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The Welding Procedure and its

I. Welding procedure specifications
A. Is to define and document the details that are to be
carried out in welding specific materials

B. Contents
sufficiently, detailed to ensure that the welding will
meet all requirements of the applicable code,
C. Base Metals and applicable specifications
.Give the chemical composition- 1
Indicate condition of base metal before welding- 2
Normalized, annealed, quenched and tempered, solution )
( .treated
The fabricator must know the identity of all.3
Full plates or sections can be ID by the mill
small portions cut from plates marked with the
same numbers.
D. Welding process (partial listing)
Oxyacetylene OAW. 1
Brazing. 2
SAW. 7
ESW. 8
SW. 9
E. Type, classification, composition of filler
Composition, classification designation of the filler metal must . 1
be included
Also included in specifications. 2
a. Size of electrode or filler metal For
varying ( positions, metal thickness)

b. Storage requirements Low hydrogen electrodes require a

dry (120oC)
F. Type of current and current rang

AC or DC (DCRP or DCSP).
Current range should be listed for each of the
welding variables (position, thickness, electrode
G. Welder qualification requirements
welding operator qualification.
Make reference to applicable welder qualification specifications
H. Joint designs and tolerances.
Indicate joint design details as well as welding
Use crops sectional sketches that show the thickness
of material and details. of the joint or refer to standard
drawings or specifications.
Give tolerances for all dimensions.
Joint preparation and cleaning of surfaces for welding
(Before or after welding or cutting ).
Joint welding details, give details for (i.e. amps,
electrode size, sequence of passes, weave limitations,
I. Preheat and inter pass temperatures
measured by touching the work piece close to the
.weld joint with
J. Peening
If peening is to be used, give details of its application

And verify the results during qualification test welding

Peening the middle layer of a weld distributes and
balances distortion.
K. Heat input
heat-treated alloy steels, must not heat above the
final tempering temperature used by the steel mill.
Specify the preheat and inter pass temperature range
. Arc voltage range maximum.
. Welding current range maximum.
. Travel speed minimum.
L. Root preparation prior to welding from second
Describe how (Chipping, grinding, air carbon arc
gouging, oxyacetylene gouging, or whatever).
M. Removal of weld section for repair
May be the same procedure used for preparing the
root from the second side .
N. Repair Welding
Give details of any repair welding methods and
procedures .
O. Examination
Type of examination for each joint will receive (i.e.
radiography, magnetic particle, etc.).
Visual inspection of every weld is routinely
required .
P. Post heat treatment
Give a full description or reference drawing, or
heat-treated alloy steels should not exceed the final
tempering temp that was given the base metal.
If a full reheat treatment is intended, do the
welding with the metal in the annealed condition.
Q. Marking
Require that welder identification marks be made on
or near each weld.
. Maintaining a record of welds made by the welders.

I.D. marking made with low stress steel die stamps.

R. Records
Indicate detailed records of the welding joints.
II. Welding procedure qualification
A. There are four steps in the qualification of a
welding procedure (all or none).
.Preparation and welding of suitable samples. 1
.Testing of representative specimens. 2
3. Evaluation of overall preparation, welding, testing,
and end results.
.Approval (if the results are favorable). 4
B. Preparation of Procedure Qualification sample
1.The size, type, and thickness are related to the type
and thickness of material to be welded in production
and the number, type and size of specimens to be
removed for testing.
C. Testing of procedure qualification
The type and number of specimens to be.1
removed for destructive tests will depend upon
the requirements specification (. Usually
include tensile strength , ductility, soundness,
.and NDT)

Be sure that your records show how the 2

procedure qualification test welds were made
.and tested

D. Evaluation of test results

These results will be analyzed by the. 1

responsible parties to determine whether the
test details and results meet the requirements
E. Approval of qualification tests and
procedure specifications
Qualification is accomplished when the required. 1
tests have been completed and approval has been

2. Documentary evidence must be available to show

that the results were indeed satisfactory.

