Improvement and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources in Somalia

Presented To: Horn Relief ToT; Training of Trainers September 28th to October 2nd 2009

Outline 
Introduction to agriculture research in Somalia  Objectives of the study  Materials used and crops reviewed  Results  Summary and recommendation

Introduction
1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2009

Independence day Somali Universities CARS establishment First graduates from SNU
NGO era

Wyoming team IDRC (Bonka) Fertilizer use BIG BANG

Objectives 
Review of previous seed and PGR programmers implemented

in Somalia 
Identification and recommendations for the area of collection  Recommendations and introduction of suitable varieties for

varietal trials and commercial production 
Guidelines to describe germ plasm to be collected and varietal

trials to be undertaken

Materials 
Pre-war (1980-1990)
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

FAO for irrigated crops University of Wyoming for dry land crops IDRC for sorghum research CIMMYT website for CIMMYT trials conducted at CARS Individuals previously engaged in agric. research in Somalia 

Post-war (1990-present)
‡ International and local NGO currently working in Somalia

Crops Reviewed 
Sorghum  Maize  Grain legumes : Cowpeas and Mungbeans  Oil Crops: Sesame, Groundnut, Safflower, Sunflower and

Soybean 
Fruits and Vegetables

Sorghum 
Pre-war (1980-1990)
‡ Local germplasm collection and evaluation
‡ Damania and Rao 1979 - Bay and Bakool (69) ‡ Prasada Rao et al. 1987 - Southern regions (252)

‡ Testing of exotic varieties 

Post-war (1990-2007)
‡ Local germplasm collection and evaluation
‡ Manzelli et al., 2002 - North West (53)

‡ Testing of exotic varieties

Sorghum Germplasm Collection - 1987

Sorghum Germplasm Collection - 1987

Sorghum Local Germplasm Evaluation 
The 1979 collection was evaluated in 1981 and 1982  No genotypic variation  Narrow genetic base  The 1987 collection was evaluated in Der 1987. Genotypic

variations were observed. 27 best performing landraces were selected

Performance of Local Landraces in Der 1987
Local landraces Days to 50% flowering Plant height (cm) Yield (kg/ha)

SS242 SS223 SS162 SS228 SS231

53 53 52 56 55

175 190 170 170 190

1734 1600 1510 1479 1463

Sorghum Germplasm Collection - 1987

Summary and Recommendation 
Significant genotypic variation exist among the local

landraces. Selection of superior lines is possible 
The local landraces posses the following characteristics:
‡ Good grain and fodder qualities, early maturing, ratooning ability, high

tolerance to stress conditions, tolerance to insects and diseases, and perform well in both Gu and Der growing conditions 

The best performing local landraces can form the basis for a

varietal trial to be conducted by the Program

Exotic Germplasm Evaluation (1980-1985) 
Over 50 variety evaluation trials were conducted at Bonka  The trials experienced extreme condition of soil heterogeniety  Inconsistency of the results  High experimental errors  Selection of superior lines-impossible

Exotic Germplasm Evaluation (1986-1989) 
1986 was marked a new era for the trials

at Bonka 
Fertilization was introduced and

management practices were improved 
Experimental errors were reduced  Better results were obtained

Summary

Summary

Summary and Recommendation 
17 trials were conducted in 1986. Only 2 trials produced varieties that

significantly out-yielded the local landrace 
16 trials were conducted in 1987, only 3 trials produced varieties that

significantly out-yielded the local landrace 
25 hybrids were tested in ISHAT trial, 11 hybrids significantly out-yielded

the local 
A total of 12 varieties and 6 hybrids (?) were chosen for future seed

intervention strategies. The percent yield increase over the local ranged from 38% to 72%

Post War Sorghum Research (1990-Present) 
Local germplasm collection and evaluation
‡ 48 local accession in the north west-CINS ‡ Genotypic differences were observed among the different accessions 

Exotic germplasm evaluation
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Save the children Hiraan 6 varieties CARE/ICRISAT promoted 3 varieties in Bay and Bakool Regions CINS introduced varieties in Bay and Bakool Regions CINS conducted local landrace evaluation - Bakool

Summary 
Results on varietal evaluations were inconclusive

Maize 
Pre-war (1980-1990)
‡ Local germplasm collection and

evaluation
‡ Development of synthetics and

composite varieties
‡ Testing of exotic varieties CIMMYT 

Post-war (1990-2007)
‡ Testing of exotic varieties

Maize 
Pre-war (1980-1990)
‡ Early years, yellow maize varieties

were identified
‡ Identification of tuxpeno maize

varieties
‡ Development and release of Afgoi

composite
‡ Somtux release - 1979 ‡ Isoma release - 1983

Exotic Varieties from CIMMYT: Low Land Tropical, Late Maturing, White Grain Varieties EVT12
6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

35 to 49% higher yield compared to the check

ST A

AL AJ U AC RO SS G U A N C A CH EC K

TA X

R

N SA N A

CO

PO

ZA

RO

S

Quality Protein Maize - QPM
4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

