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Classroom Management

Strategies for Effective


Instruction
Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant
Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant
Upper Cumberland Special Education Co-
operative

October 2002

1
Todays Agenda

Welcome and Opening Activities


The Characteristics of an Effective Teacher
Effective Behavior Management Strategies
Organizing and Managing the Learning
Environment
Designing Lessons to Enhance Student Learning
Closing Activities

Lunch is on your own


Breaks will be taken as needed

2
Goals and Objectives
1. To identify the characteristics of effective
teachers
2. To understand why children misbehave and
identify effective strategies for dealing with
student misbehavior
3. To identify techniques for organizing and
managing effective learning environments
4. To identify characteristics of effective lesson
planning
5. To identify resources and materials dealing
with positive and effective classroom
management

4
Presentation Techniques
(Utilizing the Principles of Adult Learning Theory)

Discussion
Small and large group activities
Cooperative learning strategies (i.e.,
jigsaw, think-pair-share)
Self-Reflection
Question and answer sessions
Active Learning Strategies (i.e., role
play, scenarios, simulations)
others

5
Classroom management
is
all of the things that a teacher does to
organize students, space, time and
materials so that instruction in content
and student learning can take place.

Two major goals


1. To foster student involvement and
cooperation in all classroom activities
2. To establish a productive working
environment.
-First Days of School, Wong

6
Describe a
well-
managed
classroom
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Characteristics of a Well-
Managed Classroom
Students are deeply involved with their work

Students know what is expected of them and


are generally successful

There is relatively little wasted time,


confusion, or disruption

The climate of the classroom is work-


oriented, but relaxed and pleasant.

8
A well-managed classroom
is
A task oriented environment

A predictable environment

Is ready and waiting for students

9
Brainstorming Activity
Think of as many responses to the
following statement as you can

An effective
teacher is..

10
A Dangerous Educator
Believes that this job is not about
relationships
Believes that this is just a job, and when the
school day is over, the works all done.
Believes that he/she can handle any situation,
alone.
Believes that, It was good enough for me, by
golly, it oughta be good enough for them.
Believes that all these kids need is a good
whippin.

11
A Dangerous Educator
Believes that what he/she does outside of
here has no bearing
Believes that anger shouldn't be part of the
curriculum
Never makes time to just sit and listen
Believes that this kids have no right to be
mad
Believes that he/she cant make a difference
Believes that punishment is more effective
than discipline

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A Dangerous Educator
Thinks you shouldnt smile until
Thanksgiving.
Believes that morality and values should
only be taught at home
Sees the act, not the young person behind it.
Believes that strict adherence to the rules is
the most important goal of any childs day.
Forgets he/she is modeling.
Is a structure monster.
-Malcolm Smith

13
The Effective Teacher
Establishes good control of the
classroom
Does things right, consistently
Affects and touches lives
Exhibits positive expectations for
ALL students
Establishes good classroom
management techniques
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The Effective Teacher
Designs lessons for student mastery
Works cooperatively and learns from
colleagues
Seeks out a mentor who serves as a
role model
Goes to professional meetings to
learn
Has a goal of striving foe excellence
15
The Effective Teacher
Can explain the districts, schools,
and department or grade levels
curriculum
Realizes that teaching is not a private
practice
Is flexible and adaptable
Listens, listens, listens
Understands the research process
16
The Effective Teacher
Teaches with proven research-
based practices
Knows the difference between an
effective teacher and an
ineffective one

17
In summary
An effective teacher

Has positive expectations for student


success

Is an extremely good classroom manager

Knows how to design lessons for student


mastery

18
Understanding
Our Students
Dealing With Student
Behavior in Todays
Classrooms

19
This is not an easy time to
work with children and
youth
One in six youths (age 10-17) has seen or
knows someone who has been shot
(Childrens Defense Fund)

At least 160,000 students skip class each day


because they fear physical harm (NEA)

In the last 10 years, the likelihood that a child


under 18 will be killed by guns rose almost
250% (FBI Uniform Crime Reports)*

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Every U.S. school day, 6,250 teachers
are threatened with bodily injury (NEA)

