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Feb 11, 2017

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Heat exchanger

© All Rights Reserved

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Heat exchanger

© All Rights Reserved

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Design Considerations

Heat Exchangers

Key Concepts

Heat Transfer Coefficients

Naming Shell and Tube Exchangers

Safety In Design of Exchangers

Controls for Exchangers

Heat Exchangers

4

Key Concepts

"Allow me to summarise:

Hot stuff this side, cold stuff that side. Make the cold

stuff hotter, but use inbetween stuff to not let the

cold stuff actually touch the hot stuff. Cold stuff

and hot stuff not allowed to destroy inbetween stuff

and vice versa. Some kinds of inbetween stuff

works better than others. Might need pumps or fans

to make the whole shebang work a little better,

too.

- Topher Gayle

General Sizing Method

Pick an exchanger type (S&T, Plate & Frame etc.)

Choose counter or co-current flow

Choose number of tube passes (for S&T)

draw Temp diag, Calculate the LMTD and Q

Calculate the LMTD Correction Factor (F) if more

than two tube passes

Choose a U value based on tables

Calculate the Area , A = Q/ U LMTD F

Perform rigorous rating as required (not 470)

8-9

Key Concepts

Heat Lost =

Heat Transfer Heat Absorbed

Q = U A Tln

Either Either

Q = m Cp T, Q = m Cp T,

or or

Q = m Hevap Q = m Hevap

9

Combined Equations

Determine the overall heat transfer coefficient (U) value in

order to calculate the Area (A) to size the exchanger

Duty Considerations - Q

Distillation Columns

Start-up and Shut-down usually require the column

Feed and Outlets are shut down

100% of Overhead vapour being condensed

100% of reflux being boiled

Compositions can be completely different (reactor not

online), therefore diff. temps

Is the duty in the simulation truly the worst-case

duty?

For our purposes assume yes

26-27

T1 (T1 t 2 ) (T2 t1 )

Q U A

(T1 t 2 )

ln[ ]

(T2 t1 )

t2 Always

Draw This

Graph !!

Counter Current Exchanger Temp Profile

t1 T1

t2 T2

T2 t1

26-27

Correction for not strictly counter or co-

current flow

200

T1 Exchanger Temperature Profile

T2

38 45 30

t1

27-28

Temperature Correction

Factor

Form of the heat transfer equations is:

Q UATm U AFTlmtd

T1 = 200 Graphically

T1 = 200 As A Single Pass

T2 = 38 Counter Current

t1 = 30 t2 = 45 - temp cross?

t2 = 45 T2 = 38

t1 = 30

27-28

Temperature Correction

Factor

Form of the heat transfer equations is:

Q UATm U AFTlmtd

T1 = 200 Graphically

T1 = 200

T2 = 38 As a 2 Pass exch

t1 = 30 - temp cross

t2 = 45 - low F factor

t2 = 45 T2 = 38 t1 = 30

28-39

Temperature Correction

Factor MTD Correction Factor

1

0.9

F = MTD Correction Factor

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

P = Temperature Efficiency

R = 20

R = 1.2 t 2 t1 T T2

P R 1

R=0.6 T1 t1 t 2 t1

R=0.4

30

Condensing LMTD

Divide the Exchanger into segments

Evaluate U and LMTD for each segment

T1

T2 T2

t2

T3

t1

Distance

Counter to the Co-current

Use Counter Current

maximize LMTD (minimize Area, cost

etc.)

minimize utility reqts

Use Co-current

minimize outlet utility temperatures

reduced fouling

9-11

Determining U

Tables for U values

Determine U via fundamental equations

note that fouling factors often overshadow

equations provide

Details of exchanger configuration required

vendors can and will provide exch sizing

design

11-13

Determining U

Physical configuration affects U values

Tables assume certain things about

configuration, (ie..inappropriate tube

length, or number of tubes) the

assumptions are invalidated, then the

tables will mislead.

