Group 3

1

INTRODUCTION
y Art nouveau is a French/ Belgian name of an art

movement in reaction to the academical schools at the end of the 19th century (1894-1914). y This movement was represented in Europe and also in the United States. It often had several names in each country. y Some were named after major artists, magazines or firms. E.g. in France style Guimard, in Germany Jugendstil (youth style) and in Italy Stile Liberty.

2

HISTORY AND ORIGIN
y Art Nouveau manifested itself at the end of the

19th and the beginning of the 20th century. y It had its origin in England as a reaction to the Industrial Revolution and its mass production of artistic objects and articles of use. y These artists were bored of repeating of former styles in a neo-form and the compilation of it in the eclecticism.

3

HISTORY AND ORIGIN
y Arthur Macmurdo s book-cover for Wren s city

churches (1883) with its rhythmic floral patterns is often considered the first realization of the art nouveau. y the flat-perspective and strong colors of Japanese woodcuts, especially those of Katsushika Hokusai, had a strong effect on the formulation of art nouveau s formal language.

4

Book cover by Arthur Mackmurdo for Wren's city churches (1883)

5

DEVELOPMENT OF THE STYLE
y Art nouveau developed differently in various

parts of the world beginning from Britain to the United States and gradually spreading to other parts. y In Britain, art nouveau evolved out of the already established arts and crafts movement founded by English designer William Morris.

6

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
y His devotion to handmade articles was a reaction

against shady machine-made products as a result of industrial revolution expansion. y British art nouveau designers of the 1890s shared his dedication to hand-crafted work and integrated designs.

7

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
y In the United States art nouveau evolved naturally

from the craft tradition of the early 19th century. y Travel between the United States and Europe fostered a continuous exchange of ideas. y The first American architects in the forefront of Art Nouveau were Rookwood Pottery and Tiffany Studios, producing a wide range of elegant pottery decorated with softly colored natural forms.

8

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
y it is known in various guises with frequent localized tendencies. y In France, Hector Guimard's metro entrances shaped the landscape of Paris and Emile Gallé was at the center of the school of thought in Nancy. y Victor Horta had a decisive impact on architecture in Belgium y Art Nouveau was a movement of distinct individuals such as Gustav Klimt, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, Alphonse Mucha, René Lalique, Antonio Gaudí and Louis Comfort Tiffany, each of whom interpreted it in their own manner.
9

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
y Although Art Nouveau fell out of favor with the arrival

of 20th-century modernist styles, it is seen today as an important bridge between the historicism of Neoclassicism and modernism. y , Art Nouveau monuments are now recognized by UNESCO on their World Heritage List as significant contributions to cultural heritage.

10

HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT
y The historic center of Riga, Latvia, with "the finest

collection of art nouveau buildings in Europe", was inscribed on the list in 1997 in part because of the "quality and the quantity of its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture", and four Brussels town houses by Victor Horta were included in 2000 as "works of human creative genius" that are "outstanding examples of Art Nouveau architecture brilliantly illustrating the transition from the 19th to the 20th century in art, thought, and society".
11

OBJECTIVES
y Renewal of ornament and accessories of y y y y y

architecture. Simplicity and solidity Autonomy of artist s imagination Renewal of architecture Reaction against decadence of the building arts Establishment of a new graphic means of communication

12

OBJECTIVES
y Renewal of the more basic elements of the art of

building

13

CHARACTERISTICS
y Use of Flat decorative patterns. y Use of Intertwined organic forms e.g. vines,

flowers, stems etc. y Emphasis on handcraft. y Use of new materials and semiprecious stones.

14

CHARACTERISTICS
y Resistance of classical restrictions y Used mosaics in their designs y Style mostly used in cutlery, furniture, pottery,

jewellery and ceramics. y Use of curvilinear lines .

15

Influential architects
Behrens Peter y Gaudi Cornet Antonio y Guimard Hector y Baron Victor Horta y Otto Wagner y Charles Rennie Mackintosh y Joseph Maria Olbrich
y
16

BEHRENS PETER
y He was born in Hamburg, Germany and he was highly

influential in modern architecture. y The Behrens house (1900-1901) is an honorable if not exceptional first in architecture. y What is the most remarkable and at the same time characteristic for Behrens is that the house within the limits of domestic building produces a microcosm of Behrens cultural hierarchy: from the ordinariness of the kitchen to the ceremonial music room complete with its image of artists, priestesses and repeated use of motif of the crystal.

17

The Behren s House.

18

ANTONIO GAUDI
y He was born in Catalonia, Spain y In his building, Casa Vicens, he was responsible for

introducing polychromatic terra cotta, particularly in the form of lusterware, evolved in part from the long famous Spanish lusterware of Manises near Valencia. y His largest projects in his first years were collaborative. y He designed furniture.

19

Casa vicen

20

Summer Villa (El Capricho)

21

Casa Calvet - exterior

22

Casa Calvet interior

23

Antonio Gaudi
y The design of La Sagrada Família is replete with

Christian symbolism, as Gaudí intended the church to be the "last great sanctuary of Christendom y A total of eighteen tall towers are called for, representing in ascending order of height the Twelve Apostles, the four Evangelists, the Virgin Mary and, tallest of all, Jesus Christ. y Constructed between 1894 and 1930, the Nativity Façade was the first façade to be completed.

