Chapter7 Analysis of Stress and Strain
7-1
(Concepts of stress-state)
Strength Theories
7-2 -
(Analysis of plane stress-state)
7-3 -
(Analysis of plane stress-state)
7-4
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-5
(Analysis of plane strain-state)
7-6
(Generalized Hooks law)
7-7
(Strain-energy density in general
7-8
stress-state ) ( Failure criteria)
7-9
(Mohrs failure criterion)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-1
(Introduction of stress-state)
(Concepts of stresses-state)
1
(A tensile test of low-carbon steel and cast iron)
2
(A torsional test of low-carbon steel and cast iron)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(low- carbon steel) (cast-iron)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(low- carbon steel) (cast-iron)
45
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3 Important conclusions)
(1) ;
(2) ;
(3) ;
(4)
4 state of stresses of a given point)
state of stresses of a given point)
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 (Element characteristic)
2 3
3 (Principal body) 1 1
3
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
4 (Principal plane)
2
1
5 (Principal stress)
3
: ,
,
1 , 2 , 3
,
1 2 3
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1 1 1 1
3
1
2 2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1 S .
S 4
l/2 2
l/2
1
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
5 S 5
4 4
3 3
2 2
1 1
2 3
x1 x1 x2 x2
1 2 3
2 3
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
S
1 4 l
F
2
y
z x
3
FS a
1
z 2 4 MZ
T 3
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
y
y y
FS
1 4 1
z 2 4 MZ
2
z x
T 3
3
1
3
z
T Mz T 4 FS Mz T
1 x1 2 x3 3
Wt Wz Wt 3 A Wz Wt
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3
y
m n
p z
D
m l
n
(1)
F D 2
F p p
D
4
D 2
F p 4 pD n
A D
A D 4
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(2)
"
FN O
FN
D
d Fy 0 pl sin d plD
2
0
pD
2 l plD 0
y
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-2 -
(Analysis
y of plane stress-state)
y y
yx yx
xy
x x
x
xy
.
x , xy y , yx
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 (Sign convention)
(1) x n
2)
3)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
e e
n
xy dA
x
dAcos
a f a f
yx dAsin
y
3 (The stress acting on any inclined
plane)
dA , ae dAcos ,af
dAsin
n t
Fn 0 dA ( xydAcos ) sin
( x dA cos )cos ( yxdA sin ) cos
( y dA sin ) sin 0
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
Ft 0 dA ( xydAcos ) cos
( x dA cos )sin ( yx dA sin ) sin
( ydA sin ) cos 0
x y x y
cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
x y
sin 2 xy cos 2
2
90 x y
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
0 0+90
x y x y
cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
max min (
max x y x y 2
( ) xy
2
min 2 2
0 x
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
| 0 | < 45 0 45
(3) x= y 0 =45
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
d x y
2[ cos 2 xy sin 2 ] 0
d 2
x y 1
tan 21 90
2 xy 1
1 1+90
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1 1+90
x y
sin 2 xy cos 2
2
2 xy x y
tan 2 0 tan 2 1
x y 2 xy
1
tan 2 0 21 2 0 , 1 0
tan 21 2 4
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
4 . mm A
=-70 MPa =50 MPa . A
.
m
A
m
a
A
A
x 70, y 0, xy 50
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 xy
tan 2 0
x y
2 50 3
1.429 1
( 70) 0 0
AA x
27.5 3
0
62.5 1
max x y x y 2 26MPa
( ) xy
2
min 2 2 96MPa
1 26MPa , 2 0, 3 96MPa
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
5 x =-40 MPa y
=60 MPa xy=-50 MPa. ef
. y
e xy
x
f 30
(1) ef
n
x y x y
30 cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
40 60 40 60
cos( 60 ) ( 50) sin( 60 )
2 2
58.3MPa
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x y
300 sin 2 xy cos 2
2
40 60
sin( 60 ) ( 50) cos( 60 ) 18.3MPa
2
(2)
x = -40MPa
2 xy 2 ( 50)
tan 2 0 1
x y 40 60 y =60 MPa
45 22.5
2 0 0 x = -50MPa
135 67.5
=-30
x < y 0= -22.5 min
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
max x y x y 2 80.7MPa
( ) x
2
min 2 2 60.7MPa
1 80.7MPa 2 0 3 60.7MPa
y
1
3
xy
x
22.5
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
6 .