3 .You should witness the welding and testing of all

specimens; because you will gain knowledge will help
in inspection.
III. Code qualification requirements
A. AWS structural welding code D1.1
Paragraph 5.5 sets forth the requirements for. 1
qualifying those welding procedures, which do not
meet the pre-qualified status of paragraph 5.1 of that

The type and number of specimens that must be. 2

tested to quality a welding procedure are given in
paragraph 5.10
a test results required are in 5.12
B. ASME boiler and pressure vessel code
Section IX is the basic document Welding and. 1
brazing qualifications
All sections of the ASME code required welding. 2
procedures to be qualified in accordance with section
Section III on nuclear components for power. 3
IV. Changes in a qualified procedure
Re-qualification is necessary when any
one of the essential variables listed in
the governing standard or code is
V. Welding inspector responsibilitie
A. Welding procedure qualification
It is your duty to verify that welding. 1
procedures have been established they will
You should witness the welding and testing of-2
the qualification weld specimens
You must have available authentic-3
documentary evidence that joints were
B. Welding Inspection
Passing of a qualification test does not ensure proper. 1
.application of the procedure
.Verify how the qualified procedure is being applied . 2
Checklist for Yourself for each procedure specification to guide .3
It is your duty to obtain a good job, properly fabricated . 4
a-not to impose your preferences on the fabricator. Until
your experience as an inspector covers many shops.
b. Inspect as promptly and quickly as possible.
c. Interfere as little as possible with production.
Make sure that weldments needing repair are correctly and.5
.adequately marked
a.Everyone should have a clear understanding about the
.marking system you will use to indicate any repairs
b-You must approve the repair procedure and inspect the
.repaired weld
C. Welding inspection progress
1. Inspection should progress in sequence with
manufacturing operations.
a. Interference between inspection and production is
kept to a minimum.
b. Inspection operations frequently are required at a
certain stage of fabrication. Completion of the next
manufacturing step may make inspection of the
receding step impossible.
D. Procedure of inspection (may vary with code
1. Prior to welding
a. Chemical analysis
b. Mechanical properties
c. Base metal discontinuities
1. Laminations and cracks 2. Surface
3. Flatness
d. Joint fit-up
1. Edge preparation (including root face and beveling)
2. Dimensions 3. Cleanliness
4. Root opening 5. Tacking
6. Backing (where required)
C. Special setups used for assembly and fabrication (to
see that uniform practices are used)
1. Jigging and bracing
2. Pre-stressing or pre-cambering
2. Inspection during welding
a. Preheat and interpass temperature b. Root pass
c. Root preparation prior to welding second side
d. Cleaning between passes e. Appearance of passes
(sometimes in comparison with workmanship standard)
f.Variations from approved welding procedure (materials,
electrodes, currents, etc.)
3. Inspection after welding
a. Post heat treatment b. Surface finishing of welds
4. Preparation of inspection reports and related
E. Acceptance inspection
1. Method of cleaning for inspection
2. Nondestructive testing
a. Visual inspection
b. Surface appearance of welds
c. Conformity of welds with
d. Liquid penetrate tests
e. Magnetic particle tests
f. Radiography
g. Ultrasonic tests
h. Proof testing
i. Other suitable methods
3. Destructive testing
a. Chemical
b. Mechanical
c. Metallographic
4. Repairs
a. Marking for acceptance or
b. Inspection of preparations for
c. Inspection after repair
5. Inspection of loading prior to shipment
6. Preparation of inspection reports and related

How to formulate a welding procedure - a guide
to best practice
Requirements, considerations & essential steps
to success
this guide is based around carbon steels, much of the
information it contains can be related to other materials,.
many welding procedures fail to meet their objectives
due to communication problems. Welders, inspectors and
supervisors need procedures, which give essential
information clearly and in enough detail
The layout of a welding procedure can be just as
important as the content itself: information should be
presented in a manner, which is visually clear and easy to
make sure that you either use the latest revision of a Code
or Standard, or, what the contract specifies regarding
welding procedures.
Establish the class of work
WP can be applied to a variety of different products.
Each product have different requirement from
for example, a garden gate. not required wps

