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Creating the

Productive Workplace
Professor Derek Clements-
Croome
School of Construction Management and Engineering
The University of Reading
www.derekcroome.c
om
Intelligent Buildings for
Better Health, Well-Being
and Productivity

Derek Clements-Croome
University of Reading

EU Report with Debrecen University 2014

www.derekcroome.com
Environmental Design Affects
Well-Being of People
Architecture is more than the art of constructing individual
buildings. It is also the creation of environment. Buildings do not
exist in isolation. They not only impose their character on their
surroundings but also have an incalculable effect on the lives of
human beings who inhabit them----Conti (1978)

Employers are recognising that good health is a total business


issue, and a lack of it affects work performance ------- Towlers
Watson (2014)

How people feel about their physical surroundings, can impact on


not just mental health and wellbeing, but also physical
disease-------Scottish Government, 2006

I react to the physical and emotional presence of the people who


sit for me-----Lucien Freud (adapted from words quoted in FT 25
Good Health and Well-Being
Lead to Increased
Productivity
Occupants want an enjoyable
experience in their workplace not
just a functional one
Workplaces need to be kind to
peoples health, mood and well-
being
This leads to happier and more
creative and productive people
Beyond Environmental
Comfort
MAT model of behaviour by
Fogg 2008

Behaviour=Motivation x Ability x
Trigger

Trigger
means stimulus or
opportunity
McGraw-Hill(2013) survey of non-

residential property owners found
significant benefits from healthy buildings:
47% a reduction in the cost
of healthcare ranging from
1% to 5%.
66% improved employee
satisfaction
56% lower absenteeism
21% higher employee
productivity.
Direct effects of poorly
performing environments

Lost work hours due to sickness
Inability to reach true operational
potential.
Reduction in gross domestic product
Reduced company profit
A demoralised workforce
Increased Facilities Management costs
Increased staff turnover
Lack of sustainability
US Green Building Council 2003 report Making the
.
Business Case for High Performance Green

Buildings concluded:

higher capital costs are recoverable in a comparatively


short time
integrated design lowers operating costs
better buildings equate to better employee productivity
new appropriate technologies may enhance health and
well-being
healthier buildings can reduce liability
tenants costs can be significantly reduced
property value will increase
communities will notice your efforts
using best practices yields more predictable results,
but remember that occupancy
behaviour affects the performance
respect the landscape and open space near the
World Green Building Council (WGBC ) 2013
Report The Business Case for Green Building
concluded:

Green buildings do not necessarily cost more and


appeal to tenants because they command higher rents
and sale prices.

Operating costs lower because of reduced energy and


water use plus reduced maintenance

Better environments affect employees and lead to


higher staff retention rates

Workplace illnesses and hence absenteeism are


reduced ---whilst well-being is higher than in
conventionally designed offices where high quality
environments have not always been a priority.
There is a need to:

create greater public awareness of the health


impacts of buildings;

increase the focus on better tools and


methodologies to collect data and measure
healthy impacts;

encourage building codes to place increased


emphasis on healthier building practices.

If we only concentrate on energy we are in


danger of neglecting the real purpose of
architecture which is to provide for peoples
well-being.
Environments conducive to health and well-being
and hence creativity and productivity need:

A fresh thermal environment.


Ventilation rates sufficient to provide clean fresh air
with good distribution and acceptable levels of CO2.
Good natural lighting.
No lighting glare.
Acceptable acoustic climate.
Spatial settings to suit various types of working.
Ergonomic workplaces that have been designed to
minimise musculoskeletal disorders.
Landscaped surroundings should be properly
considered as part of the internal and external design.
Minimum pollution from external sources, including
noise.
Metrics in WGBC 2014 Report
Absenteeism
Staff turnover/retention rates
Medical complaints and costs
Physical environment complaints
Self reported attitudes via perception
studies
Physical environment measures

Health, Well-being and Productivity in Offices 2014



Michael Deane, chief sustainability officer for
Turners Green Market Barometer 2014:

While building owners continue to incorporate


green features in buildings to reduce operating
costs, we see more organizations paying
closer attention to the positive impacts of
green buildings on indoor environmental
quality and employee satisfaction and
productivity.We are also seeing, both in our
own work and from the results of the survey,
increased attention to maintaining essential
building operations in the face of extreme
weather events.
Turners Green Market Barometer 2014 300 + owners and
landlords surveyed found:

Outlook for Construction Projects Remains Strong

Continued Importance Placed on Financial Benefits of Green


Buildings
In deciding whether to incorporate green features, financial
considerations were very important. The financial factors most highly
rated were energy efficiency, rental value, operations and
maintenance costs, and occupancy rates.

Attention to Benefits on Employees and Occupants is Increasing


Non-financial factors with highly rated benefits of Green buildings
included health and well-being of occupants, indoor air quality,
employee productivity, impact on brand/reputation, and satisfaction of
employees/occupants. These factors affect ability to attract and retain
talented employees.