1
3
2 xy xy
tan 2 0
x y
90 45 45
2 0 0
90 45 1
min 2 2
1 = 2 = 0 3 = -
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-3 -
(Analysis of plane stress-state with
graphical means)
(Mohrs circle)
x y x y
cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
x y
sin 2 xy cos 2
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x y 2 x y 2
( ) (
2
) xy
2
2 2
x y xy
,
- .
x y
1 C( ,0)
(Coordinate of circle center) 2
2 Radius of x y 2
R ( ) xy
2
circle) 2
( plane stress circle) ,
(Mohrs circle)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x x x
xy o
1 Steps)
(1) - ,
yx
x x D
x
xy B
xy
o
C A
yx
D
y
(2) OA= x
AD = x
xy D
(3) OB= y BD= yx D
(4) DD C
(5) C , CD ,
xy
x y o
C A
yx
2
D
(2) y
x y 2 x
R ( ) xy
2
2
1 1 x y
OC OB (OA OB ) (OA OB )
2 2 2
x y 2
CD CA AD (
2 2
) xy
2
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
Application of stress-circle)
1 (Determine the stresses on any
inclined plane by using stress-circle)
CD 2
CE.
E
y
n E n
D
yx 2
e
B 2 0
xy
o
x x x
CF A
yx
xy D
y
f
a
x
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
OF OC CF OC CE cos( 2 0 2 )
B A
A
2
B
O C
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 E
2 D
(Determine principle stress 2
and the direction of principle B 2 0
xy
o B1
plane by using stress circle)
(1) CF A
yx
A1
D
A1 B1 y
x
1
1 2
x y x y 2
OA1 OC CA1 ( ) xy
2
max 1
2 2
x y x y 2
OB1 OC CB1 ( ) xy
2
min 2
2 2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2
CD 2 0 CA1 2 D
x B 2 0
xy
o B1
C
A
yx
A1
0 y
D
1
x
DA 2
tan( 2 0 )
xy
1
CA x y
2 xy 2 xy
tan 2 0
2 0 tan (1
)
x y x y
0 1
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3 (Determine G1
maximum shearing stress by 2 D
using stress circle)
B 2 0
xy
o B1
G1 G C A
yx
A1
D
y
x y 2
CG1 ( ) xy
2
max x G 2
2 1
x y 2
CG2 ( ) xy
2
min
2
max 1 2
min 2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7 ,
x = - 1MPa , y = - 0.4MPa , xy= - 0.2MPa , yx = 0.2MPa ,
(1)
(2) =30 = - 40
: (1)
OA= x= - 1 , AD = XY= - 0.2, D ;
OB = y= - 0.4 BD = yx= 0.2 , D .
DD y
(-0.4,0.2)
D xy
x
A
B o
C
D
(-1,-0.2)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(2) = 30
CD 2 = 60 CE, E
= 30
(3) = - 40
CD 2 = 80 CF,
F = - 40 40
F D
40 80
A
30= - 0.68MPa B o
C 30
30= - 0.36MPa 60
D E
-40= - 0.95MPa 30
40= - 0.26MPa
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
c a , b
120
15
250KN
9
A B
270
C z
1.6m a
2m b
15
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
250KN
: (1) ,
A B
C
FSmax =FC = 200 kN 1.6m
Mmax = MC = 80 kNm 2m
*
My FS S
z 200kN
Iz I zd
+
120 3003 111 2703
Iz
12 12 50kN
88 106 mm 4
80kN.m
+
ya 135mm
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
120
S 120 15 (150 7.5) 256000mm
*
za
3
15
(2) C a
9
Mc
270
z
a ya 122.5MPa
Iz a
* b
FS S za
15
a 64.6MPa
I zd yx
a x x
a
xy
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(3)
x =122.5MPa xy =64.6MPa y=0 xy =-64.6MPa
x xy D y yx D
DD
(122.5 , 64.6)
A1 A2 D
a
1
A2 B
3
1 OA1 150MPa O C A A1
2 OA2 27MPa
D
A1 1 (0 , - 64.6)
3 1
2 0 450 0 22.5
0
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3
1 150MPa 2 0 3 27MPa 1 yx
0 22.5 x
a
x
xy 0
(4) C b
yb 150mm 120
Mc
b yb 136.5MPa
15
Iz
b 0 9
b
270
z
x x a
b
b
15
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
b x x
b
1 136.5MPa , 2 3 0
1 x ,
C
(136.5 , 0)
D
D
(0 , 0)
1
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-4
(analysis of three-dimensional stress-state)
(the maximum normal stress and shear stress in three-
dimensional stress-state)
2 3
1 2 3 1 1
3
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
( 3 )
1
1
3
2
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3
3
, 3 ,
1
1 , 2
3 1 ,
2 3
2
1
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3
2
,
O C B A
1 , 3 3
2
, 1
2 , 3
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
c
2
a
abc b
1
1
D 3
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
O C B A
3
( ) 2
A 1
1
max 1
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1
max ( 1 3 )
2
B A
O C
2
3
1 3 2
450
1
9 , ,
. y
: 20MPa
z 20MPa 20MPa
40MPa
x
z , 20MPa
z
x y
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x 40MPa xy 20MPa
y 20MPa yx 20MPa
x xy D y yx D
DD
D
A1 A2
A1
1 3 A2
1 =46MPa 3 =-26MPa O C
D
1 =46MPa 2 =20MPa 3 =-26MPa
3 1
max 36MPa
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-5
(Analysis of plane strain-state)
x y xy
,
x y xy
.
