. Tools to meet the demand are a priority
1. Intelligent GIS Data
First gather GPS field inventory data missing in the GIS (required regardless
of AMS implementation selected from below)
Develop a process to maintain appropriate field inventory data features in the
future
2. Asset Management Choices for Users
Choice A: Asset Management system from a Tier 1 vendor at a cost of ~ $2
million.
Choice B: Further leverage the GIS further, install the new AMS focused Esri
extensions, create canned quarries, templates and other database search
programs at a much lower cost versus an AMS.
Consider the following: Choice B will cost millions less but will require internal resources
needed to develop and implement. Also B may have limited tools for automated mining of
risk with data unlike A.
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 45
Tier 1 AMS Solution VS Extensions in GIS

(Beta is available)
(Beta is available)

(Can be linked to external data file)


(Can be manually done with data)

(Can be linked to external data file)

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 46


Determine What to do Now
What is probability of failure?
What is consequence of failure?
B High probability-
Low consequence D High probability-
High consequence
Probability

Business risk drives work


program (O&M, CIP)
A Low probability-
Low consequence
Low probability-
C High consequence
Low
Low High
Consequence

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 47
The Big Picture Data Based Decisions Real Savings
Risk-Consequence Level of Growth (New
Service Assets)
Augmentation

Custome Capita System


r l Renewal

System
Cost of
Improvements
Service
(Environmental,
LOS)
O& Maintenance
Where savings develop from M Program
Efficiency gains
Operations
Cost avoidance (defer, eliminate, reduce) and
Cost effectiveness and redirection Administration

According to the EPA: From assessment of advanced GIS


management with AMS practices, 20-30% future life cycle cost
savings typically is achievable.
(17) Information & Image Source
2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 48
Five Core AMS Questions = Ten AMS Process Plan

2. What is my
1. What is the current state of my assets? required level of
service?
Determine
Develo Assess Determin Set Target
Life Cycle &
p Asset Performance, e Levels of
Replacemen
Failure Residual Service
t Costs
Registr Modes Life (LOS)
y

Determine Optimize Optimize Determin


Build
Business O&M Capital e
AM
Risk Investmen Investmen Funding
Plan
(Criticality) t t Strategy

3. Which assets 4. What are my best O&M 5. What is my best long-


are critical and CIP investment term funding
to sustained strategies? strategy?
performance? Decision Making

(17) Information & Image Source


2016 Power System Engineering, Inc.
GIS/AMS Benefits VS Costs

C Complete step A and also purchase an AMS

Complete step A but also add several


Cost

B new Esri Extensions and Internally Built


Logic for Asset Management improvement

Benefits of Just Updating the Field


Inventory and then making just small
A
improvements with updated asset
condition features in the GIS database.

Amount of Benefits (ROI)

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 50


What Next???

AMS Takes several years of detailed,


nitty-gritty work to fully deploy
Requires eventual buy-in
commitment of the whole
organization
Needs upfront investment to get
started, with hidden returns for
initial years

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 51


Question/Comments

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 52


Power System Engineering, Inc.

Sarah Pink
Manager of SmartGrid Applications
Direct: 608-268-3515
Email: pinks@powersystem.org
Thank You
Website: www.powersystem.org

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 53


References
F. Gens, "IDC FutureScape: Worldwide IT Industry 2016 Predictions, Leading Digital Transformation to Scale," IDC Worldwide IT Industry 2016
[1]
Predictions Team, 2016.
[2] "Between the Poles," Geospatial World, Page 26, 2014.
[3] "Smart Grid as a Service," Navigant Research, 2016.
[4] G. Zeiss, "Geolocating Underground Utility Infrastructure," GIS Interest Group Webcast, 2016.

American Society of Civil Engineers, "2013 report card for Americas infrastructure," 5 2013. [Online]. Available:
[5]
http://www.infrastructurereportcard.org/drinking-water/. [Accessed 10 11 2016].
C. Sabol, "The State of Water in America,," Earth Institute, Columbia University, 22 3 2011. [Online]. Available:
[6]
http://ei.columbia.edu/2011/03/22/water-in-america-2/.. [Accessed 4 10 2016].
[7] https://datarecovery:recoverfilesfromacorruptusbdrive.com, Artist, [Art].
[8] "Esri ArcGIS Collector," Esri, 5 2 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.esri.com/products/collector-for-arcgis. [Accessed 20 10 2016].
[9] GIS in Asset Management:. [Art]. AWWA, 2016.
[10] "Data Dependencies of GIS, 2014," Electric Power Research Institute, 2016.
[11] https://www.utilityservice.com/images/GIS_Image.jpg, Artist, GIS Image. [Art]. 2016.
[12] T. Wesp, "GIS and Risk in AMS," Esri, 2015.
[13] Esri, "Arcadius Study : GIS and Risk Analysis in Asset Management," Esri, 2015.
[14] EPRI, "Data Dependencies of GIS PS161C - Information and Communication Technology for Distribution Systems," EPRI, 2016.
[15] Esri, "Survey123," Esri, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.esri.com/products/survey123. [Accessed 5 12 2016].
[16] Esri, "What is GIS?," Esri, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.esri.com/what-is-gis. [Accessed 5 11 2016].
[17] EPA, "Overview of AMS," EPA.GOV, 2016.
Powering the Future: Leading the Digital Transformation of the Power Industry, 2015.Available: http://www.ge.com/digital/stories/Customer-Story-
[18]
Powering-the-Future-Leading-the-Digital-Transformation-of-the-Power-Industrysuggests [Accessed 11 4 216].
US Department of Energy, Federal Energy Management Program, Operations & Maintenance Best Practices: A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency,
[19]
Release 3.0, August 2010.http://www1.eere.energy.gov/femp/pdfs/omguide_complete.pdf
[20] World Economic Forum, 2016: Accenture analysis

2016 Power System Engineering, Inc. 54