Expanding Attention to Water Efficiency


Increased Focus on Building Resiliency
Maintain or quickly resume operations in the event of extreme weather.
Rising Importance of Material and Supply Chain Transparency
Green Building Rating Systems
Conclusions
Concentrate on Value not capital
cost; quality and whole life cost
approach
Use technology selectively
Facilities management process to
cover evaluations of occupants
attitudes; physical measurements
Well-being commitment at Board
level
This is an evolving field as social
Buildings, Environment &
People

Occupant

Internal environment

Building
External environment

Observer / passer by
Integration

People

Product
Process
(Systems)
Whole Life Value Cost Ratios

Design & Construction (X)

Facilities Management (Y)

Utilisation (Z)

Z >> Y > X
e.g. 80 : 8 : 1
Wu & Clements-Croome, 2004
Sustainable Design
Adds Value
Environments Conducive
to Health and Well-being
A fresh thermal environment

Ventilationrates to provide fresh


air with good distribution and
acceptable levels of CO2

Good natural lighting


Minimallighting glare from within
and external to the space

Spatialplanning and settingsto


suit various types of working

Ergonomicwork places so as to
minimise muscular-skeletal
disorders

Minimum pollution from external


sources including noise
Lowcarbon buildings can be
unsustainable if the human needs are
neglected

Healthier buildings are automatically low carbon

but
not all low carbon buildings are healthy
workplaces
Overheated buildings are
wasteful, uncomfortable and
lower productivity
Eachdeg C rise is about 8% in
energy terms in UK
Air
Quality and Temperature
Equally Important
Emphasise Well-being and
Freshness rather than Comfort
Improved People Performance in
Green Buildings?

Sickness Absence is reduced


Natural light and ventilation increase
accuracy, concentration .health and
well-being ,happiness, attitudes...
Productivity gains of up to 6-16%
often cited

Journal Property Management /Rocky Mountain


Sarah Daly, 2010, Heath Avery Architects Institute/Pennsylvania Power and Light
The workplace people
perspective
Current explosion of interest
FM literature, despite claims
of
strategic impact, and remains first
cost fixated
Few results framed in terms of
business outcomes
FM and property professions have
not risen to
challenges posed by Becker,
Clements-Croome (and others)
Dr Haynes B P, 2007, Research in the Field Of Productivity, CIBSE Natural Ventilation
World Green Building Council
(WGBC) 2013 Report The
Business Case for Green
Buildings
Green buildings do not necessarily cost more
and appeal to tenants because they command
higher rents and sale prices.
Operating costs lower because of reduced
energy and water use plus reduced
maintenance
Better environments affect employees and
lead to higher staff retention rates
Workplace illnesses and hence absenteeism
are reduced ---whilst well-being is higher than
in conventionally designed offices where high
quality environments have not always been a
Workplace Ecology
The connectivity between the
office occupiers and their work
environment consists of:
a psychological (perceptual) response
a physiological (biological) response

Levin, H (1981) "Building Ecology, Progressive Architecture, vol. 62, no. 4, pp. 173-175 April

Becker, F. (1990) The total workplace: facilities management and the elastic organization,
Van
Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
Building a Thinking
Room
Scientists have begun to
focus on how architecture
and design can influence our
moods, thoughts and health.
The quality of a view, the
height of a ceiling, wall
colour, furniture can
influence how we think.
Jonah Lehrer, The Wall Street Journal, 30 April 2011
Building a Thinking
Room
Old building with low ceilings
and noisy environments
compared with new building
with sky lights and open
cubicles
There was more stress in the
old building
Jonah Lehrer, The Wall Street Journal, 30 April 2011
Building a Thinking
Room
Ohio State University & National
Institute of Mental Health experimented
with colour

RED (danger, stop, take care)


environments better for accountancy
and detailed work

BLUE (openness and sky) environments


are better for creative tasks
Jonah Lehrer, The Wall Street Journal, 30 April 2011
Ceiling Height and Thinking
Style

High spaces better for


seeing connections
between unrelated
subjects.

Joan Meyer-Levy, School of Management, University of Minnesota


MITs New Stata Centre, Designed by Frank Gehry.

University Officials Sought an Unconventional


Building to Inspire Creativity
Business Costs of
Organisations
Design and Construction 2%
Maintenance ans Operation
6% 6%

Salary costs over buildings life cycle 92%


Amanda Levete architect
To live in a great space
inspires you and lights your
spirit. The environment in
which you live and work has a
tremendous capacity to
change your mood and affect
the way you live your life.
Space, volume and natural
Levete, A, Architecture at Future Systems, To live in a great space that inspires you, Financial Times, 16.02.08
Andrew OHagan
(Author)
I love the light in the room
where I work and where
things seem to change
every day. The flowers are
important. The room makes
me want to work hard and
theres always such a lot to
do
Guardian, 31.03.07
Place Factor Productivity Energy Payback

VeriFone Daylight +5% -60% <1 year

Georgia Less compensation cases

North Carolina + 14% -22 to -64% <3 years

Wisconsin Personal +7% -40%


control

Lockheed Daylight +15% -$300,000pa

Joseph J Romm Cool Companies. Earcthscan, London 1999.


Study: A survey of 10,000 property and construction
professionals about their office environments
March 2010: UK offices

Author: Development Securities with University


College London and the Building Research
Establishment, UK

55% of respondents stated unsatisfactory


temperatures
Over 38% rated noise levels as too high
33% were not satisfied with amount of daylight in
their workplace
More than 40% did not have a satisfactory outside
view
45% were unhappy with the ventilation or air quality
in their building.