More than 150,000 school age children


bring a gun to school each school day
(Childrens Defense Fund)

More than 50% of children in the U.S.


fear violent crime against themselves or
a family member (Newsweek)*
21
Every 10 seconds a crime occurs in a
U.S. school (Childrens Defense Fund)

70% of those arrested for hate crimes


are under age 19 (U.S. News)*

22
We can trace out-of-control
The physical and emotional climate of the child's
behaviors to a variety of
home and neighborhood
factors
The amount of stability and consistency in the
childs family

The parenting styles of the childs parents

The power and influence of peers in a childs life*

23
the positive and negative role models
available to the child

The childs exposure to violent media

The childs emotional and physical health

The childs own attitude toward his/her


anger*

24
The Changing Family
In the last two decades, there has been a
200% growth in single parent households (U.S.
Bureau of the Census)

The number of moms leaving home for work


each morning has risen 65% in the past 20
years (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics)

Nearly 1 in 4 children in the U.S. are living


below the poverty level (Children's Defense
Fund)*

25
More than half of all American children
will witness their parents divorce (U.S.
Bureau of the Census)

In the last 10 years, the estimated


number of child abuse victims has risen
by nearly 50% (National Committee for
the Prevention of Child Abuse)

The average child has watched 8,000


televised murders and 100,000 acts of
violence before finishing elementary
school (American Psychological
Association)*
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Why Kids Misbehave
Basic has several Functions:
Attention from peers or adults
Attain power/control
Revenge or Retaliation
Feels Good/Play
Fear of Failure
Getting something (Sensory Input)
Imitation

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Proactive Intervention
Classroom Rules
Strategies
Classroom Schedule
Physical Space
Attention Signal
Beginning and Ending Routines
Student Work
Classroom Management Plan

adapted from the Tough Kid series, and CHAMPs

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Classroom Rules

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The Rules for Rules:
Keep the number to a minimum
(approx. 5).
Keep the wording simple.
Have rules represent you basic
expectations
Keep the wording positive, if possible.
Make your rules specific.
Make your rules describe behavior
that is observable.

30
Classroom Rules, cont.
Make your rules describe behavior
that is measurable.
Assign consequences to breaking the
rules.
Always include a compliance rule.
Keep the rules posted.
Consider having rules recited daily
for first two weeks then periodically..

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Examples
Inappropriate Preferred Rules:
Rules: Keep hands, feet, and
objects to yourself.
Be responsible Raise your hand and
wait for permission to
speak.
Pay attention Sit in your seat unless
Do your best you have permission
Be kind to others to leave it.
Walk, dont run, at all
Respect authority times in the
Be polite classroom.

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Consequences
The best consequences are reasonable and
logical

A reasonable consequence is one that


follows logically from the behavior rather
than one that is arbitrarily imposed

The best logical consequences teach the


students to choose between acceptable
and unacceptable actions.

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Activity.
For the following types of student behavior,
develop both an example of a logical
consequence AND an illogical consequence

Chews gum
Turns in sloppy paper
Walks in the classroom noisily
Passes paper in incorrectly
Arrives late
Does not bring textbook
Does not bring pencil or pen

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Possible Corrective
Consequences
Proximity management
Verbal reprimand/Warning
Time owed after class
In-class time-out
Parental contact
Restitution
Principal Notification Form
Disciplinary Referral

It should be noted that prior to enacting corrective


consequences, positive reinforcement strategies
should be utilized.

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Classroom Schedules

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Classroom Schedules
Avoid Down Time

Approximately 70% of the school day is


geared for academic engagement. (5.2
hrs.)

Begin each activity on-time.

The best behavior plans are excellent


academic lesson plans. source unknown

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Classroom Schedules
Budget your academic time
Example: 1 hr. allotment
5 min. Teacher-directed review
10 min. Introduction of new concepts
10 min. Guided practice, working on
assignment
25 min. Independent/Cooperative work
10 min. Teacher-directed corrections

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Physical Space

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Physical Space
Arrange desks to optimize the most
common types of instructional
tasks you will have students
engaged in.
Desks in Rows, Front to Back
Desks in Row, Side to Side
Desks in Clusters
Desks in U-Shape

40
Physical Space, cont.
Make sure you have access to all parts of
the room.

Feel free to assign seats, and change at will.

