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HVAC System

PES Institute of
Goal: To develop an automotive air-conditioning system
that is smaller and lighter than with conventional technology.

The Challenge: The system must be capable of

keeping a temperature of 22C inside a stationary black
vehicle with four occupants, with an outside temperature
of 40C. Also, the system must be an efficient heating
system, keeping an internal temperature of 15C with an
outside temperature of 0C.
H.V.A.C Heating, Ventilation and Air
Conditioning system

The HVAC regulates:

Room Temperature
Air Quality
Air Flow
Refrigeration Cycle

3 2

4 1

Enthalpy kJ/kg

Vapour Compression Cycle

Design Parameters & Considerations
Heat Load on the HVAC = 5.287 kW
Cabin Relative Humidity = 40%
Evaporator Temperature = 4C
Refrigerant Used = R134a
Refrigeration Cycle : Vapour Compression

Cabin design cooling and heating requirements

Temperature and Humidity range
Placement of Vents and Ducts
Space considerations
Effect on car performance
Environmental Impact
Cycle Analysis & Heat Load
Compression process is isentropic.
No pressure losses in piping.
Condenser temperature = 46C.
Evaporator Temperature = 4 C.
Refrigerant is not sub cooled.

Heat Load Calculations:

Heat due to opaque surfaces = 3598.2 W
Heat due to fenestration = 1229.66 W
Internal Loads ( human ) = 460 W

Total Load = 5.287 kW

Evaporator Pressure = 3.38 bar
Condenser Pressure = 11.9 bar
Heat Load = 5.287 KW
Condenser Cooling Load= 6.308 KW
Compressor Work = 1.02 KW
Mass Flow Rate = 1.94 l/min
Selection Basis
Scroll Compressors
Compact design and High Volumetric Efficiency
( around 98% ).
Refrigerant R134a
Minimized environmental impact.
Plate-Fin Heat Exchanger-
Compact size, Higher heat transfer capability.
Simple design incorporated to minimize cost.
Heart of the system, belt driven pump that fastened to engine.
Responsible for compressing and transferring refrigerant.

Two interleaved scrolls with involute geometry.

One scroll fixed while the other orbits eccentrically to compress fluid

Very high volumetric efficiency (almost 98%)
Lesser Noise and lighter compared to rotary compressor.

Weight 5.8 kg
Displacement 90 ml/ revolution
Maximum Speed 12000 rpm
Rated Voltage 12 V
Responsible for heat dissipation
The condenser is designed to radiate heat.
Located in front of the radiator
Require good air flow when system is in operation
Plate fin type heat exchanger with micro channels
Very compact and better heat transfer capability.
Hot compressed refrigerant vapour cools at constant
pressure to liquid.

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient = 92 W/m2K

Area = 6.87 m2
Depending on the vehicle, the A/C system will either have a receiver dryer
or an accumulator.
Components contain a desiccant, chemical that attracts moisture.
Prevents formation of corrosive acids on mixture of water and acid.
Also act as temporary storage for refrigerant to prevent starving of
Heat absorption component.
Used remove heat from the inside of vehicle.
Secondary benefit - dehumidification.
Unconditioned air passes through a filter before entering the evaporator.
Plate-fin evaporator with micro channels used.

Overall heat transfer coefficient = 98 W/m2K

Area calculated = 3.04 m 2
Fan Flow Rate = 90 l/s
Layout of Components
Looking Ahead
Finalize and validate results based on
inputs from other teams.
Improvise on the current design and form
a cost effective solution.
Documentation and reports.
Thank You !