Study: Building Research published
by Carnegie-Mellon University
2008:15 individual case studies
analyzedfor periods of 1985 - 2000

Improved indoor air quality shows


productivity increases in ranging
from 0.5% to 11%
Daylight access in offices increases
individual productivity by between
5and 15%

Author: Vivien Loftness, Center for Building Performance & Diagnostics


Study: Retrofit of 500 Collins Street,
Melbourne 2005-2006: Australian offices
Author: Sustainability Victoria : Kador Group
44% reduction in the monthly average cost of sick leave.
9% improvement in the average typing speed of
secretaries and a significant improvement in overall
accuracy.
One study found a 7% reduction in headaches but
another study found a 20% reduction. These two studies
also revealed improvements in other health indicators
such as the incidence of colds and flu, sore eyes, fatigue
and poor concentration but the findings varied depending
on the study
In one study there was no change in productivity but a
different study found a 12% increase in self-reported
productivity
acramento Municipal Group Utility
istrict INCOMING CALL CENTRE WORKER
ERFORMANCE

Workers with the best view were found to


process calls 6% to 12% faster than those that
had no view.
Employees with workstations having
partitioned heights above eye level on two
sides performed 11% to 18% slower than
those with partitions below eye level.
Total variation observed in performance was
2% to 4% in environmental conditions and 6%
to 19% demographic and management
Heschong Mahone Group, California, 2004
Sacramento Municipal Group Utility
District INCOMING CALL CENTRE
WORKER PERFORMANCE

A small increase in air temperature can


slow worker performance (740F/23.3 C
to 76oF /24.4 C reduced worker
performance by 2%)

Good ventilation and cooler conditions


let people work faster. Increasing the
rate of outside air by 1ft3/min( 1.7
m3/h) resulted in 4% faster handling of
Heschong Mahone Group, California, 2004
PR0DUCTIVITY GAINS IMPROVES
QUALITY
10% improvement in Call Centre
worker performance is worth
saving a $9,000 per year employee
or $118/ft2 per year.
Typical low rise office construction
costs in California are $85/ft2 to
$121/ft2
hence improving worker
performance by 10% would justify
doubling construction costs while
Gensler Office Survey
2005
"The cost of providing
accommodation for office workers
is dwarfed by the cost of their
salaries. Companies must
recognize that the influence of the
office on their staff in terms of
increased productivity and
effectiveness will have a much
greater financial impact than the
cost of office accommodation,"
,
These Four Walls: The Real British Office
Gensler Office Survey
2005
About half of office workers (52%) rate their
working environment as above average; (19%)
would embarrassed to show customers their
office.
58% of office workers believe their office has
not been designed to help them do their job.
79% of office workers consider quality of
working environment very important to job
satisfaction; over third state working
environment has been a factor in accepting or
rejecting a job offer.
Office workers claimed an improved workplace
would increases employee productivity by
19%; equivalent to a 135 billion annual
increase in the UK's serviceThese
sector output.
Four Walls: The Real British Office
Gensler Office Survey
2005
Desirables
35% of professionals would prefer
an office with a sea view, 26%
countryside, and 10% mountains.
10% would settle for "any view of
the outside world."
Office workers want better
environment; personal space
(39%), climate control (24%) and
daylight (21%) are crucial factors
for a good working environment.
These Four Walls: The Real British Office
Gensler Office Survey
2005
Problems
"office irritants" are IT; (36%),
colleagues' voices (19%); gossip
(15%); cheap furniture (9%);
music/radio (7%) and bad coffee
(6%).
25% would like to ban colleagues
from their office, including
'gossips', 'whingers', and 'egos' -
and mobile phones.
Office Space Satisfaction Questionnaire
Findings
Only 39% believe that their place of work has been designed with
people in mind;
94% of the respondents thought the quality of the workplace
reflected employers attitudes to their staff;
85% of the respondents thought their workplace was a key
indicator of a companys corporate culture;
Nearly half would consider changing companies if given an
identical role and salary;
Only 47% are proud to bring clients back to their place of work;
The provision of relaxation and thinking spaces, a gym and
restaurants were highly important;
Health care facilities, showers, cultural activities and general
concierge services were other factors mentioned as being
desirable;
24% considered that leisure facilities and breakout areas were
essential features to be provided by an organisation;
32% would prefer working at home but only to avoid the hassle of
commuting; the respondents believed that the social interaction
and face to face networking was essential to their job;
Hot desking engendered deep hostility in this sample of
respondents with most preferring the security of their own
designated workspace.
Myerson, J., 2003, Workspace Heaven?, Management Today, June issu
Office Productivity
Evidence Component
Comfort Layout Interaction Distraction
Ventilation 0.72
Natural Light 0.71
Heating 0.69
Artificial Light 0.67
Cleanliness 0.67
Overall Comfort 0.62
Dcor 0.62
Physical Security 0.45

Informal Meeting Area 0.79


Quiet Areas 0.78
Formal Meeting Area 0.76
Personal Storage 0.54
General Storage 0.50
Privacy 0.50
Workarea, Desk 0.43
Circulation Space 0.38

Social Interaction 0.82


Work Interaction 0.80
Position Relative to Colleagues 0.62
Position Relative to Equipment 0.53
Overall Atmosphere 0.51
Overall Office Layout 0.47
Creative Physical Environment 0.46
Refreshments 0.45
Myerson, J., 2003, Workspace Heaven?, Management Today, June issu
Correlation Coefficients between
Comfort and Health Variables
Building Symptom Illness Indicator
Index
r P(%) r P(%)

Office Buildings Air Quality 0.66 5E -09 -0.02 90


Thermal comfort 0.48 7E -05 0.11 38
Lighting comfort 0.37 3E-03 -0.12 37
Acoustic comfort 0.30 2E -02 -0.11 37
Comfort overall 0.58 9E -07 0.01 94
Apartment Air Quality 0.41 2E-04 0.24 3
Buildings Thermal comfort 0.24 4 0.20 9
Lighting comfort 0.25 3 0.14 22
Acoustic comfort 0.17 14 0.03 82
Comfort overall -0.08 51 0.17 13