L O O BU

HE O

DE N

AM

TR O

38 to 50% higher yield compared to the check

M

EZ

CH

EC K

Y. F

H

2

T

A

R

New Potential Varieties
Varieties
WS102 WS103 WSQ103 CK1R04002 CK1R04003

Maturity
M M M M M

Performance
H.Y. H.Y. QPM R-stem borer R-stem borer

Source
Western seed

CIMMYT CIMMYT

New Potential Varieties
Varieties
ECA-EE6 ECA-EE13 ECA-EE18 ECA-EE21 ECA-EE45

Maturity
E E E E E

Performance
H.Y. H.Y. H.Y. H.Y H.Y

Source
CIMMYT

Recommended Trials 
Strip trial  Mother-baby-trial

Post War Maize Research
Exotic germplasm evaluation 
Save the children Hiraan 5
3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000

varieties 
Ferke9449-SR and S9449-SR

produced 49% and 26% higher yield than the local 
Food and fodder quality was better
500 0

than the local 
Stay-green in the field until harvest

FE R KE S9 44 SI 9 N AC EM RO EV SS 83 LO 23 C AL

Post War Maize Research
Best Management Practices 
CEFA engaged in trials involving

Somtux and other local varieties 
Plant spacing  Fertilizer application  Number of plants/hill  Plant spacing of 75 cm x 45 cm with

one plant/hill appear to produce better results

Summary Recommendation 

Somtux seed purification and multiplication  Introduction of CIMMYT O.P. varieties recommended for

release in Kenya
‡ Strip trial ‡ Mother-baby trial 

PERKE9449 from post-war studies

Grain Legumes 

I- Mungbean  Pre-war (1980-1990)
‡ Testing of exotic varieties AVRDC ‡ FILSAN seed release in 1987

Agronomic Data (1981-1986) - Bonka
Variety Days to maturity 60 76 59 58 60 60 Seeds/pod Seed wt. Yield (Kg/ha) 470 458 453 447 418 380 % Ashy Stem Blight 23 6 18 52 41 -

Filsan Local V3474 V1945 V1560 V1177

7 12 8 8 7 6

60 42 57 63 62 62

Grain Legumes
FILSAN 
Success story in late 80 s  Recommended to the growers in 1987  Large seeds, high yielding, early

maturing, tolerance to moisture stress

Post War - Filsan
CEFA conducted 9 demonstration plots using both FILSAN and a local variety in the Bay region. Filsan yielded 558 Kg/ha, 37% higher yield than the local that averaged 407 Kg/ha.

Recommendation 
FILSAN seed production  Introduction of new improved varieties with resistance to Ashy

Stem Blight (Macrophamicna phaseoli) from AVRDC - Taiwan

Grain Legumes 
II- Cowpeas  Pre-war (1980-1990)
‡ Testing of exotic varieties IITA ‡ The local variety out-yielded the exotic varieties

Recommendation 
Local germplasm collection and evaluation  Introduction of new superior varieties from IITA - Nigeria

Oil Crops - Sesame
Pre-war (1980-1990) 
Local germplasm collection 73 in
800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0
S.E thi o SP S1 Lo ca SP l SB SP S2 T8 5 Eth io

Gu 1987 
Testing of exotic varieties - Ethiopia  SPS1 produced the highest yield

followed by SPS2.

Oil Crops - Groundnut
Pre-war (1980-1990) 
Testing of exotic varieties - ICRISAT  At CARS, the varieties NC-2,NC-6 and Florigian produced superior yield  At Bonka, the local variety out-yielded the exotic varieties

Oil Crops - Safflower
Pre-war (1980-1990) 
Testing of exotic varieties - ICRISAT  At CARS, the varieties NC-2,NC-6 and Florigian produced superior yield  At Bonka, the local variety out-yielded the exotic varieties

Agronomic Data (1981-1986)
Variety Days to 50% flowering
79 77 81 75 76 75

Plant height (cm)
56 53 72 41 56 55

Yield (Kg/ha)

VC-152 VC-163 VC-155 GILA RH-2 Partial Hull

650 630 600 560 560 520

Summary and Recommendation 
Tolerance to drought deep rooting habit  Good source of cooking oil (30-40%)  The variety VC-152 produced the highest yield followed by VC-162  Supplements sesame for oil under extremely unfavorable moisture

conditions or under conditions where sesame cannot be grown 
Difficulties-harvesting the thorny type

Oil Crops - Sunflower
Pre-war (1980-1990) 
Testing of exotic varieties  Testing dropped in 1985 due to:
‡ Excessive bird damage ‡ Extracted oil had an unacceptable quality (a dark sediment)

Oil Crops Soy Bean
Pre-war (1980-1990) 
Testing of exotic varieties USA  Over 150 varieties were introduced at CARS  Drawback-seed deterioration in storage

Oil Crops Soy Bean 
Introduced at BDARS in 1983  Prelim testing showed the potential of soybean crop in the Bay Region agriculture  IITA is the source for new soybean varieties

Fruits and Vegetables
Fruits 
Banana  Lime  Grapefruit  Mango  Papaya  Coconut

Vegetables 
Tomato  Onion  Pepper  Watermelon  Carrots  Cucumber  Lettuce

Tomato 
Tomato Improvement Program 1982  Develop varieties resistant to Leaf Curl Virus  The virus is transmitted by whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci)  Over 1000 new varieties were screened  Crosses were performed between Roma V.F. and resistant varieties  The local Cherry-type and wild type tomatoes were the main source for

resistance 
Complete resistance was obtained when the wild type source of resistance

was used as the pollinator

General Recommendation 
Gu and Der are two distinct seasons. Discuss in relation to varietal

evaluation 
Exploit the genetic potentiality of the local varieties  Sorghum: superior lines from the local landraces and introduced varieties

were identified for future sorghum trials

General Recommendation 
Maize: Purification and multiplication of Somtux seed. Yield potential of

Somtux can be improved by a simple mass selection breeding 
New potential varieties from CIMMYT were identified which can be tested

in either strip or mother-baby trial

Summary and Recommendation
Grain Legumes: Filsan seed multiplication and introduction of new varieties from AVDRC

Thank You

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