Minimize the disruptions caused by high


traffic areas in the class.

Arrange to devote some of your bulletin


board/display space to student work.

41
Physical Space, cont.
If needed, arrange for a Time-
Out space in your classroom that
is as unobtrusive as possible.

Desks do not have to be in


traditional rows, but all chairs
should face forward so that all
eyes are focused on the teacher

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Students Who Cause
Behavioral
Aggressive Problems:
(the hyperactive,
agitated, unruly student)
Resistant (the student who wont
work)
Distractible (the student who cant
concentrate)
Dependent (the student who wants
help all the time)
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Location for Students who
cause behavioral
problems:
Separatedisruptive students;
maybe aggressive and
resistant students

Nearbydisruptive students;
maybe distractible, dependent,
and resistant

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Prepare the Work Area
Arrange work areas and seats so that you can
easily see and monitor all the students and
areas no matter where you are in the room
Be sure that students will be able to see you as
well as frequently used areas of the classroom
Keep traffic areas clear
Keep access to storage areas, bookcases,
cabinets, and doors clear
Learn the emergency procedures
Make sure you have enough chairs for the
work areas

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Prepare the Work Area
Be sure to have all necessary materials in
easily accessible areas
Test any equipment to make sure that it
works BEFORE you use it
Use materials such as tote bags, boxes,
coffee cans, dishpans, etc. to store materials
that students will need.
Arrange work areas where students can go for
reading and math groups, science, lab areas,
project work, learning centers, and
independent study. (Remember, you may not
need these areas on the first days of school.

46
Prepare the Student
Area
Plan areas for student belongings
Coats
Binders
Backpacks
Books
Lunchboxes
Lost and found items
others

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Prepare the Wall Space
Cover one or more bulletin boards with
colored paper and trim, and leave it bare for
the purpose of displaying student work and
artifacts.
Display your discipline plan in a prominent
place.
Post procedures, assigned duties, calendar,
clock, emergency information, schedules,
menus, charts, maps, decorations, birthdays,
and student work.
Have a consistent place for listing the days
or weeks assignments

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Prepare the Wall Space
Post a large example of the proper
heading or style for papers to be
done in class
Post examples of tests students
will take, assignments they will
turn in, and papers they will write
Display the feature topic, theme,
chapter, or skill for the day or the
current unit
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Prepare the bookcases
Do not place the bookcases or display wall
where they obstruct any lines of visions
Rotate materials on the shelves, and leave
out only those items that you are willing to
allow students to handle
Do not place books or other loose
materials near an exit where they can
easily disappear or where they may hide
emergency information

50
Prepare the Teaching
Materials
Let students know what materials you want them to
bring from home. Have a place and a procedure
ready for the storage of these materials.
Have a seating plan prepared.
Have basic materials ready
Find and organize containers for materials.
Store seldom used materials out of the way
Place electronic media where there are electrical
outlets and where the students will not trip over the
wires; have extension cords, adapter plugs, and
batteries
Obtain a supply of the forms that are used for daily
school routines
Organize, file, inventory
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Prepare Yourself and Your
Area
Do not create a barrier between
yourself and the students.
Place your desk away from the door
so that no one can take things from
your desk and quickly walk out.
Communicate to your students that
everything in and on you desk is to
be treated as personal property and
off limits to them
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Prepare Yourself and Your
Area
Keep your personal belongings in a
safe location
Have emergency materials handy
Personal items
Extra lunch money
Obtain the materials that you need
before you need them

53
Teachers who are
ready maximize
student learning and
minimize student
misbehavior.
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Attention Signals

55
Attention Signal
Decide upon a signal you can use
to get students attention.

Teach students to respond to the


signal by focusing on you and
maintaining complete silence.

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Example: The Hand
Say: Class, your attention please.