Note: p probability that these coefficients are actually zero


Correlation Coefficients between
Building Symptom Index (BSI)
and the Perceived Environment

Correlation with Building r p


Symptom Index (BSI) of

Amount of privacy in the work 0.51 2E-05


Layout in the office 0.64 3E-08
Decoration in the office 0.64 2E-08
Cleanliness of your office 0.60 2E-07
Correlation Coefficients between
Perceived Control and
Corresponding Comfort

Perception of Satisfaction with r p

Control of temperature Temperature 0.51 4E-06


Control of ventilation Air quality 0.47 1E-04
Control of lighting Lighting overall 0.28 5E-02
Control of shading Natural light 0.30 1E-02
Control on noise Noise overall 0.60 1E-07
The Relationship between
Cost and Performance on
Productivity
High

People Highly
Investor productive
(high quality) (added value)

Performance
Poor Cost
productivity Cutter
(low value) (low quality)
Low
High Cost Low

Source: Oseland, Bartlett, 1999


Maslows Hierarchy of
Needs in the Workplace
Achieved by
Good working conditions, attractive
Need salary, subsidised housing, free
Physiological catering
Private health care, pension, safe
Safety working conditions, job security.
Good relationships, team spirit,
company sports, office parties, informal
Social activities, open communication.
Regular positive feedback, prestige job
titles, write-up in company news
Esteem sheets, promotion and reward.
Challenging job, discretion over work
activity, promotion on opportunities,
Self-actualisation encouraging creativity, autonomy and
responsibility
Source: (MASLOW 1943)
Poor Environmental
Conditions can Rapidly
Fatigue Office Workers
Aural/acoustic quality
Visual illumination quality
Thermal quality
Air quality
Building amenities
Functional ergonomics

Source: PublicWorksCanadaStudy(1985)
A Conceptual Model for Sensory
Responses

Farshchi in Clements-Croome, 2006


eople, Environment and
Matter
Mechanical

radiation

Matter Matter

Gravity
Human Social psychological auras
Being
Matter Matter

Electromagnetic

Chemical radiation
Brain
Body
Pathways
Schematic Diagram of Four
Human Circadian Rhythms

Source: CIE, 2004 in

Chung 2005 Int Lighting Symposium Proceedings, Hong Kong


Circular Ordering of Mood
Descriptors

Farshchi in Clements-Croome, 2005


Effects of Partial
Climates

Partialclimate Induces Stimulates Create Describes

Organic Sensors Associations The

Reactions Organs Environment

Light Y Y Y Y

Sound Y Y Y Y

Smell Y Y Y

Heat Y Y

Airquality Y

Electricclimate Y
Holistic Environmental Model
Sustainability
work flow workplace waste
energy materials
recycling
chemical particulate
furniture noise
Ergonomics Ecological water
computer electro- Pollution design
magnetic structures
ionisation Built
humidity Form & Form
Human infrastructure utilities
Senses Services
temperature Well-being
Human

Holistic intralinks
integration
indoor Environment production
air quality
Interior sound
Working innovation
design
aesthetics colour culture
creativity
textures Management social
lighting
space Mission
Businesses process
image
systems
policies planning
strategies resources finance monitoring

Management
Lorsch and Abdou
(1994b)
Conclude that temperatures which
provide optimum comfort may not
necessarily give rise to maximum
efficiency in terms of work output.
Beyond Environmental
Comfort
REFERENCES
See References in EU Report 2014
by Clements-Croome eg Ong;
WGBC
erceived Comfort and Perceived
roductivity
eaman and Bordass 2006
Varying Temperature and
Convection Currents around the
Body by Tong Yang 2007
The Relationship between
Temperature and
Performance
+50
Comfort

+40 Zone
Accidents
Change in productivity percentage

+30

+20

+10

10 15 20 25 30C Temperature
-10
ity
l dexter
Manua
-20

Mental performance
-30

vity
-40 n siti
se
nd
da
ee
Sp
-50 re
figu
of Work rate
-60

Source: Wyon 1986, CIBSE, 1999


Change in Performance per 10 C
Increase in Indoor Temperature

Seppanen et al, Rehva Workshops Clima 2005


Perceived Productivity and
Temperature in the Summer
Decrease of Performance and
Productivity with Temperature
0 0
2% decrease per deg C above 25 C and below 20 C

(Seppanen et al, Proceedings of Healthy Buildings, Singapore, Volume


Relative Performance as a
Function of Temperature
Benefits of improved IEQ in leased buildings
to building owner via rent and long term value
of the building.
Cost Implications of Productivity
Loss at Different Neutral
Temperatures

(Kosonen and Tan 2003)


Loss of Productivity per
Employee
Standard Office South
Facing Cooling (Comfort categories in accordance with NPR-CR 1752)

No Mechanical Cooling

120
103
100
79
Loss of productivity

80 71
[Hours/Year]

59 61
60
44 49
40
24
20 15
9 6 10
0
7.2 4.4 3.7 4.6 3.4 2.8
Ventilation Rate [m3/(m3.h)]
Relationship between the Loss
of Productivity, PPD and the
PMV
Loss of Productivity and PPD
as a function of the PMV

25 80

Percentage of dissatisfied (PPD)


20
Loss of Productivity (percentage)

60

15

40

10
PPD

20
5

0 0
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)

Source: Roelofsen, 2001


Predicted Trends in Illness
or Sick Leave Versus
Ventilation Rate
Illn ess o r sick leav e p rev alen ce

Milton (2000), sick leave in offices


relativ e to p rev alen ce w ith n o

Brundage (1988), illness in barracks, all years


Brundage (1988), illness in barracks, 1983 data
Drinka (1996), illness in nursing home
1
v en tilatio n

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 1 2 -1 3 4
Ventilation rate (h )
Seppanen and Fisk in Clements-Croome, 2005
The Effect of Low Ventilation Rates on the
Cognitive Function of a Primary School Class
Several studies have suggested that recommended ventilation rates are
not being met within schools.

