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• Verbal Communication
• Non verbal Communication
• Paraverbal communication
• Barriers in Communication
• Verbal & Nonverbal Communication


7 C’s of


First, What is Business
Business Business
writing is
Workplace writing, which
is a form of


Business Writing is technical communication or technical writing 4 .

Workplace Writing Workplace writing is generally “persuasive” writing: Example 1: A Resume to persuade a potential employer to offer an interview Example 2: A Findings Report to persuade employees to follow certain policies or procedures in order to improve performance or correct errors or problems 5 .

or recommendations for the change process Contracts Binding agreements or proposals between two or more parties that can become legal documents if they include an offer that is accepted Manuals A written set of instructions. with animation options. that hosts a set of notes or bulleted points. External correspondence written to Transmissions business associates and internal correspondence to personal friends Memoranda/ Informal style of business letter. audit. or statistical report that identifies the specific problem and presents collected data. procedures or policies PowerPoint A soft-ware generated. Some Types of Workplace Writings Business Letters Formal. research. An external communication E-mail Informal. Internal Memorandum correspondence written to colleagues within a company Reports Financial. or other 6 information that supports a discussion . visual slide show. an agenda.

7 . . it is an expected and common business practice to keep photocopies / hard (paper) copies of any communication you send to another person regarding any business matter. General Business Tip . Generally. .

uncluttered sentences) 5. Express yourself clearly (Grammar. Provide accurate information (Research) 6. Satisfy document requirements (Documentation style. Focus on your readers (Audience) 3. data) 4. Writings: Focus on the purpose of your writing 2. Get to the point (Concise. Format your pages carefully (be neat and leave white space) 8. How to Create Effective Technical or Workplace 1. Manage your time efficiently (Meet deadlines) 8 . visuals. Proofreading) 7.

. . Formatting a . Business Memo 9 .

What should you know about Business Memos? They . . • are used within an organization • usually are informal in style • normally function as a non-sensitive communication • are short and to-the-point • have a business tone / no slang or jokes • do not require a salutation (formal greeting) • do not have a complimentary closing as does a business letter (END) • have a format very different from a business letter • may address one person or a group of individuals 10 . .

Edit for wordiness and get directly to the point. Regarding Content. be sure that you know what your "answer" is to the boss's or colleague's question. structure and language use. the first rule of writing a good memo is "Get to the point!" The second rule is "Know what your purpose is. In order to perform this task successfully. Memo Sample College of Business Administration Business Communication     Memorandum Headings/ routing To:         CBA Students information Executive Summary or Introduction From:     Dale Coattail Date:     September 10.  If you are working in a CBA lab. Don't include all your thinking in the memo. the easiest way to duplicate the proper memo format is to use a template. there's a better chance a business reader will take your ideas seriously. financials. (END) Special note cc:          Your Instructor 11 . While several pages of thinking might get written as you come up with the answer. but not cute. Again. Note especially the routing information. Citations.)    Structure The typical memo is only 2 or 3 paragraphs and fits on one page. You can be friendly. Start the Body / Body Headings Format This memo is an example of memo format. format. but you can usually get away with a few "down home" expressions. The memo should include only those ideas that are required for the reader's action or decision. the use of headings. the memo includes only the answer. The first paragraph summarizes the gist of the whole memo. but should still be written with a businesslike tone. this memo provides an example of the typical structure. Your professional image depends on perfect spelling and grammar. formal report. then the main points are covered in the same order they were previewed. you should conform to general business standards of content. and the single spaced block paragraphs. 2007 Re:         How to Write a Memo   Your instructor has asked you to write a memo. Language Use A memo is often less formal than a letter." Before you start writing. which is the most common form of written communication in business. Use language to communicate your ideas effectively and efficiently. or justifications that must be available to the reader can be added as appendices or written as a separate.  If your memo looks like a memo.  (Select "new" from the File MENU and select the "memo" tab on the dialogue box.

Business Report ? 12 . .Formatting a . .

progress evaluations. or project. or other information regarding a business practice. What is a “Business Report”? • A business report is a technical report designed to persuade readers. proposal plans. 13 . situation. • A written business report communicates research findings.

Why create Business Reports? • In a global society. are technical communications that support business by persuading business leaders. • Business reports. clients and other business stakeholders. 14 . employees. the ability to report findings and develop expansion plans and propose solutions to business-related problems gives company’s a strategic advantage in world markets. formal or informal.

(the passions. interests. or skill set and Plans to use characteristics of the ones Your characteristics you’re trying to persuade to meet your purpose) and their characteristics) Subject (the logic you will present -. . . Regardless of what you write. morals. Writer Audience (your ethics. Consider this Triangle .your topic or message) 15 .

Formal Business Report Format General Sections of a long Business Formal Report: • Title Page • List of Tables and Illustrations • Letter of Transmittal • Synopsis / Executive Summary / Abstract • Table of Contents • Introduction (required) (Header may start on this page) • Methods of Research • Findings / Analysis (Discussion) • Conclusions • Recommendations • Appendix (Graphs and Tables) 16 .