11-13

Film Coef from Velocity

(water)

3500

180 F

3000

(BTU/hr sq ft F)

2500

Film Coef

2000 100 F

1500

40 F

1000

500

0

0 5 10 15

Tube Velocity (ft/sec)

11-13

The following factors all affect the velocities

of the fluids in the exchanger

Tube Length

Tube Dia

Baffle Spacing

boiling

11-13

Adding a Tube Pass doubles the velocity of the

liquid on the tube side

Shellside

1.5 in

1.5

B in Baffle Pitch

or Spacing

affle "Window"

Opening to

ow Parallel

Tubes, as

hell Side Passes

om One Baffle

rea to the Next

Physical Configuration & U

values

Tube Layout

Preferred for cleaning (high heat x-fer)

26

13

Velocity Limitations

Maximum Velocity is Dictated by:

Vibration

Erosion

Hydraulic

13-15

Velocity Limitations -

Vibration

Usually a Shell Side Issue

Vibration Can Cause

Collision Damage, Baffle Damage, Fatigue

Causes

Turbulent buffeting

Fluidelastic whirling

tubes

13-15

Velocity Limitations -

Vibration

Analysis

determine the natural frequency of the tubes

vibration of tubes between baffles

vibration on U bends

account for damping (fluid properties, tube

stresses etc.)

determine critical flow velocity

minimum cross flow velocity that the span may

Analysis by Programs or TEMA Standards

15

Limitations - Erosion

High Velocity causes thinning of the metal walls (erosion).

It can be avoided by maintaining velocities (ft/sec) below those given by this equation.

(about 12 ft/sec for water)

100

Verosion

lb / ft 3

15-16

Velocity Limitations -

Hydraulics

Available pressure drop will limit velocity

The P rises to the square of the velocity

60 EXCH 0 psig

psig

CV

P

16-17

Velocity Limitations -

Physical

Limitations on Shipping,

Floor space etc. all make a difference

(dont forget about pulling the tube

bundle)

U values of interest

to 800)

Reboiler U values are very high ( 700)

liq / liq U values in middle (100 - 300)

Cooling / heating gases

(desuperheating) have very low U

values (<30)

Shell Side

Fluid Leaks

TEMA to Atmosphere

Easier Expensive

to Clean

Large Annular

Less Space = Low

Costly U Value

Cheap,

Hard to clean

Exchanger Selection

Require a U-tube or Floating head, instead

of fixed tube sheet, when thermal expansion

between shell and tubes is an issue

i.e. shell side fluid and tube side fluid

Require a Floating Head, instead of U-tube

When cleaning tubes mechanically is

When errosion may occur on tube side

52

Reboilers

Boiling Phenomena

Boiling Regimes Nucleate Boiling

1.00E+07

1.00E+06

(W/sq m)

Film Boiling

1.00E+05

Q

1.00E+04

1.00E+03

1 10 100 1000 10000

Temp Differential (C)

Nucleate boiling at shell/tube T = 20 to 50 F

53-57

Reboilers

Sizing

Common to use maximum heat flux

15,000 BTU/hr sq ft

determine the best T

Max Flux is a function of the Number of active

nucleation which is in turn affected by the

materials of construction, the fluid properties

and the temperature difference

55

Reboilers

Heat Flux can be increased with special

systems (i.e. sintering, brazing, flame

spraying, electrolytic deposition). Sand

blasting , scoring tends not to provide

stable long term enhancement.

Vapour

Heat Exchanger Safety

What Can Fail?

Control System Failure

Tube can rupture

Tubes separate from Tube Sheet

Blocked in exchanger causes cool fluid to

experience temperatures of hot fluid

Plate & Frame

Gaskets can leak mixing hot and cold sides , or

releasing either fluid to surroundings

Heat Exchanger Safety

Implications

Fires, Explosions, Toxic Releases

Controlling Exchangers

Q = U A Tln

A is fixed

U varies slightly with velocity

Tln is the controlling variable

Hot In Hot In

Cold Out

Cold Out

Hot Out Hot Out

Q = m c T

Cold In Cold In

58

Controls

Liquid / Liquid - control on cooling media

C/w

59

Controls

Liquid / Liquid - control on process

C/w

60

Steam Pressure Control

T

Steam Trap

61

Condensate Level Control

Workshop - Size

Condenser

Duty: 153 x 106 KJ/hr

T1 = 213.3 C

T2 = 35 C

t1 = 30 C

dew point: 150 C (to be confirmed in

PRO 2)

U gas/water - 0.51 kW/ m2 C

U condensing / water - 0.85 kW/ m2 C

No Class Friday ?

END

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