Using the Cognitive Drug Research computerised assessment battery to


measure cognitive function, this study demonstrates that the attentional
processes of school children are significantly slower when the level of CO2
in classrooms is high.

The effects are best characterised by the Power of Attention factor


which represents the intensity of concentration at a particular moment,
with faster responses reflecting higher levels of focussed attention.
Increased levels of CO2 (from a mean of 690 ppm to a mean of 2909 ppm)
led to a decrement in Power of Attention of approximately 5%. Thus, in a
classroom where CO2 levels are high, students are likely to be less
attentive and to concentrate less well on what the teacher is saying,
.
,
D.A. Coley, R.Greeves and B.K. Saxby, Centre for Energy and the Environment, University of Exeter
Average, Maximum and Minimum CO2
Concentrations in 11Dutch Primary Schools

Dijken et ai, 2005 in


Boerstra et al, Rehva Workshops Clima 2005
Health
symptoms
reported
by pupils

Van Djiken, Van Bronswick

Sundell,2006, Indoor environment and

pupils health in primary schools,

Building Research & Information.


Mean temperature concentrations during
computerized performance tests in16 classrooms at
8 Reading schools

* For Schools 1-3 no recirculation was made; the low ventilation


condition was obtained by leaving the windows in closed position
Bak-Bir Z, Clements-Croome D J., Kochhar N, et al., 2012, Ventilation Rates in
Schools and Pupils Performance, Building and Environment , 48, 215-223
Mean CO2 concentrations during the
computerized performance tests in 16 classrooms
at 8 Reading schools; 3-4 Groups of pupils were
tested in each school.

Bak-Bir Z, Clements-Croome D J., et al., 2012, Ventilation Rates in Schools


and Pupils Performance, Building and Environment, 48, 215-223
Performance with Fresh and
Recirculated Air
Performance of School Work as a
Function of Outdoor Air Supply Rate

Boerstra et al, Rehva Workshops Clima 2005


ercentage of Dissatisfaction against
arbon Dioxide Concentration

Mu & Chan, (2005), Building calibration for IAQ Management in Building and Environment, 41, 877-886
Impact of CO2 on human decision
making and productivity
The Strategic Management Simulations (SMS)
methodology measures the process of thinking
and can assess cognitive and behavioural
responses to real world task situations.

Conclusion
The performance or decision making is at marginal
or even at dysfunctional level on some of the
important productivity measures, especially at 2500
ppm a typical concentration
found in many buildings. Even levels of 600ppm
--less than normal 1000 ppm can affect decision
Usha Satish,, William B. Fisk, Mark J. Mendell, Katia Eliseeva, Toshifumi
making.
Hotchi,
uglas Sullivan, Lisa B. Cleckner, Krishnamurthy Shekhar1 and Kaeling
Teng
Change in Performance per 10 L/s Per Person
Increase of Outdoor Air Supply rate

Seppanen et al, Rehva Workshops Clima 2005


%
100

98
Performance of office work
as a function of the indoor
Performance

96
air quality
94
(R2=0.78; P<0.01)
92

90
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 %
Dissatisfied with indoor air quality

%
100

Performance of

P erformance
98

office work as a 96

function of the 94
(R2=0.78; P<0.01)

outdoor air 92

supply rate per 90


0 1 2 3 4 L/(s*standard
5 6 person)
7

standard person Outdoor air supply rate

(olf)

Wargocki and Wyon in Clements-Croome


ndoor Environment and
Productivity
Traditionally thermal comfort has
been emphasised as being necessary
in buildings, but is comfort
compatible with health and well-
being? The mind and body need to
be in a state of health and well-being
for work and concentration. This is a
prime prerequisite for productivity.
High productivity brings a sense of
achievement for the individual as
Subjective Well-
being
Awareness
Satisfactionwith life
Comfort discomfort
Good body mental health
Satisfy Maslow Pyramid of
Needs
Impact of Distraction
Architecture and the Senses
Although the five basic
senses are often studied as
individual systems
covering visual, auditory,
tastesmell, orientation
and the haptic sensations,
there is an interplay
Nine Levels of Consciousness
The five senses felt by the eyes,
ears, nose mouth and skin
The integration of senses using
reason and logic
Rational thought expressed via
self awareness and intuition
The stores of experience in the
long and short term memories
Pure consciousness within the
inner self; this also involves
emotion. Allwright (1998)
Human Olfactory
System

The average person has about 400 different types of


olfactory receptors, but not everyone has the same set
Tillotson 2004, New Technologies and Smart Textiles for Industry and Fashion
Atrium Fragrance Control System
for Kajima Building in Tokyo
(Takenoya 2006)

Regulating Valve

Atrium

Spray Nozzle

Air
Handling
Unit

T H

Ambient Air T

Essence
Spray Fan Container
Heat Exchanger
H Humidistat

T Thermostat

Control Unit
Atrium Fragrance and Control
Scenario for Kajima Building in
Tokyo
LUNCH BREAK
COME

SCHEDULE TO OFFICE WORK WORK LEAVE THE OFFICE

FRAGRANCE & IMAGE


OVER-TIME WORK

No 1 WOOD

No 2 FLORAL

No 3 CITRUS

SPLAY PATTERN
Your Workplace can Improve
Employee Engagement
Dr Craig Knight, at Exeter University,
studies have shown, that introducing some
'enrichment' to workplaces (simple things,
like plants...) will improve productivity and
giving people some control and engagement
in their workplace surroundings will
increase productivity further.