As you strive for completeness.  Provide all necessary information  Answer all questions asked  Give something extra when desirable 18 . keep the following guidelines in mind. COMPLETENESS Business message is complete when it contains all facts the reader or listener needs for the reaction you desire.

COMPLETENESS • Answer all questions that are asked • Give something extra when desirable • Check for five Ws & one H – Who – What – When – Where – Why and – How 19 .

20 . Give Something Extra. Locate them and then answer precisely. Provide All Necessary Information Answering the five W’s helps make messages clear: Who. When. What. Answer All Questions Asked Look for questions: some may even appear buried within a paragraph. Where. and Why. When Desirable Use your good judgment in offering additional material if the sender’s message was incomplete.

Will you please tell me where the next meeting is being held?” • How would you reply to this letter keeping in mind Completeness of the message? 21 . Exercise-1 • You are the president of an industry association and have received the following inquiry from an out of town member: “I think I would like to attend my first meeting of the association. even though I am not acquainted with your city.

CONCISENESS 1. Eliminate wordy expressions 2. Avoid unnecessary repetitions – use short forms the second time – use pronouns 22 . Include only relevant statements – be focused – Shorten & avoid long explanations – avoid gushing politeness 3.

Eliminate Wordy
Use single words in place of phrases.
Even Winston Churchill made extensive
use of simple, one syllable words.
Wordy: At this time
Concise: Now

Wordy: Due to the fact that
Concise: Because

• Due to the fact that
• Employed the use of
• Basic fundamentals
• Completely eliminate
• Alternative choices
• Actual experience
• Connected together
• Final result
• Prove conclusively
• In as few words as possible

o Due to the fact that oBecause
o Employed the use of oUsed
o Basic fundamentals oFundamentals
Completely eliminate
o Alternative choices
o Actual experience
o Connected together oExperience
o Final result oConnected
o Prove conclusively oResult
o In as few words as possible oProve
o Concisely


26 . Include Only Relevant Material Wordy: We hereby wish to let you know that our company is pleased with the confidence you have respond in us.

27 .• Concise: We appreciate your confidence.

Exercise • Find single word substitutes for the phrases:  With regard to about  Despite the fact that although  At the present writing now  Is of opinion that thinks  In the first place first  At a rapid rate fast 28 .

trite (worn out) expressions. Exercise • Rewrite the following by omitting articles. wordy sentences and repetitions: 29 .

30 . • At this time I am writing to you to enclose the post paid appointment for the purpose of arranging a convenient time when we might get- together for a personal interview. Exercise –contd.

any time during the month of October . or even November if you are rushed .   31 . • Will you ship us sometime. 300 of the regular three and a half inch blue arm bands with white sewn letter in the middle . in fact a little bit better . Exercise –contd. for November will suit us just as well .

try to put yourself in their place. 32 . • You are considerate • you do not lose your temper • you do not accuse and you do not charge them without facts • the thoughtful consideration is also called “you-attitude”. CONSIDERATION Consideration means preparing every message with the message receivers in mind.

CONSIDERATION • Focus on YOU instead of I & WE • Show reader benefit & interest • Emphasize on positive & pleasant • Apply integrity & ethics 33 .

Focus on “You” Instead of “I” or “We” Using “you” does help project a you-attitude. 34 . But overuse can lead to a negative reaction.

Show Audience Benefit or Interest in the Receiver Reader may react positively when benefits are shown them. 35 . Benefits must meet recipients: – needs – address their concerns. or – offer them rewards • Most important they must be perceived as benefits by the receivers.

. Ex. it shows consideration   • I want to send my congratulations for -- (Congratulations to you….) • We will ship soon the goods of your order--- • We pay eight percent interest on ----- 36 .Write with a ‘you ‘ attitude .

Ex -Avoid negative – unpleasant words to show consideration • It is impossible to open an account for you today. • When you travel on company expense. you will not receive approval for first class fare.   37 .

38 . Ex : Show reader benefit or interest • Because we have not written to you in sometime . please help us bring our record by filling and returning the other half of the card.

explicit. definite. CONCRETENESS Communicating concretely means being specific. Often it means using donatives (direct. and vivid rather than vague and general. often dictionary based) rather than connotative words (ideas or notions suggested by or associated with a word or phrase) 39 .

CONCRETENESS • Use specific facts and figures • Put action into words • Choose vivid image building words by comparison & figurative language • Use more adjectives and adverbs 40 .

Use Specific Facts and Figures It is desirable to be precise and concrete in both written and oral business communication. 41 .

Example Vague. higher. the • Student GMAT GMAT scores scores are averaged 600. Concrete. General. Precise Indefinite • In 1996. by 1997 they had risen to 610. 42 .

Put Action in Your Verbs Verbs can activate other words and help make your sentences alive. more vigorous.  Use active rather than passive verbs.  Put action in your verbs rather than nouns 43 .

Example • Passive : The memo was sent by the manager Active: • Passive: The scientist discovered the formula. Active: 44 .

Choose Vivid. 45 . Bland Image More Vivid Images This is a long This letter is three letter. Image- Building Words Business writing uses less figurative language than does the world of fiction. times as long as you said it would.