Conversely, if a product is regarded as 'safety critical',

the welding procedure (or procedures) will have to
contain more information and require approval testing
to ensure that it will work in practice and that certain
mechanical, metallurgical and physical properties can
be achieved.
many of the details will be established at the design
stage in conjunction with company quality
assurance/quality control requirements.

is also essential to establish. technical details of
production: for example, facilities available, i.e.
welding equipment (power sources, manipulators or
Step 2
Determine if the product is to be manufactured
to a Code of Practice

In general terms, the code will include:

1- Design requirements. 2- Materials for
3- Workmanship requirements. 4-Inspection and
5- Acceptance levels
Typical codes of practice, which could be
specified, are:
BS5500 : Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels
ASMEVIII: American boiler and pressure vessel code
BS 2633 :Class 1 arc welding of pipe for carrying fluids
BS4515: Process of welding steel pipelines on land
and offshore
AWS D1.1 : Structural welding code
codes of practice very different requirements for welding
For example, BS5500 specifies that WP must be in accordance
Step 3
Establish customer or contract
Details stipulated within contracts are varied. It is
difficult to be specific about details of this nature but
-for guidance the following examples are provided
Example A
In BSEN 288 Part 3, details the requirements for wp
approvals, for all positional approval that a pipe test
piece will be required to be welded (pipe axis at 45
degrees during the test).
Welders find this welding position easier compared
with a test with the pipe in the fixed pipe axis
horizontal and fixed pipe axis vertical.,
therefore, important to first satisfy the welding
procedure requirements, rather than the welder
It may be the customer would insist on two test
pieces for each welding procedure approval and this
Example B
As mentioned in Step 2, BS5500 specifies that welding
procedures are required to be approved to BSEN288.
The code of practice also insists on further
requirements in addition to BSEN288, including the
need for further mechanical testing. For this reason it
is essential that as many facts relating to specific
contractual and code requirements are established
.beforehand to minimize future problems
Step 4
Rationalize approval testing of the
welding procedure(s)
Because many welding procedures are required
to undergo approval testing, it is important that
the welding procedure meets the standard
It is also possible in many instances, to approve
welding procedures to different standards
simultaneously, e.g. to BSEN288 and ASME IX. It
should, however, be recognized that both
standards must be met in relation to technical
The project leader should investigate the
possibility of joint approval as this approach could
satisfy further projects and save costs associated
with future approvals.
Step 5
Check for concise communication