Raise
At the same time, swing right arm in a
circular motion from the 9:00 position to
the 12:00 position.

This prompts all students to stop, look at


you and raise hand.

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Advantages to Hand Raise
It can be given from any location in
the room.
It can be used outside the classroom.
It has both a visual and auditory
component.
It has the ripple effect.

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Discipline, Routines and
Procedures

59
PUNISHMENT
VS.
DISCIPLINE
60
Punishment
Why Do We Punish?
Because it works

Punishment is effective for approximately


95% of our students
Its quick
Punishment produces a rapid (but often
temporary) suppression of behavior
It requires lower level thinking skills.

61
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: strives to replace an unwanted
behavior with a desirable behavior

P: takes away a behavior by force, but


replaces it with nothing*

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Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Is firm and consistent, but
peaceful

P: inflicts harm in the name of


good*

63
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Positive behavioral change is
expected

P: The worst is expected, and the


worst is often received*

64
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: May may the youth angry at fist,
but calls for self-evaluation and
change rather than self-degradation

P: Agitates and often causes anger


and resentment on the part of the
child (which may have caused the
behavior in the first place)*

65
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Takes time and energy but
consequences are logical and
encourage restitution

P: Is immediate and high-impact


but is hardly ever logical*

66
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Allows child to rebuild self-
esteem

P: Damages fragile self-esteem*

67
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Disciplinarian is in control of
his/her own emotions

P: Allows anger to be released


physically by punisher, allowing for
dangerous loss of control on
adults part*

68
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Is not threatening, dangerous
or abusive

P: Can be physically and


emotionally dangerous*

69
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: Allows for reflection and
restitution

P: Does not allow the child to


make up for his/her behavior*

70
Discipline vs. Punishment
D: is caring but takes time and
planning

P: is often off the cuff and


emotionally charged*

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Important Aspects of a
Well-Disciplined
Classroom
Discipline
Procedures
Routines

Effective teachers introduce rules,


procedures, and routines on the
very first day of school and
continue to teach and reinforce
them throughout the school year.
72
The number one
problem in the
classroom is not
discipline; it is the lack
of procedures and
routines.
73
Discipline vs. Procedures
Discipline: Concerns how students BEHAVE
Procedures: Concerns how things are DONE

Discipline: HAS penalties and rewards


Procedures: Have NO penalties or rewards

A procedure is simply a method or


process for how things are to be done
in a classroom.

74
Students must know from the very
beginning how they are expected
to behave and work in a classroom
environment.

DISCIPLINE dictates how students


are to behave

PROCEDURES and ROUTINES


dictate how students are to work

75
Procedures
Are statements of student expectations necessary to
participate successfully in classroom activities, to learn,
and to function effectively in the school environment

Allow many different activities to take place efficiently


during the school day, often several at the same time,
with a minimum of wasted time and confusion

Increase on-task time and greatly reduce classroom


disruptions

Tell a student how things operate in the classroom, thus


reducing discipline problems

76
A PROCEDURE is A ROUTINE is what
how you want the student does
something done automatically
without prompting
or supervision
It is the
responsibility of Becomes a habit,
the the teacher to practice, or custom
communicate for the student
effectively

77
A smooth-running class
is the responsibility of
the teacher, and it is
the result of the
teachers ability to
teach procedures.
78
Procedures answer questions
such as
What to do when the bell rings
What to do when the pencil breaks
What to do when you hear an emergency
alert signal
What to do when you finish your work early
What to do when you have a question
What to do when you need to go to the
restroom
How to enter the classroom
Where to put completed work

79
Activity
Choose one of the items from
handout #____

Develop a set of procedures for the


item of your choice

Display

Gallery Walk
80
Three Steps to Teach
Procedures
1. EXPLAIN. State, explain, model, and
demonstrate the procedure.

2. REHEARSE. Practice the procedure


under your supervision.

3. REINFORCE. Reteach, rehearse,


practice, and reinforce the classroom
procedure until it becomes a student
habit or routine.
81
Discipline with the Body
not the Mouth
1. EXCUSE yourself from what you are doing

2. RELAX. Take a slow relaxing breath and CALMLY approach


the student with a meaningful look.

