Enzyme Activity

The properties of enzymes related to their
tertiary structure.The effects of change in
temperature,pH,substrate concentration,and
competitive and non-competitive inhibition on
the rate of enzyme action

HOW ENZYMES WORK • Enzymes are ORGANIC CATALYSTS. A CATALYST is anything that speeds up a chemical reaction that is occurring slowly. How does a catalyst work? • The explanation of what happens lies in the fact that most chemical reactions that RELEASE ENERGY (exothermic reactions) require an INPUT of some energy to get them going. The initial input of energy is called the ACTIVATION ENERGY .

. the enzyme can cause them to react quickly • Once the reaction is complete. the enzyme releases the finished products and goes back to work on more substrate. Enzymes • An enzyme is a biological catalyst • The pockets formed by tertiary and quaternary structure can hold specific substances (SUBSTRATES). • When all the proper substrates are nestled in a particular enzyme's active sites. • These pockets are called ACTIVE SITES.

g. Properties of Enzymes relating to their tertiary structure. • The activity of enzymes is strongly affected by changes in pH and temperature. shape) in enzyme function and forces.e. Each enzyme works best at a certain pH and temperature. in determining that shape. e. This is because of the importance of tertiary structure (i.. .its activity decreasing at values above and below that point. ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds.

The effects of change in temperature. The numbers of collisions between enzyme and substrate will increase so the rate will too. Temperature: enzymes work best at an optimum temperature. an increase in temperature provides more kinetic energy to the molecules involved. and the enzymes are denatured. Above the optimum temperature. Bonds holding the structure together will be broken and the active site loses its shape and will no longer work . Below this.

enzymes have an optimum pH. . The effect of change in pH. the chemical nature of the amino acids can change. • pH: as with temperature. This may result in a change in the bonds and so the tertiary structure may break down. The active site will be disrupted and the enzyme will be denatured. If the pH changes much from the optimum.

As the enzyme concentration increases. When more substrate molecules are added. and the rate of reaction increases. increasing the substrate concentration yet further will have no effect. The effect of change in concentration • Enzyme concentration: at low enzyme concentration there is great competition for the active sites and the rate of reaction is low. . The active sites will be saturated so no more enzyme- substrate complexes can be formed. more enzyme-substrate complexes can be formed. there are more active sites and the reaction can proceed at a faster rate. Eventually. This means that the reaction rate is low. Eventually. As there are more active sites. increasing the enzyme concentration beyond a certain point has no effect because the substrate concentration becomes the limiting factor. • Substrate concentration: at a low substrate concentration there are many active sites that are not occupied.

it is undesirable • Reversible inhibitors: • Inhibitors • Competitive reversible inhibitors: these molecules have a similar structure to the actual substrate and so will bind temporarily with the active site. Sometimes this is a necessary way of making sure that the reaction does not proceed too fast. . arabinose competes with glucose for the active sites on glucose oxidase enzyme). • Non-competitive reversible inhibitors: these molecules are not necessarily anything like the substrate in shape. They bind with the enzyme. (e. Competitive and non-competitive inhibition • Inhibitors slow down the rate of a reaction. This binding does change the shape of the enzyme though. at other times. so the reaction rate decreases. but not at the active site.g. The rate of reaction will be closer to the maximum when there is more ‘real’ substrate.

thus limiting the rate of reaction. cyanide irreversibly inhibits the enzyme cytochrome oxidase found in the electron transport chain used in respiration. for example.Irreversible inhibitors: These molecules bind permanently with the enzyme molecule and so effectively reduce the enzyme concentration. death will occur . If this cannot be used.

Enzymes are the tools of life. .