Conversely, the 'lean office', minimalist, one


size fits all, blandness of many corporate
offices today does NOT inspire this feeling of
engagement, which is so important to
wellbeing and work output. Based on Craig Knight 2011
Burge (1987)
Conducted a study of building
sickness among 4373 office
workers in 42 UK office buildings
having 47 different ventilation
conditions. The principal
conclusions were that as
individuals reported more than
two symptoms, the subjects
Health and Productivity in
the Office

Each Diamond Represents the Data from One Building

Doggart in Clements-Croome, 2006


Office Buildings by Health
Category
50
Percentage of total building

40

30

Problem unknown
20

Problem known
10

1. Healthy 2. Generally 3. Unhealthy 4. Unhealthy 5. SBS & BRI

Healthy

Dorgan
(1994)
Estimated Potential Gains from
Improvements in Indoor Environments
Sourceof PotentialAnnual PotentialU.S.AnnualSavingsorProductivity

ProductivityGain HealthBenefits Gain(1996$U.S.)

$6$14billion

Reducedrespiratory 16to37millionavoided

disease casesofcommoncoldorinfluenza

10%to30%decreaseinsymptomswithin53 $2$4billion

Reducedallergies millionallergysufferers

andasthma and16millionasthmatics

20%to50%reduction
$15$38billion
inSBShealthsymptomsexperiencedfrequently

Reducedsickbuilding atworkbyapproximately

syndromesymptoms 15millionworkers

Notapplicable

$20$200billion

Improvedworkerperformancefromchangesinthermal

environmentandlighting

Fisk (1999)
Use of Alternative
Materials
2002 Study by Environment
Department and the Lawrence
Berkeley National Laboratory
California found that the improved air
quality by the use of green design,
building materials and technologies;
lowers SBS symptoms by 20%
to 50%
Influenza reduced by 9% to 20%
Allergies and asthma drop by
8% to 25%
Relationship between Self-reports of
Productivity and Levels of Control Over
Temperature, Ventilation, Lighting and
Overall Control
1.0 Temperature

0.8
More or less productive than average

Ventilation
0.6

0.4

Lighting

Overall Control

0.2

0.0

-0.2

0 1 4 7

Degree of Control (low = 1, high = 7)


Assessment of
Productivity
States that the methods of performance
measurement can be classified into
three categories:
Physiological
Objective
Subjective

Ilgen (1991)
ndicators of Increased
Productivity
Performing tasks more accurately
Performing faster without loss of accuracy
Capability to perform longer without tiring
Learning more effectively
Being more creative
Sustaining stress more effectively
Working together more harmoniously
Being more able to cope with unforeseen
circumstances
Feeling healthier and so spending more time
at work
Accepting more responsibility
Responding more positively to requests
Source: NEMA, 1989
Productivity Measures
Absence from work, or work station.
Health costs including sick leave, accidents and injuries.
Interruptions to work.
Controlled independent judgements of work quality.
Self assessments of productivity.
Speed and accuracy of work.
Output from pre-existing work groups.
Cost for the product or service.
Exchanging output in response to graded reward.
Volunteer overtime.
Cycle time from initiation to completion of process.
Multiple measures at all organisational levels.
Visual measures of performance, health and well-being at
work.
Development of measures and patterns of change over time
.
ASHRAE Workshop on Indoor Quality held in Baltimore in
September 1992
Average Downtime
Attributed
to a Range of Factors
Repeating work due to glare

Walking to pick up consumables

Repeating work due to poor IT

Waiting for archive material

Extra work due to software incompatibility

Repeating due to feeling too warm

Walking to pick up documents

Searching for paperwork

Walking/waiting at fax

Repeating work due to interruptions

0 .5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Mean downtime (percentage of work time)

Source: Oseland, Bartlett, 1998


Productivity Losses in
Offices
Computer crashes, slow PCs and
printer jams cost the average
office worker up to 48 minutes a
day.

In addition 26 mins. a day are


lost on unnecessary phone and
conference calls.

BACS Payment Schemes UK, Times, May 19 2005


Productivity Losses in
Offices

Office workers are


distracted by phone calls,
emails and text messages.
Constant interruptions
reduce productivity and
leave people tired and
lethargic TNS Research (Hewlett Packard)

Dr Glenn Wilson, Kings College, London


Measures of Productivity

Absolute Methods

Direct Objective measures


e.g. work output quality and speed

Indirect Physiological measures


e.g. brain rhythms

Rating scales, questionnaires,


Comparative Methods
semi structured interviews
Measurement of
Productivity
Simulated work where the subject
performs a realistic but artificial task
Diagnostic test where the subject performs
a test procedure unlike any real task
Embedded tasks where the outcome
metric is derived from part of an existing
task
Existing measures where the existing
outcome metrics are made available
Absenteeism the records of sick leave are
used, this may also be extended to include
medical records.
Physiological Measures
Brain waves