  • These brakes stop a car within a short distance.Rewrite the following in concrete form as the sentences are too general and vague • Our product has won several prizes. 46 . Ex.

• Mr.  • A full report will be sent to you by the supervisor. Ex: Put action into the words by using active instead of passive voice • Tests were made by us. Singh will give consideration to the report… 47 .

Ex : Use vivid image building words – adjectives and adverbs . 48 . and use less of abstract nouns • The camera has a system that gives good pictures.

We all carry around our own unique interpretations. experiences associated with words. ideas. CLARITY Getting the meaning from your head to the head of your reader (accurately) is the purpose of clarity. 49 . Of course you know it is not simple.

CLARITY • Choose short . illustrations & visual aids 50 . familiar & conversational words • Construct effective sentences and paragraphs by unity of idea and sequencing • Achieve appropriate readability by using formal & informal language • Include examples.

51 . Familiar: The data we studies show that your property is profitable and in high demand. the conclusion is that a lucrative market exists for the subject property. Choose precise. concrete and familiar words Unfamiliar: After our perusal of pertinent data.

moves thoughts within a paragraph. when clearly expressed. Important characteristics to consider are: – Length – Unity – Coherence – Emphasis 52 .Construct Effective Sentences and Paragraphs At the core of clarity is the sentences. This grammatical statement.

Ex : Use simple words • Subsequent later • Accede agree • Endeavour try • Supersede replace • Disclose show 53 .

but also their feelings. COURTESY True courtesy involves being aware not only of the perspective of others. 54 . Courtesy stems from a sincere you-attitude.

•Be sincere . tactful. COURTESY The following are suggestions for generating a courteous tone. thoughtful and appreciative •Omit expressions that hurt . irritate. or insult •Grant apologies graciously 55 .

Tactless. I can’t It’s my understand any of it. Thoughtful. these negative traits are a common cause of discourtesy. wording is not precise. let me try again 56 . Be Sincerely Tactful. you did not Sometimes my read my latest fax. Blunt More Tactful Stupid letter. and Appreciative Though few people are intentionally abrupt or blunt. understanding… Clearly.

Use Expressions that Show Respect No reader wants to receive message that offend. Skip Irritating Expressions You are offending You failed to Contrary to your inference Inexcusable Simply nonsense 57 .

Activity • Bring courtesy in the following text: Hey man. Give my regards to the little lady. And wish her the best. what’s this I hear about the good news? You sure pulled a fast one this past weekend-and then didn’t tell any of us about it. 58 . she’ll need it.

But even though we did not hear about it. just a few of us even suspected you were taking off to get married. Give our warm regards to your new partner. In fact. you certainly took us by surprise. 59 . More courteous Warm congratulations on your wedding! Well. we wish you the best.

60 . race. and physical features. ethnic origin. Choose Nondiscriminatory Expressions Another requirement for courtesy is the use of nondiscriminatory language that reflects equal treatment of people regardless of gender.

Sexist Terms: “Man” words • Freshman New student. Manufactured. Entering student • Manpower Workers. Built • Chairman Chairperson. Chair 61 . Employees • Man-made Constructed.

He should park his car………. • Each manager has an assigned parking place. 62 . Singular pronouns • Anyone who comes to the class late will get his grade reduced.

Aprill and Mr. Names • Treat each gender with respect. Examples: • Ted Aprill and Ruth Ted and Ruth Aprill • Mrs Aprill and Ted Ms. Aprill 63 .

• Ms 64 . Titles • Mr. • Miss • Mrs.

Ex : Show courtesy by avoiding tactless & blunt language • Your letter is not clear at all: • Obviously. if you would read your policy carefully you will be able to answer these questions yourself. 65 .

Ex : Use gender friendly substitutes • The best man for the job • Manpower   • Salesman   • Chairman 66 .

and spelling. 67 . punctuation. CORRECTNESS At the core of correctness is proper grammar. However a message may be perfect grammatically and mechanically but still insult or lose a customer.

figures and words • Maintain acceptable writing mechanics • Choose non discriminatory language • Use parallel language 68 . CORRECTNESS • Use the right level of language • Check accuracy of facts.

and acceptable mechanics • Select the right level of language for your communication either formal or informal. 69 . • Apply the principles of accepted mechanics to your writing. • Realize that formal language is most often used in business communication. accuracy. The right level of language. • Check for correct figures. and words. facts.

70 . Use the Right Level of Language • Formal and Less Formal Language More Formal Less Formal Participate Join Procure Get Endeavor Try Check Accuracy of Figures. Facts. and Words A good check of data is to have another person read and comment on the validity of the material.

by bit verbal signals • Use varying techniques • Auditory/Visual/Ki nesthetic 71 .Few tips for effective verbal messages • Be direct • Pay attention to • Consider your the receivers audience • Repeat when • Be clear needed • Communicate bit • Watch your non.

Summary • What is Business writing? • Types? • 7 Cs of Communication – COMPLETENESS – CONCISENESS – CONSIDERATION – CLARITY – CONCRETENESS – COURTESY – CORRECTNESS 72 .