logic families

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logic families

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Introduction

Logic Family Definition

A circuit configuration or approach used

to produce a type of digital integrated

circuit.

Consequence: different logic functions,

when fabricated in the form of an IC with

the same approach, or in other words

belonging to the same logic family, will

have identical electrical characteristics.

the set of digital ICs belonging to the

same logic family are electrically

compatible with each other

2

Common Characteristics of

the Same Logic Family

Supply voltage range, speed of

response, power dissipation, input

and output logic levels, current

sourcing and sinking capability, fan-

out, noise margin, etc.

Consequence: choosing digital ICs

from the same logic family

guarantees that these ICs are

compatible with respect to each other

and that the system as a whole

performs the intended logic function.

3

Types of Logic Family 1

The entire range of digital ICs is

fabricated using either bipolar

devices or MOS devices or a

combination of the two.

Bipolar families:

Diode logic (DL). (obsolete)

Resistor transistor logic (RTL). (obsolete)

Diode transistor logic (DTL). (obsolete)

Transistor Transistor logic (TTL).

Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL), also known

as Current Mode Logic(CML).

Integrated Injection logic (I2L). (obsolete)

4

Types of Logic Family 2

MOS families:

PMOS family (using P-channel

MOSFETs)

The NMOS family (using N-

channel MOSFETs)

The CMOS family (using both N-

and P-channel devices).

The Bi-MOS logic family uses both

bipolar and MOS devices.

5

DL Example

6

RTL Example

7

DTL Example

8

TTL Subfamilies

9

CMOS Sub families

4000A

4000B, 4000UB,

54/74C, 54/74HC, 54/74HCT,

54/74AC and 54/74ACT(TTL pin

compatible)

10

Characteristic Parameters

1

HIGH-level input current, IIH (current flowing

into (taken as positive) or out of (taken as negative)

an input when a HIGH-level input voltage equal to

the minimum HIGH-level output voltage specified

for the family is applied.

LOW-level input current, IIL. is the maximum

current flowing into (taken as positive) or out of

(taken as negative) the input of a logic function

when the voltage applied at the input equals the

maximum LOW-level output voltage specified for

the family.

unit load (UL) HIGH-level and LOW-level input

current or loading typically found in data sheets

(For devices of the TTL family, 1 UL (HIGH)=40 A

and 1 UL (LOW)=1.6 mA. 11

Characteristic Parameters

2

HIGH-level output current, IOH. This is the

maximum current flowing out of an output

when the input conditions are such

that the output is in the logic HIGH

state. Typically negative number.

LOW-level output current, IOL. This is the

output pin of a logic function when

the input conditions are such that

the output is in the logic LOW state.

12

Characteristic Parameters

3

HIGH-level off-state (high-impedance state)

This is the current

output current, IOZH.

flowing into an output of a tristate

logic function with the ENABLE input

chosen so as to establish a high-

impedance state and a logic HIGH

voltage level applied at the output.

The input conditions are chosen so

as to produce logic LOW if the device

is enabled.

13

Input and output current

specifications

14

Characteristic Parameters

4

LOW-level This is the

input voltage, VIL.

maximum voltage level applied at

the input that is recognized as a

legal LOW level for the specified

family.

HIGH-level output voltage, VOH. This is

pin of a logic function when the

input conditions establish logic HIGH

at the output for the specified

family. 15

Characteristic Parameters

5

This

HIGH-level output voltage, VOH.

is the minimum voltage on the

output pin of a logic function

when the input conditions

establish logic HIGH at the output

for the specified family.

16

Characteristic Parameters

6

Supply current, ICC. The supply current

when the output is HIGH, LOW and in

the high-impedance state is respectively

designated as ICCH, ICCL and ICCZ.

Rise time, tr. This is the time that elapses

level when the signal is making a

transition from logic LOW to logic HIGH.

Fall time, tf . This is the time that elapses

when it is making HIGH to LOW

transition.

17

Characteristic Parameters

7

Propagation delay tp.

is the time delay

between the occurrence of change in the

logical level at the input and before it is

reflected at the output. It is the time delay

between the specified voltage points on the

input and output waveforms.

Propagation delays are separately defined for

LOW-to-HIGH and HIGH-to-LOW transitions at

the output. In addition, we also define enable

and disable time delays that occur during

transition between the high-impedance state

and defined logic LOW or HIGH states.

18

Characteristic Parameters

8

Maximum clock frequency, fmax. This is the

maximum frequency at which the clock

input of a flip-flop can be driven through

its required sequence while maintaining

stable transitions of logic level at the

output in accordance with the input

conditions and the product specification.

Power dissipation. The power dissipation

terms of power consumption per gate and

is the product of supply voltage VCC and

supply current ICC.

19

Characteristic Parameters

9

Speedpower product. The speed of a logic circuit can

be increased, that is, the propagation delay can be

reduced, at the expense of power dissipation.

Fan-out. is the number of inputs of a logic function

that can be driven from a single output without

causing any false output.

Noise margin. This is a quantitative measure of noise

immunity offered by the logic family. When the

output of a logic device feeds the input of another

device of the same family, a legal HIGH logic state at

the output of the feeding device should be treated as

a legal HIGH logic state by the input of the device

being fed. Similarly, a legal LOW logic state of the

feeding device should be treated as a legal LOW logic

state by the device being fed. 20

Noise MARGIN

21

22

23

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