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A Seminar on

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Sound reinforcement system makes live or
pre recorded sounds louder and also distribute those
sounds to a larger or more distant audience. It can
be defined as anelectronic sound amplification and
distribution system with a microphone,amplifierand
loudspeakers, used to allow a person to address a
large public with examples being:

Announcements of movements at large and noisy


air and rail terminals.

Speeches & public assemblies in open grounds

A DJ playing music for a large number of people

Large Conference & Seminar rooms

Company meeting rooms

Public Notification systems like fire alarms

Flight & Ship Panels for addressing of passengers

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Aims: Application Types:
Generation of s: PA Systems for
sufficiently high speech
sound pressure (S/N Source is too weak
> 10..25 dB) in the a) Centralized PA
audience area Source is too Omni- System
directional (strong
Homogeneous level excitation of diffused b) Distributed PA
distribution (+/- 3 field in a room) System
dB)
Non-acoustical PA Systems for
Good direct sound source Music
supply
Mass Notification
Suitable audio System
quality

Sound Reinforcement Systems Aims &


PA systems are often used in buildings in
the form of intercom & alarming systems
that are intended only at distributing a
information but on a grander scale to all
the users of that building.

Properties of sound generated


by a PA system:

Clearly audible sound.


Intelligible in nature
As natural as the sound from the
source
Balanced
Evenly dispersed
Adequate sound level with ample
intensity levels

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Components and
The main components Microphone Multi channel Sound mixer
of a public address
system are a multiple
channel sound mixer to
combine multiple audio
sources, an amplifier to
maximize the volume
level, a microphone for
the announcer and the
speakers to project the amplifier
sound.
speakers

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Speakers

Mixer

Microphone Amplifier

Speakers

Sound Reinforcement Systems Working


Sound Reinforcement Systems
A sound reinforcement system for
musical performance is the
combination of

1. Microphones or collectors
2. Signal processors or Mixers
3. Amplifiers, and
4. Loudspeakers

It makes live or pre-recorded sounds


louder and may also distribute those
sounds to a larger or more distant
audience.

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Input Transducers
Most microphones used in sound
reinforcement are either dynamic or
condenser microphones. There are
many other types of input transducers
which may be used occasionally,
including magnetic pickups used in
electric guitars and electric basses,
contact microphones used on stringed
instruments, and piano and phonograph
pickups (cartridges) used in record
players.
Mixing Consoles
Mixing consoles are the heart of a
sound reinforcement system. This is
where the operator can mix, equalize
and add effects to sound sources.
Multiple consoles can be used for
different applications in a single sound
reinforcement system. 1. Equalizers
Digital Signal Processors 2. Compressors
Bars and clubs are now available with 3. Noise gates
digital reverb effects, graphic 4. Effects
equalizers, and, in some models,
feedback prevention circuits.

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Amplifiers
Power amplifiers boost a low-voltage level
signal and provide electrical power to drive
a loudspeaker.
"Small Vocal" system - About 500 watts
"Large Vocal" system - About 1,000 watts
"Small Club" system - About 9,000 watts
"Large Club" system - About 18,000 watts
"Small Stadium" system - About 28,000
watts
Output transducers
A simple and inexpensive PA loudspeaker
may have a single full-range loudspeaker
driver, housed in a suitable enclosure.
Small Vocal system - Two full range speakers
mounted on tripod
stands.
Large Vocal system - Four full-range speakers
for
wide-area coverage. subwoofers,
Small Club system - Two subwoofers and two compression
mid/high speakers.
drivers,
Large Club system - Four subwoofers and four
mid/high speakers. Tweeters
Small Stadium system - Four subwoofers, four monitor
mid-
bass speakers, and
Sound
four
Reinforcement Systems
1. Rental systems For temporary setup at venues at
performance
2. Live music clubs Setup by the establishment for musical
performances
3. Church sound Setup for religious buildings that does not
have to be visually dominant
4. Touring systems Private equipment owned by a band or a
sound company that can be setup in a variety
of venues
5. Live theater Setup supports other visual arts and has to
be unobtrusive and in sync with sight lines
6. Classical music and opera Acoustic enhancement using low powered
transducers placed strategically to avoid
dead spots.
7. Sports sound systems Systems for outdoor sports facilities and ice
rinks often have to deal with substantial
echo, which can make music unintelligible.
Weather proof qualities are also essential
to combat high temperatures and
humidity

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Speech
The Components of a public address system- speech are
:

1. Microphones
2. Amplifiers, and
3. Loudspeakers

Using these components, a good arrangement for


public addressing can be done

Apart from these physical components, another very


important requirement is a good audience .