Muscle tension

Eye pupil dilation

Speech patterns

Cerebral blood oxygenation


Questionnaire
Background information about the
organisation and the workplace
How much the environment and the
job causes dissatisfaction
The feelings of the subject about
their current work situation
The principal causal factors
influencing health symptoms of
occupants
Which factors influence job
satisfaction and productivityClements-Croome (2000)
The Analytic Hierarchy
Process
Main Factors Which
Level 1 Influence Productivity

Level 2 - Ability to Job Technical


Human Factors Well-Being Motivation
of the Individual
Perform Satisfaction Competence

Level 3 -
Systems Factors
and
Personal
Circum- Indoor Personal Facilities & Outdoor
Organisation Occupation
stances Environment Circumstances Services Environment
which
influence
Human Factors

Environmental factors which influence


Level 4
System Factors Temperature and Humidity,
Ventilation, Lighting, Crowding

Health factors which influence System Factors


Level 5
Respiratory, Skin, Nervous,
Nasal and Related Problems

Clements-Croome (2000)
Self-assessed
Productivity
SAP = 6.8510 - 0.3625 * En - 0.1542 * JD - 0.1329 * CS

(r = 0.5083, F = 14.86 > F = 0.01 [3,132] = 3.94

The principal factors which affect self-assessed

productivity (SAP) in the offices surveyed were an overall unsatisfactory

environment (En),

crowded workspace (CS) and job dissatisfaction (JD).

Clements-Croome (2000)
Conceptual Basis for Impact
of Environment on
Productivity
Relationship with others
Managerial role
Organisational structure

Organisation
Social

PRODUCTIVITY

Environment
Personal

Career Achievement Indoor climate


Home/Work interface Workplace
Intrinsic to job IAQ
Patterns of Space and
Time
Building envelope modifies light, air, sound and
energy

Scale and texture of space

Dynamic arrangement of space

24 Hour society

Temporal patterns of concentration

Nature and patterns of working


Future workspace: staff have flexible
workstations enabled by cordless technology
Warman C, Now, where shall I work, The Times, 20/07/1998
Warman C, Now, where shall I work, The Times, 20/07/1998
Clients Views of Their
Buildings
Containers built for a cheap price with no
respect for the impact of the built environment
on performance
Prestige Symbols in which the exterior is the
key status factor than internal working
conditions.
Vehicles for Industrial Relations in which a
healthy work environment is viewed as
important for the workforce
Instruments of Efficiency in which work
investment expenditure is related to the rate
of return of money not staff welfare
Operational Force for which the function and
the symbolic roles are reflected in the
Comparison of Energy and
Staff Costs for North American
Offices
Abdou &
Rosenfeld Lorsch EPA Woods BOMA
Costs (1989) (1994) (1989) (1989) (1988)
Staff costs ($/ft2/year) 300 218 200 237 130

HVAC running costs


2-10 6 12 2.9
($/ft2/year)

Energy costs ($/ft2/year) 1.5 1-2 2 2 1.5

Ration of staff to energy


200 114-218 100 118 87
costs

Energy as proportion of
0.5 0.5-0.9 1.0 0.9 1.2
productivity costs (%)

Equivalent productivity
costs (min/day per 2.25 2-3.75 4.33 5
person)
The Relationship of Incremental Initial
Cost to Potential User Time Saving
(Rosenfeld, 1989)

$2000

10 2.0

8
Average salary dollars
1.5 $3000
7 Per sq.m.per year
Savings in minutes per day per employee

6
Percent of working hours

$4000
1.0
5

4
$5000

3
0.5

2 $10000

0 0

0 10 20 30 40

HVAC systems incremental initial cost, dollars per sq.m


Design of the Workplace
An Organisational Pathway
from IEQ Conditions to
Productivity

Communicationamong Changeinemployee
IEQconditions Changeinperformance Changeinproductivity
empolyees attitude

Seppanen and Fisk in Clements-Croome, 2005


Economic IEQ model for the owner occupied existing buildings

Measures and Work force IEQ Human Benefit


Input data Benefits
their cost responses Categories (reduced costs)
Infectious
respiratory 3 d
diseases o Reduced 15
a Health care Health Costs
1 10
Selected Allergy and e
asthma and
4
measure for f
2 b other building
IEQ Change related p Value of 16
illnesses 5 h Sick leave Working Days
improvement in days Gained
t i g 11
improved indoor
thermal conrol environ c SBS
6 j Performance
source control Workers ment at work Value of 17
affected q Imroved
Thermal k
improved with the responses 7 quantity Output
measure quality
ventilation etc. Perceived
12
group effect
IAQ (odors, 8
stuffy air etc) l
Value of Less
Investment Recruitment
Job turn r and Training
Operation Complaints 9 m over 13 Retained
Maintenance experiece18

n Responses s Reduced
O&M of FM to maintenance
costs complaints 14 cost
19
Cost effectiveness of the 20
measures to improve IAQ
Dec 10, 2002 OS

Seppanen and Fisk in Clements-Croome, 2005


Economic IAQ model for the rented buildings from lessor`s
perspective
Measures and Work force IAQ Human Economic
Input data their cost responses effects

Short term
effect:

Selected Rent
Change Well-being of
measure for building
occupants
IAQ in
improvement Long term
Rental IAQ Thermal
effects
space comfort market value of
affected the space
SBS
by the
ability to
measure
maintain lessees