24

Model of the complete church Sagrada Familia

25

HECTOR GUIMARD
y He was born of Jewish parents in Lyons France. His

first buildings, a restaurant near the Quai d Auteuil and a pavilion of Electricity for the exposition of 1889, both in Paris were eclectic. y In 1894, he was given a project to design the restaurant, he then went to Britain and Belgium after being granted a travel grant by the Salon des artistes, there he met Victor Horta who designed Hotel Tassel, and this art nouveau structure exerted a profound influence on the Frenchman
26

HECTOR GUIMARD
y Guimard then embarked on his most ambitious

undertaking, a large Parisian concert hall called the Salle Humbert de Romans. It was a combined concert hall, school and chapel. y The exposition of 1900 coincided with the completion of the metropolitan railway or Metro. A contest for the design of the aediculae- the station entrances- had been arranged, and Adrien Benard the expositions president who admired Art Nouveau awarded first prize to non competitor Guimard for some renderings he had submitted years earlier.
27

Salle Humbert de Romans
28

Metropolitan railway entrance
29

BARON VICTOR HORTA
y He s recognized as the brilliant originator of the Art

nouveau, an influential style in the 19th century. y The Lambeaux pavilion which Horta was given the responsibility of completing the building when Alphonse Balat (Horta used to work for him died) was a conspicuous example of Horta s frequent collaboration with sculptors in designing monuments, either public, private often funerary. y His second house Maison Autrique was a prelude to his personal style Derived mainly from Violet-le-duc s street fronts.
30

Maison Autrique
31

BARON VICTOR HORTA
y In 1892, Horta designed his first really accomplished

house which quickly became famous. The Hotel Tassel street front made a firm statement with its smooth stone wall, horizontally bounded in warmer and cooler tones and crowned by a strong double cornice

32

Hotel Tassel
33

OTTO WAGNER
y His work falls into three periods:
y

y

y

) Building largely speculative apartment houses for Vienna s great Ringstrasse development. Developing under the combined impact of urban engineering and Art nouveau aesthetics; architecture to meet the practical and psychological requirements of the modern megalopolis (1895-1905). Constructing and projecting in a radically rationalistic urban style, buildings commercial, residential and monumental deliberately conceived for the business like de-historicized man(1905-1915)

34

Linke Wiezele
35

Post Office Savings Bank
36

CHARLES RENNIE MACKINTOSH
y He was commissioned to design a house by a publisher

named W.W Blackie. It was built in the Scottish tradition. y He was called to design the Willow tea rooms. By introducing a balcony, a bridge and a fine, open staircase, Mackintosh created spatial magic enhanced by superb wrought iron work, metal and glass elements, fireplaces, and a great plaster frieze of abstract geometrical design based on the willow tree motif.
37

W.W Blackie hill house

Willow Tea Rooms
38

JOSEPH MARIA OLBRICH
y He designed the Secession building. Although it had a

certain adolescent awkwardness, its novel details radiated the boundless enthusiasm of their designer and the exuberance of the secessionists. y He designed silverware, ceramics, textiles and jewelry for the Hessian manufacturers.

39

Secessionist building
40

SUCCESSES OF THE MOVEMENT
y It encouraged a return to hand crafts, showed

preference for simpler forms from nature and emphasized the relationship of art to design. y Art Nouveau clearly and at times brilliantly drew on cultural and aesthetic sources throughout Europe and the rest of the world. y It proved that the answer to social issues was to return to the spirit of the arts approach of the Middle Ages, a time when art and production were closely connected, thus as during the Middle Ages, artists fashioned articles that were both useful and beautiful.
41

SUCCESSES OF THE MOVEMENT
y Art Nouveau was inclusive, reactive, interpretive and

highly eclectic. Yet, when we see a piece from the period, we almost immediately know that it is art nouveau. This is due to a universality of visual translation, craftsmanship and aesthetic intent.

42

FAILURES OF THE MOVEMENT
y It was closely related to the arts and craft movement

and the rococo revival style, but it had one look and no firm boundaries. y The perceived morality of Art Nouveau undoubtedly contributed to its decline as the atmosphere in Europe grew tense, xenophobic, and intolerant toward 1914. y Art Nouveau required a tedious amount of handiwork. y By the start of the First World War, however, the highly stylised nature of Art Nouveau design-which itself was expensive to produce-began to be dropped in favour of modernism.
43

RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER STYLES
y Unlike the Arts and Craft movement, they believed

ornamentation was part of the building and not just an addition. y Art nouveau employed the use of arches, curved forms , curved glass, stained glass, mosaics, plant-like embellishments and Japanese motifs among others; these properties led to the evolution of organic architecture.

44

RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER STYLES
y Art nouveau was at opposite ends with de stijl and art

deco as both the latter styles employed the use of sleek, streamlined forms that were geometric in nature. y Art nouveau as a style was positively influenced by its preceding style, the arts and crafts, and adopted its preference of handcrafted work.. y It borrowed some ideologies from Gothic architecture especially Antonio Gaudi in La Familia Sagrada.

45

END

46