3. FACE the student directly and CALMLY wait for a response.

4. If there is no response, WHISPER the students first name


and follow with what you want the student to do, ending
with please. RELAX and WAIT.

5. If the student does not get to work, RELAX and WAIT.


Repeat Step 4 if necessary.

82
6. If backtalk occurs, relax, wait and KEEP QUIET. If
the student wants to talk back, keep the first
principle of dealing with backtalk in mind:
IT TAKES ONE FOOL TO TALK BACK.
IT TAKES TWO FOOLS TO MAKE A
CONVERSTAION OUT OF IT.

7. When the student responds with the appropriate


behavior say, Thank you, and leave with an
affirmative SMILE. If a student goes so far as to
earn an office referral, you can deliver it just as well
RELAXED. After all, ruining your composure
and peace of mind does not enhance
classroom management.

-Adapted from Fred Jones, Positive Classroom


Discipline and Positive Classroom Instruction

83
Beginning and Ending
Routines
Entering Class
Goal: Students will feel welcome and
will immediately go to their seats and
start on a productive task.
Greet the students at the door.
Have a task prepared for students to work
on as they sit down.
Do your housekeeping.
Keep tasks short (3-5 min.)
When youve finished, address the task.

84
Beginning and Ending
Routine, cont.
Ending Routine
Goal: Your procedures for ending the
day/class will:
Ensure that students will not leave the
classroom before they have organized
their own materials and completed any
necessary clean-up tasks.
Ensure the you have enough time to give
students both positive and corrective
feedback, and to set a positive tone for
ending the class.

85
Beginning and Ending
Routines, cont.
Dismissal
Goal: Students will not leave the classroom
until they are dismissed by you (not the
bell).
Explain that the bell is a signal for you.
Excuse the class when things are reasonably quiet
and all wrap up activities are completed.
General Rule:
Dismiss primary students by rows
Dismiss older students by class

86
Design efficient procedures for assigning,
Student Work
monitoring, and collecting student work.

5 Major Areas of Managing Student Work:


Assigning Class Work and Homework
Managing Independent Work Periods
Collecting Completed Work
Keeping Records and Providing Feedback
Dealing with Late/Missing Assignments

87
Ponder This
You dont build your football team
on the day of the game.

You dont drill a well when you get


thirsty.

And you dont discuss procedures


once an emergency has begun.
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Classroom Management
Plan

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Classroom Management
Plan
8 Components:
1) Level of Classroom Structure based on
risk factors of your students.
2) Guidelines for Success attitudes,
traits, or behaviors to help achieve
success.
3) Rules specific, observable, and
measurable behavioral objectives
4) Teaching Expectations What, how, and
when expectations will be taught

90
Classroom Management
Plan
5) Monitoring How you will monitor the
progress of the expectations.
6) Encouragement Procedures How you
will encourage students to demonstrate
motivated and responsible behavior.
7) Correction Procedures How you will
respond to irresponsible behavior.
8) Managing Student Work What
procedures and systems you will use to
manage student work.

91
CHAMPS video

92
For Every Activity
Make sure students know your
behavioral expectation.

Consider the CHAMPs level of


structure:

93
CHAMPs
Conversation: Under what
circumstances, if at all, can the students
talk to each other during the activity.

Can students engage in conversations with


each other during this activity?
If yes, about what?
How many students can be involved in a
single conversation?
How long can the conversation last?

94
CHAMPs, cont.
Help How do students get their
questions answered during the
activity?

How do they get your attention?


If students have to wait for help, what
should they go while they wait?

95
CHAMPs, cont.
Activity What is the activity?

What is your expected end product?


This will likely change daily, according
to your lesson plans.

96
CHAMPs, cont.
Movement Under what
circumstance, if at all, can students
move about during the activity?
If yes, for what?
Pencil Restroom
Drink Hand in/pick up materials
Other
Do they need permission from you?

97
CHAMPs, cont.
Participation What does
appropriate student work behavior
during the activity look/sound like?

What behaviors show that students


are participating fully and responsibly?
What behaviors show that a student in
not participating?