(The strain of any direction)
O , Oxy y
x , y , xy .
O
. x
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
: 1 . O ,
;2 , ;
x , y , xy
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
O x y
y'
OP = dx,
x'
OAPB .
B P
dx
dy dx'
dy
dx dy O x
A
OP dx' dx
cos sin
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
y
1 x y'
x'
OB
B P P'
OAPB
OA'P'B dy D
AA PP x dx
O
A A' x
OP P D dx
xdx
P D PP cos x dx cos
O x' 1
P D x dx cos
1 x cos 2
OP dx cos
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 y y
y' B'
P''
OA yd y x'
D'
B P
OAPB
OAP"B' dy
BB PP y dy O
A x
dx
OP
P D PP sin ydy sin
O x' 2
P D y dy sin
2 y sin 2
OP dy sin
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3 xy
y
y' xydy
x'
OA
B B'' P P'''
OAPB
dy xy
OAP"'B" D''
BB PP xy dy O
dx A x
OP
P D PP cos xy dycos
O x
P D xy dycos
3 xysincos
OP dy sin
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x , y xy O x
1 2 3
x cos y sin xy sin cos
2 2
2 (Shearing stress)
2( x y )sincos xy (cos 2 sin 2 )
x y x y 1
cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2 2
x y 1
sin 2 xy cos 2
2 2 2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x y x y
cos 2 xy sin 2
2 2
x y 2
sin 2 xy cos 2
2 2 2
max 1
[( x y ) ( x y ) 2
2
xy ]
min 2
xy
tg 2 0
x y
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-6
(Generalized Hookes law )
2 x
x
, z
z
3 ,
4 , .
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2
(Generalized Hookes law for isotropic materials)
x , y , z ,
x y
z x , y z .
x y z
y
x
x x
E x x
y x
y x z
E
z y
z
z x
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x y z , x
x
x x y z
1
E
x y z , y , z
y y z x
1
E
z z y x
1
E
xy yz zx
xy yz zx
xy yz zx
G G G
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
x x y z
1
E
y y z x
1
E
z z y x
1
E
xy yz zx
xy yz zx
G G G
x , y ,z x y z
xy , yz , zx xy yz zx
In plane stress-state
( z = 0 xz= 0 yz= 0 ) y
y
1 yx
x ( x y ) xy
x
E
1 x
y ( y x )
E
z
z ( y x ) y
E yx
xy xy
xy x
G
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3 -
(Principal stress-principal strain relation
1 2 3 1 2 3
1
1 1 2 3
E
1
2 2 3 1
E
1
3 3 1 2
E
(In plane stress-state)
=0 1
3
1 1 2
E
1 3 2 1
2 2 1 E
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
, .
2
a1 , a2 , a3
a2 1
a1(1+ a2(1+ 2 a3(1+ 3
3
a3
a1
Volumetric strain
V1 V
V
a1 (1 1 ) a2 (1 2 ) a3 (1 3 ) a1 a2 a3
a1 a2 a3
a1 a2 a3 (1 1 2 3 ) a1 a2 a3
a1 a2 a3
1
1 2 3 1 1 2 3
E
1
1 2 2 2 3 1
( 1 2 3 ) E
E 1
3 3 1 2
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1 Volumetric strain
for pure shearing stress-state)
1 3 xy 2 0 0
.
2 (The volumetric strain
of triaxial-equal stress element body)
m
1 2 3
m
3
m
1 2
(m m m )
E
m
1 2
3 m
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 m
1
m
a2
3
a3
a1
m
1 2
( 1 2 3 )
E
1 2
3 m
E
1
1 2 3 m m m
E
1 2
m
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
.
x y z
1 2
( x y z )
E
,
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
10 a = 0.1m
, .
E=100GPa =0.34 F=300kN
.