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Microphone
Amicrophoneis an
acoustic-to-
electrictransducerorsenso
r that convertssoundin air
into anelectrical signal.
For a speech two most
common types(installing
wise) of microphones can
be used.
1. Podium mounted
2. Free standing
Common problems

Amplitude response distortions


Temporal stretching of transient
signals
Possible instability (whistling
sound)

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Amplifier
Anelectronic amplifier,amplifier,
or (informally)ampis an
electronic device that increases
thepowerof asignal. It does this
by taking energy from apower
supplyand controlling the output
to match the input signal shape
but with a largeramplitude. In
this sense, an amplifier
modulates the output of the
power supply.
Aims

Amplitude to be raised to desired


levels with reinforcements added

Desired intensity to be achieved


with minimum distortions &
defects

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Loud speakers
Aloudspeaker is an
electroacoustictransducerthat
producessound in response to an
electricalaudio signalinput. In other
words, speakers convert electrical
signals into audible signals.

Horn Speakers

Increased efficiency due to better


impedance matching
Inelectronics,impedance matchingis
the practice of designing theinput
impedanceof anelectrical loador
theoutput impedance of its
corresponding signal source
tomaximize the power transferor
minimizesignal reflectionfrom the
load
Controlled directivity

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Column Speakers

Arrangement of several chassis


in a row
Focusing in direction of the row

Advantages compared to
conventional column
speakers:

Beam orientation adjustable by


electrical means
Vertical mounting possible
Radiation characteristics can
be optimized (frequency
response)

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Line arrays
High frequency horns to avoid
necessity of many tweeters close to
each other

Delay adjustment of beam


orientation (several simultaneous
beams are possible)

Apply frequency altering (outer


chassis radiate low frequencies
only); reduction of strong frequency
dependency of Q

Bending of column at the lower end


for an improved near-end supply (J-
form)

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Microphones
In order to speak to larger groups of people, there was a
desire to increase the volume of the spoken word
Microphones are a type of transducer
Microphones convert acoustical energy (sound waves)
into electrical energy (the audio signal).
Different types of microphone have different ways of
converting energy
but they all share one thing in common: The diaphragm.

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Dynamic Microphones

When the diaphragm vibrates in response to


incoming sound waves, the coil moves backwards
and forwards past the magnet. This creates a
current in the coil which is channeled from the
microphone along wires.
Ideal for general-purpose use.
They are relatively sturdy and resilient to rough
handling.
They are also better suited to handling high
volume levels, such as from certain musical
instruments or amplifiers.
No internal amplifier and do not require Cross-Section of a Typical
batteries or external power. Condenser Microphone
Condenser Microphones
Uses a capacitor to convert acoustical energy
into electrical energy.
Require power from a battery or external source.
Audio signal is stronger signal than that from a
dynamic.
Not ideal for high-volume work, as their
sensitivity makes them prone to distort.
They are more sensitive and more delicate, so
most often used for studio recording

Sound Reinforcement Systems Mic


Ribbon Microphones
Consist of a thin strip of metallic foil suspended in front
of a magnetic plate.
Sound waves cause the foil to vibrate, producing
fluctuations in the electrical current, creating the audio
signal.
Extremely sensitive configuration
Picks up a wide range of frequencies and produces an
extraordinarily rich representation of the original sound.
Also sensitive to physical impacts
Not considered portable

Directional Properties
This describes the microphone's sensitivity to
sound from various directions.
Some microphones pick up sound equally from
all directions, others pick up sound only from one
direction or a particular combination of
directions.
The types of directionality are divided into three
main categories:

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Omni directional
Picks up sound evenly from all directions
Omni sound is very general
unfocused
Uses: Capturing ambient noise where the
mice position must remain fixed while the
sound source is moving.

Uni directional
Picks up sound predominantly from one
direction.
This includes cardioid and hyper cardioid
microphones

Cardioid

Sound is picked up mostly from the front,


but to a lesser extent the sides as well.

Uses: Emphasizing sound from the


direction the mic is pointed whilst leaving
some latitude for mic movement and
ambient noise.
Handheld mics are usually cardioid.

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Hypercardioid
Very directional
Eliminates most sound from the sides and
rear.
Due to the long thin design of hyper
cardioids,
Referred to as shotgun microphones.

Uses: Isolating the sound from a subject or


direction when there is a lot of ambient
noise; Picking up sound from a subject at a
distance

Bidirectional

Picks up sound equally from two opposite
directions.

Uses: would be an interview with two people


facing each other (with the mic between
them).

Sound Reinforcement Systems


COMMON
BRANDS

Sennheiser

Sennheiser E Sennheiser E Ahuja


901Microphone 606Microphone
Rs. 16450 Rs. 8480 Panasonic
Condenser Transducer Dynamic Transducer
Half-cardioid Pattern Supercardioid Pattern philips

Zebronics

shure

Shure CVG18RS-B/C Panasonic RP


Microphone VC201Microphone
Rs. 9554 Rs. 770

Sound Reinforcement Systems E-


Shure SM58S Shure PG42- Shure PG52 microphone
Microphone Microphone Rs. 7180
Rs. 7981 Rs. 18392

Shure SV100 Shure SM63LB Shure BETA 52A


Microphone Microphone Microphone
Rs. 1495 Rs. 13973 Rs. 13973

Sound Reinforcement Systems E-


Amplifiers
An amplifier is an electronic device that increases
thevoltage,current, orpowerof asignal.
Uses
Amplifiers are used inwireless communications
and broadcasting, and inaudioequipment of all
kinds. They can be categorized as eitherweak-
signal amplifiersorpower amplifiers.
Types
They can be categorized as eitherweak-signal
amplifiersorpower amplifiers
Weak-signal amplifiers are used primarily
in wireless receivers. They are also employed
in audio tape players, and c.d. players. A
weak-signal amplifier is designed to deal with
very small input signals
Power amplifiers are used in wireless
transmitters, broadcast transmitters, and hi-fi
audio equipment.

