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# Socket and spigot Cotter joint

## A cotter joint is a temporary fastening and is used to connect

rigidly two co-axial rods or bars which are subjected to axial tensile
or compressive forces without rotation.
COTTER
The taper of usually 1 in 24 is
provided for following two TAPER SIDE
reasons

## 1) when the cotter is

l
inserted in rectangular slot b
through socket and spigot
and pressed by means of t
hammer it become tight due
to wedge action and prevent
loosening of parts

## 2) Due to taper, it is easy to

remove the cotter and
dismantle the joint
Types of Cotter Joints
Following are the three commonly used cotter joints to connect two rods by a cotter:

## Gib and cotter joint

Applications:
1)Joint between the piston rod and the cross
head of the steam engine
2)Joint between the slide spindle and the fork of
the valve mechanism
3)Joint between the piston rod and the tail
4)Connecting two halves of flywheel
5)Foundation Bolt
6)It is used in bicycle to connect pedal to
sprocket wheel.
P = Load carried by the rods,
d = Diameter of the rods,
d 1 = Outside diameter of socket,
d2 = Diameter of spigot or inside diameter of socket,
d3 = Outside diameter of spigot collar,
d 4 = Diameter of socket collar
t = Thickness of cotter, t 1= Thickness of spigot collar,
a = Distance from the end of the slot to the end of rod,
b = Mean width of cotter, c = Thickness of socket collar,
I = Length of cotter,
t= Permissible tensile stress for the rods material,
= Permissible shear stress for the cotter material, and
c = Permissible crushing stress for the cotter material.
Design procedure & Types
ofFailure
1) failureof the rod in tension
Resisting area tearing=(/4)d2

## Equating this to load (P), we have

P=[ (/4) (d)2 ] t

## From this equation, diameter of the rod (d) may be calculated

2) Failure of spigot in tension

## Area resisting tearing

of
the spigot across the
slot
=[ (/4)(d2)2 - (d2)
t ]
Take t= d2/4
Equating this to load (P), we have
P=[ (/4) (d2)2 ] t

## From this equation, diameter of the rod (d2)

& thickness (t) may be calculated
3) Failure of rod end in shear
Since the rod end is in the
double shear.
Therefore area that resists
shearing =2a (d2)

## Equating this to load (P) We get

P=2 a (d2)

From this above equation the thickness of rod end ( a ) may be obtained.
4)Failure of the rod or cotter in
crushing
We know that the area that
resist crushing of the cotter
= (d2) t

P=[(d2) t ] c

## From this equation, the induced crushing stress may be checked.

5) Failure of COTTER IN SHEAR
Since the cotter is in double shear ,
therefore shearing area of the
cotter =2*b*t
And shear strength of the cotter
=2bt

P=2bt

## . From this equation width of cotter

(b) is determined
6) Failure of socket in tension across
the slot
Area resisting to the tearing
of the socket across the slot
=(/4)[(d1)2 - (d2)2 ]-(d2-
d1)t

## Equating this to load (P), we have

P= {(/4)[(d1)2 - (d2)2 ]-(d1-d2)t}( t)

## From this equation, diameter of the rod (d1) may be calculated

7)Failure of spigot collar in shearing

shearing
of the collar
=()(d2)(t1)

P=()(d2)(t1)

## From this equation, diameter of the rod (t1)may be calculated

8) Crushing failure of socket
collar
We know that the area that resist
crushing of the cotter

= =[d4-d2] t

P=[d4-d2] t c

## From this equation, diameter of the socket collar(d4)may be calculated

9) Failure of cotter in bending
The maximum bending moment about at the center of the
cotter and is equal to

MMAX=P/2[1/3(d4-d2)/2+d2/2]- P/2[d2/4]

MMAX=P/2[ (d2/12+d4/6]
Failure of cotter in bending
(continued)
We know that section modulus of the cotter,
Z=tb2/6

b = (M MAX /Z)

## Bending stress induced in the cotter,

b= P/2[ (d2/12+d4/6]/(2tb2 )

## This bending stress induced in the cotter

should be less than the allowable bending stress of the cotter.