F a
F 300 10 3
3
a a
A 0.12
30MPa
y
1 y
1 1 2 3 0
E x
1
2 2 1 3 0 z
x
E z
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(1 ) 0.34(1 0.34)
1 2 2 3 ( 30) -15.5MPa
1 1 - 0.34 2
1 2 15 .5MPa 3 30MPa
1 2
( 1 2 3 )
E
1 2 0.34 4
( 15 . 5 2 30 ) 1 . 95 10
100 10 3
1
max ( 1 3 ) 7.25MPa
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
11 d =20mm
m=126Nm. A
E 1 x 1 m
G 80.2MPa
2(1 ) 2 1 21 Wt
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
12 t =10mm , D=60mm ,
45 135 x, y
m
E = 200GPa = 0.3 ,
max = 100MPa , k x , y
.
y x
m
90
0
t
0
45
D
k
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
y y x
x max
m
90
0
t max
0
45
D kk
k
-45
3
1
: k ,
y 1 max 80MPa
x 3 max 80MPa
z 0
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
k x , y
1 1
x ( x y ) ( max max )
E E
(1 )
max 5.2 10 4
E
4
1 x 5.2 10
k (z ) (
)
z ( x y ) ( max max ) 0
E E
z ( ) 0
E
t =10mm .
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
13 F1 F2 .
E=200GPa
= 0.3 , F1=100KN F2=100KN
1 A 1 2 3
2 A x y
F1 z
b
F2 A F2
h
z
b=50mm
a l
h=100mm
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
. A
.
F2
A 20MPa A
x = 20
A
x = 30
3 FS
A 30MPa
2A
1 A 1 2 3
max x y x y 2 41.4MPa
( ) x
2
min 2 2 21.4MPa
1 41.4 2 0 3 21.4
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1
1 (1 3 ) 2.4 10 4
E
2 (1 3 ) 3 10 5
E
1
3 ( 3 1 ) 1.7 10 4
E
2 A x y
z
x 20 y z 0
x
x 10 4
E
y x 3 10 5
E
z x 3 10 5
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
14 18 . F=
15kN
E=200GPa , = 0.3.
0 ,45 ,90
A 00 450 900
F
90 45
A 0
h/4
0.25
0.5 0.5
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
F F
M A 0.25 FSA
2 2
z
MA
A y A 50.8MPa A
Iz
* h/4
FSA S zA
A 68.8MPa ( )
I zd
yA Iz d
*
A = 50.8
S z
zA A
A = 68.8
0 A 50.8
90 y 0
0 0
0 90
E E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
F
90 A = 50.8
45 A
1350 A = 68.8
A 0
h/4
0.25
0.5 0.5
x x
45 cos 90 x sin 90 94.2MPa
2 2
x x
135 cos 270 x sin 270 43.3MPa
2 2
1
0 ( 45 135 ) 536 10 6
E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-7
(Strain-energy density in general stress-state)
(Definition of Strain-energy density )
.
(Calculation formula for Strain-energy density)
1 ,
(Strain-energy density for simple stress-state )
1 2 E 2
v
2 2E 2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 ,
(Strain-energy density for simple stress-state )
1
v (11 2 2 3 3 )
2
,
v
1
2E
1 2 3 2 1 2 2 3 31
2 2 2
vV
The strain-energy density corresponding
to the volumetric)
vd ,
The strain-energy density corresponding
to the distortion.
v v vV vd
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 m=( 1+ 2+ 3)/3
m m
1
3 m
(a) (b)
a
.
b
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1
(vV )b (v )b [(m2 m2 m2 2 (m2 m2 m2 )]
2E
3(1 2 ) 2
m
2E
1 2
( 1 2 3 )2
6E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
a
1 2
v [1 22 32 2 (1 2 2 3 31 )]
2E
a 2
1 2
(vV )a (vV )b ( 1 2 3 ) 2
6E 1
3
vd v vV (a)
1
[(1 2 )2 ( 2 3 )2 ( 3 1 )2 ]
6E
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(1)
(2) ( )
,
2 (Concepts for failure criteria)
. .
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
, . ,
,
.
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2. (Fracture failure)
1 : .
2 : .
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(Four failure
criteria)
1
2
3 (C.Duguet)
4
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
.
1 .
1 = u
:
1 [
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 )
( Maximum-normal-strain criterion)
.
1 .
b
1
E
1
1 [1 ( 2 3 )]
E
1 ( 2 3 ) [ ]
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2
( Maximum-distortion-energy criterion)
vd .