Many WP fail due to communication problems. it is too

easy for the originator of the WP to include information,
The blame for quality problems during manufacture is
often attributed to welders who are required to read and
understand the technical details..
Conversely, over communication may lead to confusion
and in the worst case the welder simply ignores all or most
of the instructions.
Some standards, such as BSEN288 Part 2, dictate specific
additional items (e.g. baking or drying of consumables for
MMA, pulse welding parameters for TIG or MIG) to be
included in the document or weld procedure.
Guidance on the layout or format of the WP is often
provided in the appropriate standard. In addition, the
information in a WP needs to be presented in a manner
which is visually clear and easy to follow. To help fabricators
manage their welding information more efficiently,
Step 6
Investigate range of approval
The term 'range of approval' initially relates to the
production details of the project or product.
Production details often relate to the following
Welding process to be used .
Material types used in the project .
Different thickness of material used.
Pipe or plate applications (or both) .
Weld joint type .
Welding positions encountered .
For the above items, wp (and welder approval)
standards often provide a working tolerance for
each individual factor in production. These are
,known as the range of approval
:for example
A fabrication of high strength steel, using the MMAW
process, in a thickness range of (5 - 25mm). The
fabrication requires use of pipe in a range of diameters
from (100 to 300mm), and plate materials. The
welding will involve
all welding positions except vertical down, and the
joint types are butt joints made from one or two sides,
.and fillet welded joints
To prepare WP for each detail,, would be extremely
time- consuming and costly.
Therefore, approval standards often apply a range of
to approval ,increase the working range of individual
welding procedures.
For the above example fabrication, the following is
provided as general guidance (for approval, details
must be obtained by referring to the appropriate
standard or standards):
Welding process
The welding process plays a major role in the quality
,and performance of the welded joint
Because the material is a high strength steel, the
range of approval could include all materials with
similar weldability and/or mechanical properties. So, it
may be that one material will approve the other types
Thickness of components
The range of approval may be from half to twice the
mean thickness. 0.5 - 2t., if a joint was 10mm, the
.range of approval will be from 5 to 20mm
For pipes, the diameter will be based on half to twice
the diameter. If a pipe in 200mm diameter will satisfy
diameters ranging from 100 to 300mm. also approve
plate welds
Joint type
joint welded from one side is much more difficult than
a joint welded from both sides, This single-sided joint,
Step 7
Consider essential variables
varies from code to code (or standard to standard).
However, the definition largely has the same
In BSEN 288, the term is defined as 'a variable which
will influence or change the mechanical or
metallurgical properties of the welded joint'. Other
codes/standards use the definition 'changes that
'.affect approval
:Essential variables may include
Material grade or group (material thickness range,
form (pipe or plate), joint type ,details ).
Welding process (AC, DC), polarity,A, V, speed,
number of weld runs and sequence.
Consumable details (manufacturer's name, size,
shielding gases, flow rates).
Other essential variables are based around these three
essential variables.
Step 8
Select the method of approval

involves welding test pieces, which to production

correct method is established before proper formulation of
the welding procedure is carried out this may have an
impact on most of the previous steps. BSEN 288 Part 3 to
Part 8
Step 9
Formulate the welding procedure

the most difficult task. depend on the outcome of each of the

previous eight steps. Unless you are a welding expert you
will probably have to involve expertise from other sources
:which may include
A qualified welding consultant
Use of reference books from welding consumable or
welding equipment manufacturers
Dedicated welding procedure information
Codes and standards
Pre-approved weld procedures
Historical records of previously approved welding
Example one-a general purpose fabrication
the contract requires only the welders to be approved to BS4872