Complaints Complaint
responses of FM
Investment
thermostat settings
Operation
controls
Maintenance
space configuration
air distribution
adjustment
O&M
costs
Economic indicator of the
cost effectiveness of the
measure
Nov 12, 2002 OS

Seppanen and Fisk in Clements-Croome, 2005


Economic IAQ model for the rented space from lessees perspective

Measures and
Input data Work force IAQ Human Cost effects Cost items
their cost responses

Infectious
diseases

BRI
Selected Hum.fever
measure for Change Allergy and Value of Lost
IAQ asthma Sick leave Working Days
days
improvement in
Investment
Operation IAQ
Maintenance SBS Performance
Workers Value of
at work
affected Deteorirated
with the quantity Output
measure Thermal
quality
comfort

Perceived IAQ
Recruitment
(odors, stuffy air
Change in etc.) Job turn Training
rent over
Lost experiece

Complaint
handling by Group
employer performance

Economic indicator of the


cost effectiveness of the
measure
Nov 12, 2002 OS

Seppanen and Fisk in Clements-Croome, 2005


Benefits of
improved IEQ are
transferred directly
to building owner in
owner occupied
buildings
Break even investment
cost (/m2 -office floor
area ) depending on
gained productivity
(1,2,4,6 or 8%) annuity
factor of the investment in
owner occupied buildings
where the building owner
gets as an employer all
the benefits from
improved productivity.
Eight Principles for
Workplace Design
the initiative to explore remote and mobile work
strategies
trust employers to work out of sight of
management
encourage joy in the workplace (Cabanac 2000)
value individuality
emphasise equality more than hierarchy
engage in open honest dialogue
epitomise cognitivity between all the
stakeholders in the business
provide access to a wide range of workplace
options.

Froggatt, C.C., 2001, Work Naked (Jossey-Bass)


advanced building intelligence can
increase the productivity of
occupants by 10% annually and
improve efficiency to satisfy owner-
occupiers.

standardbuilding intelligence can


improve efficiency by 8% annually
and improve efficiency to result in a
payback within two to four years.

in an intelligent building there is less


illness and absenteeism.
The Journal of the British Council for Offices, 1007, Offic
Summary of IB Break-even
Periods
Business Benefit

Efficiency + 10%
Standard IB
Productivity gain

Advanced IB
Efficiency + 8%

Productivity gain

Efficiency + 5%

Productivity gain

Efficiency + 3%

Productivity gain

Efficiency only

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

IB Payback period (years)

Source: IB Asia
Performance Metrics
Economic e.g. Productivity,
profitability and predictability
Customer satisfaction e.g.
quality of service, overall
performance, value for money
Environment- e.g. energy, CO2
emissions, transport, waste
reduction, water usage.
People e.g. safety at work,
sickness, absenteeism. BCO Guide to Post Occupancy Evaluation
Barriers to Environmental
Control
Environmental versus Central Control
Designers appears to be scheduled by
promise of technology and to think less
about its usability. Hence more
functions are assigned to automatic
controls than are usually warranted and
the user interfaces are often absent.
Poor attention to detail in building
controls
Manufacturers find it difficult to invest in
the required products and services
Bordass, 1998, Factors for Success or how to compensate for things you take away
Guidelines to Successful
Environmental Control for
Occupants
Understand the context and ruling constraints
Make sure everyone shares the same assumptions
Keep things as simple as possible (but not more so)
and do them well.
Seek robust solutions minimise the downsides
Allow occupants choose where possible
Keep technology within affordable manageability, so
that inevitable revenge effects can be identifies and
dealt with before they turn into chronic effects.
Provide a sufficient level of management to be able to
support the occupants and respond rapidly to their
comments
Take occupants complaints seriously and deal with
them competently and effectively
Let people know what you are doing what you have
done, and any constraints which remain
Bordass, 1998, Factors for Success or how to compensate for things you take away
Building Related
Satisfaction Factors
Jobs in which people are not tied to
one place.
Shallow building depth, in
particular with a high proportion of
window seats.
Small workgroups
Low occupation densities
Good perceived control
High management responsiveness
Bordass, 1998, Factors for Success or how to compensate for things you take away
Gensler 2013 Workplace
Survey 2000 US knowledge
workers
US workers struggle to work
effectively
Need to balance focus and
collaborative working to afford
higher job satisfaction and
performance
Personal choice drives performance
and innovation and improves the
Gensler cont.
Think holistically about the
needs for focus, collaboration,
learning and social ambience
leading to variety of spaces
offering anywhere working policy
Drivers of focus are functionality,
satisfactory noise levels and
design look and feel.
Gensler cont.
Drivers of balance are meeting space,
circulation and support space, in-office
amenities
Drivers of choice are variety of spaces,
tools, policy to let employees match
their space to their needs.
Less space per person is a false
economy as work effectiveness
decreases.
Offices provide a home for work
families
Building can give a sense of pride to
employees
Evans and Stoddarts socio-ecological
model of health (Evans and Stoddart,
1990; Morris et al., 2006)
DPSEEA context model
(Morris et al., 2006)
Drivers--- Society level: social, economic or political
influences on the environment
Pressures--- Factors that act to modify environmental
state
State--- The resultant environment modified due to
the pressures
Exposure--- Human interaction with modified
environment
Effects--- Human health effects
Actions--- Policy and practice designed to address
particular factors identified
Context--- Individual level: social, economic and
demographic factors that influence a persons
exposure to the modified environment or which lead
DPSEEA Model
Intelligent Buildings 2013
ICE Publishing

Third Edition of Creating


the Productive Workplace
is planned