1= s 2= 3=0
1
vd 2 s2
6E
1 1
vd [(1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 3 1 ) ]
2 2 2
2 s2
6E 6E
1
[(1 2 )2 ( 2 3 )2 ( 3 1 )2 ] [ ]
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
Equivalent stress)
r
r .
r1 1
r 2 1 ( 2 3 )
r 3 1 3
1
r 4 [(1 2 ) ( 2 3 ) ( 3 1 ) ]
2 2 2
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
7-9
(Mohrs failure criterion)
Introduction)
).
.
(O.Mohr),18351918
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(Mohrs failure criterion)
. M
L T
F
N
[ t ] 1 3
O1 N O2 O O1 O3
2 2
T
[ c ] 1 3 M
L
O2 F [ c] [ t]
2 2 1
1 3 [ t ] O1 N O3O1
O3O1
2 2 O2 F O3O2
1 3 [ c ] [ t ]
O3O2 1 3 [ t ]
2 2 [ c ]
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
The
appliance range and application for all failure criteria)
1 (The appliance range )
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
.
3 Examples
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
15 p ,
D t , t D .
. p=3.6MPa t=10mm D=1m
[ ]=160MPa.
y
t
p z
D
a b
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
pD
'
90MPa "
4t
pD
''
180MPa
2t
1 '' 180MPa
2 ' 90MPa
1
r4 [(1 2 )2 ( 2 3 )2 ( 3 1 )2 ] 155MPa [ ]
2
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
16 ,
.
:
1 = , 2 = 0 , 3 =
[ ]
1 3 ( ) 2 [ ]
2
[ ]
[ ] = 0.5
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
1 [ ]
[( 0) (0 ) ( ) ] 3 [ ]
2 2 2
2 3
[ ] .
[ ].
[ ]
[ ] 0.577[ ] 0.6[ ]
3
[ ] = 0.5
[ ] 0.6
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
17
140 MPa
120 .MPa
110 MPa
120 MPa
(a) (b)
30MPa
140 MPa
40MPa
70 MPa
70MPa
80 MPa
50MPa
(C)
(d)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
120 MPa
1 a
1 0 2 3 120MPa
r 3 1 3 0 ( 120) 120MPa
(a)
1
r4 [(0 120)2 ( 120 120)2 ( 120 0)2 ] 120MPa
2
2 b
140 MPa
1 140Mpa 2 110MPa 3 0
r 3 1 3 140MPa 110 MPa
1 2
r 4 [30 110 2 ( 140)2 ] 128MPa (b)
2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3 c 140 MPa
4 d
(c)
max 70 30 70 30 2 94.72
( ) 40
2
30MPa
min 2 2 5.28 40MPa
3 5 .28MPa
50MPa
r 3 89 .44MPa r 4 77.5MPa
(d)
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
4
y=7.37 10-4
E=210GPa [ ]=170MPa =0.3
y
.
y
A x
x A
E
2 ( x y )
x
1
2.1
(1 . 88 0 . 3 7 . 37 ) 10 7
94.4MPa
1 0.3 2
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
E
2 ( y x )
y
1
2.1
( 7 . 37 0 . 3 1 . 88 ) 10 7
183.1MPa
1 0.3 2
1 183.1MPa, 2 94.4MPa, 3 0
r 3 1 3 183.1 [ ]
r 3 183.1 170
7.7 0 0
170
.
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
20
Q235 = 170MPa = 100MPa.
.
200kN 200kN
A B
C D
2.50
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
200kN 200kN
.
A B
C , D
C D
1
0.42 1.66 0.42
C
2.50
FSC = FSmax = 200kN
200kN
MC = Mmax = 84kNm
+
M max
max [ ] -
Wz FS
200kN
M max 84kNm
Wz 494 10 6 m 3
[ ] +
28a M
W =508cm3
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2
122
28a
I 7114 10 8 m 4 8.5
126.3
280
d 0.85 10 2 m
126.3
I 2
24.62 10 m
13.7
S
FS max S z*max FS max
max 95.5MPa
I zd I
d
S
28a .
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
3
122
A
M max y A 8.5
126.3
A 149.1MPa ( )
Iz
280
13.7
126.3
S A 122 13.7 (126.3
*
) A
2
13.7
223 10 6 m 3
*
FS max S
A A
73.8MPa + A
Iz d A
A
A
(Analysis of stress-state and strain-state)
2 2
1 ( ) 2 2 0 3 ( ) 2
2 2 2 2
Q235
1 .
r 4 [(1 2 )2 ( 2 3 )2 ( 3 1 )2 ] 197 [ ]
2
r 4 [ ]
100% 15.9% .
[ ]
28b r4 = 173.2MPa ,
1.88%
28b .
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