Part One: 'Approval Testing of Welders when Welding Procedure

Approval is not Required'. Assumptions for this example
Material type: Low carbon steel
Material thickness: 10mm
Material form: Plate
Welding process: Manual metal arc
Consumable details: to be confirmed by consumable
Current type: Alternating current
Welding position: Vertical up
Joint type: Fillet weld only
Within the standard there is not a requirement for amperage,
voltage or travel speed. Nor is there a requirement for preheat or
post weld heat treatment, or specific techniques regarding the
number of weld passes or sequence of weld passes.
Example two - a safety-critical piping system
The relevant code of practice in this example is BS2633 'Class
'.1 arc welding of pipe for carrying fluids
The following provides an example of how a welding procedure
.would be formulated
Assessment of materials
Mechanical/physical properties of the parent material
(strength, toughness, hardness, corrosion resistance,
Chemical analysis of the material - percentages of
carbon, manganese, etc for ferritic steels and in
addition chromium, nickel, molybdenum, etc for
stainless steels. This may be established from the
materials certification provided by the materials
supplier or manufacturer and should relate to the
materials used for testing or fabrication
Material thickness, length, width, diameter for pipes,
Joint design, butt joints, fillet welded joints, etc
economics is also necessary so effective production
methods can be decided. This will require appropriate
joint details angle, root gap and root face. edge
Assessment of weldability
the carbon equivalent value (CEV) in this case is 0.48%
which means that the material could be susceptible to
hydrogen induced cold cracking (H.I.C.C.). Appropriate
precautions must be taken which may include requirements
for preheat/heat input control and post weld heat treatment
Preheat & weld hydrogen
The amount of preheat required is based on other factors
such as the expected hydrogen level of the welding
process. the objective is to bring the hydrogen potential
.down as low as possible
based on the weld metal having less than 15ml of hydrogen
.in 100g of weld metal
Selection of consumables
Because the material is regarded as 'crack sensitive' it is
important to select a welding consumable which exhibits
low hydrogen potential. the consumable type is dependent
on the process choice. , some arc welding processes having
a low hydrogen potential, e.g. TIG and MIG. But flux-based
processes, such as (MMA) and (SAW), require correct
selection of the consumable flux and appropriate controls to
Size of consumable
In order to establish the correct consumable size, several
:points must be taken into consideration
Productivity requirements.
Welding positions encountered .
Joint designs encountered .
Welder competence .
Acceptance levels or quality requirements
a small diameter electrode will be preferred so that the welder
has greater control over the weld pool. For all welding
a 2.5mm diameter electrode could be used for the root
pass and a 3.25mm could be used for the fill and capping
If the material was relatively thin (less than 8 - 10mm), it
may be necessary to use a 2.5mm electrode throughout.
It may also be necessary to contemplate using TIG
welding for the root pass and completing the remainder of
the weld with MMA ,
If TIG was chosen, a suitable shielding gas and filler wire
size and type will also need to be included in the welding
procedure, along with other details that relate to the TIG
Welding parameters
The main welding parameters associated with arc welding
:processes are
Amperage ( 1 mm = 40 amps ) in MMA
Travel speed
the final run to be made with a 2.5mm diameter electrode
to avoid problems with undercut at the weld toe.
In the MMA, arc voltages are dependent on the
consumables being used. For MMA with a basic electrode,
20 to 24V. For rutile coverings, 18 - 22V, and for cellulosic
coverings, typically 28 - 32V.
For TIG welding using argon, arc voltage will typically be 10
- 12V.
Arc voltage is much more difficult to establish when
specifying continuous wire-fed processes such as MIG/MAG
or SAW.
The consumable manufacturer information may be available
from the shop floor.
the travel speed is left to the welder's experience.
Inter pass temperature & post-weld heat treatment
For some types of material, the inter pass temperature and post-
Requirements for specific processes
Different welding processes require certain additional
features to be specified. Reference to BSEN288 Part 2
.will provide specific details for each welding process
TIG welding, for example, it will be necessary to
specify the tungsten electrode designation and
diameter. In addition, the nozzle diameter and gas flow
,rate are also required. For other welding processes
Step 10
Evaluate information gathered
The information which has been acquired for (pWPS)
should be evaluated before any approval test is carried
out. by the same welders who will be carrying out the
approval testing become familiar with the WPS and
provides feedback to validate recorded information
Step 11
Approve the welding procedure
A suitably competent person should carry out approval
of the welding procedure (and welder). It may also be
necessary to have the test witnessed by a third party
inspectorate, such as an insurance company
representative. In addition, subsequent visual
inspection, non-destructive testing and destructive
testing will require, in most cases, personnel to have
appropriate qualifications such as CSWIP (Certification
,Scheme for Welding and Inspection Personnel)
To reduce costs, it is possible to carry out multi-
standard approval from one test. approval to BSEN,
Step 12
Establish documentation requirements
For many people, this is the most important part of the
.process of formulating and approving welding procedures
Definitions to BSEN288/287
Pwps - Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification
WPS - Welding Procedure Specification (welders, inspectors,
supervisors, etc).
WPAR - Welding Procedure Approval Record (by the company's
quality control department )
WATR - Welder Approval Test Record
All of the above records - which will in addition include
inspection reports, NDT reports and destructive testing
reports - are kept as part of a quality control system.
It will also be necessary for a responsible person to sign
off the welder approval test records/certificates on a
regular basis - otherwise the approval may lose validity
. and re-approval of welders may be required
Step 13
Monitor production welds
It is important to ensure that the correct welding.
procedures are available for specific production
welding details and that appropriately qualified
.personnel monitor the welding
Step 14
Consider cost implications
The costs involved with successfully addressing all the
issues, implications and requirements connected with
each of the previous 13 steps could range from a few
hundred pounds for a relatively simple welding
procedure to many thousands of pounds for a large
.number of approved welding procedures
High quality training plus appropriate qualifications
and the right practical experience are essential for
.successful formulation of welding procedures
What is "to manage welding procedure"? Explain it
concretely according to the four-step circle method of
'Doming Circle' PDCA proposed by W. E. Deming to
explain statistical
quality control activities.


