BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE

Prepared By Shaival J. Parekh

What is Brain Computer Interface?
Brain-computer-interface is technique that how human brain communicate with the computer. So one communication between Brain and computer is a Electroencephalography, (Electric brain activity)(EEG)

Human Brain:
Human Brain can be divided into main 4 parts: cerebral cortex cerebellum brain stem hypothalamus and thalamus.

Cerebral cortex is responsible for many ³higher order´ functions like

1) Problem solving, language 2) Comprehension 3) Complex visual information

Electroencephalography (EEG)
Electroencephalography (EEG) is a method used in measuring the electrical activity of the brain. Cerebral cortex is generate an electrical signal

The electrical activity goes on continuously in every living human¶s brain. We may sleep. one third of our life times, but the brain never rests. Even when one is unconscious the brain remains active.

Electroencephalography (EEG) has several properties that are use in the Brain Computer Interface

Properties of EEG
Rhythmic brain activity Event-related potentials (ERPs) Event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS).

Rhythmic brain activity
It is Frequency measure in EEG,According to fre. It divide into 4 part

Delta :
Frequency is <3.5 In adult only seen in deep sleep

Theth:
Frequency is 4 - 7.5 Hz. Theta rhythm plays an important role in infancy and childhood. In normal adults theta waves are seen mostly in states of drowsiness and sleep.

Alpha: Frequency 8-13 Hz occurring during wakefulness Best seen with eyes closed and under conditions of physical relaxation

Mu:

Frequency is around 10 Hz Mu stands for motor and the mu rhythm is strongly related to the functions of the motor cortex so It mostly used in BCI.

Event-related potentials (ERPs)
Event-related potentials is a common title for the potential changes in the EEG that occur in response to a particular ³event´ or a stimulus As we see the KARZ film when dun is start we see the graph of mind is very up & down

We see in the figure when any stimulus is occur we see vast change in the graph

This(ERP) removes the ³random´ fluctuations of the EEG, which are not stimulus-locked.

Event-related desynchronization (ERD) & Event-related synchronization (ERS).
1. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) is an amplitude attenuation of a certain EEG rhythm Event-related synchronization (ERS) is an amplitude enhancement of a certain EEG rhythm

2.

Measuring the EEG signal
Electrode Configurations The Montages Impedance Filters Sensitivity Artifacts

The Adaptive Brain Interface (ABI)

Acquisition system: Measuring the EEG signal and Learn the electrode configurations activity Feature extraction The extracted features are power spectrum density components in the frequency band of 830 Hz .

Feature classification : The ABI is based on the mutual learning process where the system and the user adapt to each other . The system learns to classify each user¶s individual EEG patterns generated during the mental tasks.This is made possible by neural network classifier which learns these userspecific patterns.

Bio Feedback: The user may choose the mental tasks he or she uses and the strategies to undertake those mental tasks ( e.g., thinking of moving a finger, the hand or the whole arm ). The learning process can be enhanced with feedback.

Application

In figures are shown some of the current applications of the ABI system. The first one is a virtual keyboard designed as an example of a communication channel for disabled people. The keyboard quite simple, a letter is selected by dividing the keyboard to three segments with each selection until only a selected letter remains.

One live use of BCI system we see Physicist Stephen Hawking. He is working on the Brain Computer Interface. So we can get new way from him .

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