Agriculture for Peace

Presented To: National Civic Forum

Overview Overview
History of agriculture evolution
Traditional farming Modern farming

Major events Green revolution-Asia African green revolution The case of Somalia

History of Agriculture Evolution Overview
Traditional system The traditional farming system has been the norm for many centuries Crop improvement in the hands of the farmers Food production grew by expanding the cultivated land area Wake up call: Potato famine in Western Europe1845-51 causing death of millions of people. Migration and Civil unrest

History of Agriculture Evolution Overview
Modern Agriculture Science based agriculture flourished in the 20th century inventions Groundwork for more sophisticated genetic crop improvement was laid by Charles Darwin and Gregory Mendel Rediscovery of Mendel s work in 1900 provoked tremendous scientific interest and research in plant genetics

History of Agriculture Evolution Overview
Modern Agriculture Synthesis of ammonia and its commercialization in 1909 Wide spread use of ammonia after WWII By 1930, much of the scientific knowledge needed for high-yield agriculture production was available Delay in adoption

History of Agriculture Evolution Overview
Modern Agriculture In 1940, US farmers produced 1.8t/ha of maize In 2008, US farmers produced 8-9 t/ha
Modern hybrid seed, fertilizer and weed control technology, etc.

Biotechnology and genetic engineering GM crops widely used in US and Canada
Bt corn, Bt Cotton, roundup ready soybean and canola, etc.

Green Revolution 1960-1970 Overview
Symbolized the process of using agricultural science to develop modern techniques for the third world countries. Breakthrough in wheat and rice in Asia in mid-1960s. Started in Mexico and spread to India, Pakistan, Philippines and China Cereal production increased significantly Reduced poverty which could have become a breeding ground for civil unrest Brought peace and prosperity to many Asian countries Africa was left behind

African Green Revolution Overview
Third AGR conference held in Oslo 2008, alliance for action was the theme Raised some hope in the future to bring peace and prosperity through sustainable agriculture development Let us pull together and change Africa Africa doesn t want charity Success story in Malawi-turning Malawi into hunger free country Alliance for green revolution (AGRA)

Somalia is not part of the green revolution that is currently spreading throughout Africa  No interest due to the civil unrest and lack of political stability  Civil unrest, natural resources degradation and increasing scarcity and lack of technological innovation are factors leading to food insecurity  Growing numbers of poor people are induced to join a violent conflict in the hope for a better life  No alternative strategy is in place to engage the young generation

Agriculture in Somalia Agriculture-Somalia 
The country is under Humanitarian emergence  Donor groups are not ready for long-term commitment

Agriculture in Somalia Agriculture-Somalia 
   Food aid Cash for work Canal rehabilitation Input distribution 
Seeds  Tools  Fertilizers

Agriculture in Somalia Agriculture-Somalia
Major players-Somali Support Secretariat- Food Security and Rural DevelopmentAgriculture working Group ± FAO ± CEFA ± COOPI ± AGROSPHERE ± CONCERN ± SAVE THE CHILDREN ± OCHA ± CARE ± Local NGO s

Agriculture in Somalia Agriculture-Somalia
International NGO ‡ Remotely present ‡ Short-term and lack of support for long-term programs ‡ Staff turn over and loss of institutional memory ‡ Quality of work ‡ Experience Local NGO Present Lack of Infrastructure Experience eroding Lack of training and human resource development ‡ Lack of funding to conduct Agriculture activities ‡ No agenda for Long-term agenda ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Agriculture-The way forward 
Agriculture is the building stone of socio-economic development  67% of the Somali economy is based on agriculture  Broad-based agricultural development can raise the opportunity cost of rural poor and make violence less attractive to them  Agriculture development is not just development but a supporting means in promoting peace and stability

Agriculture-The way forward
‡ Status quo until peace, security and a working government are restored ‡ A move towards agriculture development system irrespective to the current conditions on the ground. How?

Agriculture-The way forward
Who are the stakeholders? 
Farmers, commercial buyers, consumers, input suppliers, seed producers, International NGOs, TFG

What type of technical support is available? 


What kind of resources are available on the ground? 
Local NGO s  Somali Universities

Agriculture-The way forward 
Engaging all stakeholders is the key to agriculture development in Somalia  Private sector participation is the future


The future belongs to those who plan today

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