P : Planning the welding procedure specifications

D : Preparation and manage of welding procedure

following the welding plan

C : Check and evaluation of welding procedure

A : Go / Stop or correction of the welding procedure by

check step's evaluation
Mention three items composing welding quality
management activities (comprehensive quality


Three major factors that constitute quality

management activities are

1) Quality assurance

2) Quality control (quality control in the narrow

sense such as SQC statistic quality control)

3) Quality improvement
The tasks and responsibilities required for the Welding
Coordination are specified in ISO14731. What activities are
specified in this standard for Welding Engineer(s)? Give five
Select five items among the followings :

(1) Contact review

(2) Design review
(3) Materials and Weldability (Traceability)
(4) Welding consumables (Suitability, Requirements)
(5) Subcontractor (Profitability)
(6) Fabrication plan
(7) Equipments and facilities
(8) Preparation works
(9) Welding procedures
(10) Measuring and visual examination
(11) Destructive and Non-destructive testing
(12) Acceptance of welds (Repair)
(13) Documentation (including document control)
Part 2 to 4 of ISO 3834 corresponds to ISO
14731 "Welding coordination - Tasks and
responsibilities" and relates to ISO 9000s
series standards- Mention concisely the title
and contents of the ISO 3834 standard.


1) The title of the standard : Quality requirements for

welding - Fusion welding of metallic materials

2) Outlines of the standard : This standard consists of Part 2

through Part 4 corresponding to ISO 9001 through 9003.
These are "Comprehensive quality requirements",
quality requirements", "Elementary quality requirements"
respectively, in which welding-related quality
requirements regarding various activities from contract,
delivery, through after-sale service are covered.
In order to assure welding quality, it is important to
establish WPS (Welding Procedure Specification). To
make WPS, to conduct welding and related jobs in
accordance with WPS and to maintain WPS shall be a
responsibility of Welding Engineer. What items shall
be given and specified in WPS. Give at least five
Select five items among the followings:
(1) Classification of base material
(2) Classification and size of welding consumables
(3) Welding process
(4) Preheating and interpass temperature
(5) Groove geometry and tolerance
(6) Polarity, Number of electrodes and flow rate of shielding
(7) Number of layer and deposition sequences
(8) Welding position
(9) Welding parameters
(10) Qualification of welder
Answer the following questions regarding to the fabrication by welding in
accordance with the ASME Code. Choose and mark the correct one
among five. Then, put the related chapter number of ASME Code in [
Example : [ UW-12-c ]
(1) When spot radiographic examination is adopted, one spot shall be
examined in the first (a.
3m, b. 6m, c. 10m, d. I2m, e. 15m) of welding in each vessel. [ ]

(2) According to the Standard for Spot Radiographic Examination, welds

in which the radiographs show slag inclusions or cavities shall be
unacceptable if the length of any such imperfection is greater than ( a.
1/4 T, b. 1/3 T, c. 1/2 T, d. 2/3 T, e. 3/4 t), where t is the thickness of the
thinner plate welded. [ ]

(3) In case of performing PWFT, heating the vessel in more than one heat
in a furnace, provided the overlap of the heated sections of the vessel is
at least ( a. 0.3 m, b. 1.0 m, c.1.5m, d.2.0m, e.3.0m). [ ]