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Design Parameters
An audio amplifier is Key design parameters for
an electronic amplifier audio amplifiers are
that amplifies low- frequency response, gain,
power audio signals to noise, and distortion.
a level suitable for
driving loudspeakers These are interdependent;
and is the final stage in increasing gain often leads
a typical audio to undesirable increases in
playback chain. noise and distortion.

The preceding stages While negative feedback


in such a chain are low actually reduces the gain,
power audio amplifiers it also reduces distortion.
which perform tasks Most audio amplifiers are
like pre - amplification, linear amplifiers operating
equalization, tone in class AB.
control, mixing/effects.

While the input signal


to an audio amplifier
may measure only a
few hundred
microwatts, its output
may be tens, hundreds,
or thousands of watts.
Sound Reinforcement Systems
Common Companies
BOSE
JBL
PHILIPS
SONY
CREATIVE
ALTEC LANSING
LOGITECH
F&D

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Speaker
A Speaker (or loudspeaker") is an electro acoustic transducer
that converts an electrical signal into sound.
Types of Speakers
-Horn Speakers
Loudspeakers, designed for one-way or two-way
sound and communication systems.
Increased efficiency due to better impedance
matching and controlled directivity
Ideal for use in industrial plants, warehouses,
schools, construction sites, transportation
terminals, and recreational areas.
Column Speakers
Arrangement of several chassis in a row and
focusing in direction of the row
For indoor use where beaming is desirable, such
as places of worship, conference venues,
meeting rooms, and canteens.
For applications where directivity is important.
Line Array Speakers
Versatile configuration possibilities.
Suits difficult environments
High resistance to feedback
Mounting accessories to enable permanent
installation in various venues

Sound Reinforcement Systems Speakers &


Floor Standing Speakers
Larger, full-range speakers typically use
multiple drivers to reproduce a wider range of
frequencies and improved bass response
Floor standing speakers are typically used as
front left and right speakers only
Ideal for high-performance two-channel music
reproduction.

Built In Speakers
They are mounted in a frame and set into the
wall (or ceiling).
They use the wall itself as the cabinet.
Reduce the floor space or any space in room
as speakers.

Sound Reinforcement Systems Speakers &


COMMON BRANDS

BOSE

JBL

PHILIPS

SONY

CREATIVE

ALTEC LANSING

LOGITECH

F&D

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Mass notification system
Mass notification provides real-time information
and instructions to people in a building, area, site,
or installation using intelligible voice
communications along with visible signals, text,
and graphics, and possibly including tactile or
other communication methods.
The purpose of mass notification is to protect life
by indicating the existence of an emergency
situation and instructing people of the necessary
and appropriate response and action.

Give incident-specific guidance to those in danger


as to the best course of action on an area-by-area
basis:
Fire
Natural disasters, weather
Shooters
Terrorist events
Weapons of Mass Destruction

Sound Reinforcement Systems Mass


There are two classifications of the
mass notification system :
WIDE-AREA- providing real-time
information to outdoor areas

IN-BUILDING- providing information


and instruction to people inside a
building by way of intelligible voice
communications and often, visible
signals, text, and graphics.

Types of mass Notification


Systems
One-Way
Intended to broadcast information, in an
emergency, to personnel in one or more
specific indoor or outdoor areas.
It is intended that emergency messages
be conveyed either by audible or visual
textual means or both.
Two-Way
Used by building occupants or by
firefighters,
police, and other emergency services
personnel.
Sound Reinforcement Systems
Voice evacuation

Voice evacuation systems (also called Voice


Alarm Systems) have become popular. Voice
evacuation alarms typically are not as loud
as horns or bells and usually sound an alarm
tone (typically a slow whoop, or chime tone)
and a voice message warning that an
emergency has been reported and to
evacuate the building (often also directing
occupants to not use elevators).

Fire alarm notification

A fire alarm notification appliance is an active


fire protection component. A notification
appliance may use audible, visible, or other
stimuli to alert the occupants of a fire or other
emergency condition requiring action. Audible
appliances have been in use longer than any
oth`er method of notification. Most of today's
appliances produce sound pressure levels
between 45 and 120 decibels at ten feet

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Applications

Anti privacy
Omni-Directional Sirens
Rotating Sirens Crowd control
Public address
Search and
rescue
Industrial
alerting
Horns
Perimeter
security
Event
Fire alarm
broadcasting

Sound Reinforcement Systems


Thank you