(4) Each welder and welding operator shall stamp the identifying
number, letter or symbol at interval of not more than ( a. 0.3 m, b. 1.0
m, c. 1.5 m, d. 2.0 m, e. 5 m ) along the welds which he makes in steel
plates 6 mm and over in thickness. [ ]

(5) The surface of the part to be welded shall be clean and free of scale,
rust, oil, grease and other deleterious foreign materials for a distance of
(1)e. 15 (UW-52-b]

(2)d.2/3T (UW-52-c(2) ]

(3) c. 1.5m [UW-40-a(2)3

(4)b. 1.0m [UW-37-f(l)]

(5) a. 13 mm [ UW-32 ] Note : No prescription

in ASME-2000
The following sentences are relating to the fabrication
by welding in ASME Code Sec. VIII,
Div.l. Choose the correct number in the parenthesis
and mark 0 its letter. Further put the
number or letter of the chapter and section which is
specified in the Code.
(Example [UW-31-a]).
(1) When spot radiographic examination is carried out,
the sampling rate is one shot per every
(a. 10, b.20, c.30, d. 40, e. 50 ) feet of weld length. [

(2) The maximum allowable reinforcement height of

circumferential welding joint whose
thickness is 26mm, is ( a. 3S2, b. 1/8, c. 3/16, d. 1/4, e.
5/16) inch, [ ]

(3) In the butt welded joint of Category "B" of 2 inches

plate thickness, the maximum allowable
(4) It is recommended that at low temperature, for
example at 20 F, the surface of all areas
within 3 inches of the point where a weld is to be
started should be heated to a temperature at
least (a. 36, b. 50, c. 60, d. 70, e. 80 ) F before
welding is started. [
(5) Each welder and welding operator shall stamp the
identifying number, letter or symbol
assigned the Manufacturer, on or adjacent to and at
intervals of not more than ( a. 1, b- 3,c. 5, d. 7, e. 10 )
feet or less along the welds which he makes in steel
plates 25 mm in thickness.


(1)e.50 [UW52-b]
(2)d.l/4 [UW-35-d]
(3) a. I/4 [UW-38-a]
(4) c. 60 [ UW-30 ]
Preheating is sometimes required on welding
procedure. Describe the objectives at least 3
items and their detail explanations on each.
(1) Prevent of cold cracks in the weld metal and HAZ
(2) Improvement of the ductility and notch toughness
of weld metal and HAZ
(3) To avoid lack of fusion and poor penetration at weld
root pass in welding heavy plate or in welding metals
having higher thermal conductivity
1. Preheating effects welding cooling rate down, so
that it induces to make softened HAZ and weld metal.
2. The above slower welding cooling rate will reduce
the diffusible hydrogen content in weld metal.
The above 1. and 2. effect will be avoid probable
welding cold cracking.
Softened HAZ and weld metal due to preheating may
improve their notch toughness and ductility,
Explain the five items of important cautions on the design
and procedure to prevent brittle fracture of welded
(Answer) Give five items out of the followings:
(1) Use of the material with excellent toughness. Select the
material with sufficient notch toughness, paying due to
attention to the service temperature, service conditions, etc.
(2) Use of the material with better weldability. Select the
material that has excellent weldability.
Excellent performance of the weld and little possibility of weld
defects are required in a weld structure.
(3) The design shall be such as to avoid the stress
concentration. The design shall be such as to avoid the stress
concentration due to the shape of the structural elements
(open holes, comers. etc.) as well as the configurationally
discontinuity and concentration of weld lines.
(4) Elimination and control of welding defects (imperfections) .
Eliminate the welding defects by adopting the non-destructive
test, and control under the distinct assumption as to what
percent of welding defects still remain-
(5) Establishment and control of welding condition.
(6) Reduction of welding deformation by taking particular care
to reduce angular distortion, off-set of
Thank you