98
Dealing with Anger

99
How do YOU
deal with an
angry
student?
100
Angry Students
Goal: To help channel and direct the
student to constructive outcomes.
Assist the child in learning acceptable
ways of expressing this emotion.

Caution!!
Caution should be taken to avoid
repressing or destroying the feeling of
anger.

101
Anger
Anger may be
A defense to avoid painful feelings
Associated with failure
Associated with low self-esteem
Associated with feelings of isolation
Related to feelings of anxiety over
where the child has no control

102
Anger vs. Sadness
Child anger and sadness closely
related.
Expresses sadness as anger.

Adult expresses sadness as


sadness.

103
Angry Child Interventions
1) Catch the child being good. Tell
what behaviors please you.

Respond to positive efforts and


reinforce good behavior.
Thanks for sitting in your seat quietly.
You worked hard on that project, and I
admire you effort.

104
Angry Child Interventions

2) Deliberately ignore
inappropriate behavior that can be
tolerated.

Tell child what you are doing.


If attention seeking, it will get worse
before better.
Be consistent

105
Angry Child Interventions
3) Provide physical outlets and
other alternatives.

Pre-plan opportunities for child to


release stored energy
Consider meaningful work

106
Angry Child Interventions
4) Manipulate the surroundings.

Look for triggers both inside/outside


your class.
Re-examine your rules.
Consider the childs physical space.

107
Angry Child Interventions
5) Use closeness and touching.

Move physically closer to the child


Consider gently placing your hand on
the childs shoulder
Works best with younger children

108
Angry Child Interventions
6) Express interest in the childs
activities.

Develop the relationship


Teachers are often the best therapists

109
Angry Child Interventions
7) Ease tension through humor.

Attempt to joke the child out of an


episode.
This will help save face.
Be careful to distinguish between
humor and teasing.
If sarcastic tone, child may become more
angry.

110
Angry Child Interventions
8) Explain situations to the child.

Assist the child in understanding what


situations can contribute to their
anger
Assist the child in learning
appropriate alternative responses.
Allow for practice/role play

111
When An Explosion is
Pending
The Crisis Cycle:

StimulusThoughtsFeelings
ActionConsequence

112
The Curve of Explosion
Stimulus- initiates the process.
Period of Escalation- child calls on
available coping skills.
Anger will resolve or escalate
Begins to think less and feel more
Try to get child to talk
Use Active Listening skills
Monitor your Para-Verbal Communication
Assume a Calm Demeanor

113
The Curve of Explosion,
cont.
Dos
DO use positive expectations.
DO use I statements.
DO reflect the emotion you hear.
DO use non-verbal affirmation.
DO try to direct the youth into a
problem solving mode.

114
The Curve of Explosion,
cont.
Donts
Dont lead with the rules.
Dont lead with the consequences.
Dont begin statements with the
word, You.
Dont ask Why questions.

115
The Curve of Explosion,
cont.
Out of Control- behavior is driven
by emotion.
Thought process is repressed.
Avoid threats of disciplinary
sanctions.
All youth to vent safely.
Physical restraint may be required.

116
The Curve of Explosion,
cont.
Period of De-escalation.
Thought processes begin to stabilize.
Emotional control is re-established.
Student may be tired.
Student may request to be left alone.

117
Behavior
Modification

118
Pre-Corrections
Thank you for not smoking.
Serves as a gentle reminder of
expectations.
Gives students an opportunity to
mentally prepare before an activity.
Always respond to sincere efforts to
comply.

119
Classroom Behavior
Modification
using: Pre-Correction for
Seven steps:
Classroom
1) Identify the context and the likely
problem behavior.
2) Specify the expected behaviors.
3) Systematically modify the context.
4) Conduct behavioral rehearsals.
5) Provide strong reinforcement for
expected behaviors.
6) Prompt expected behaviors.
7) Monitor the plan.

120
Pre-Correction Scenario
1) Context students entering
classroom immediately after recess.
Predictable behavior students
shouting, laughing, and pushing before
complying with teacher direction.

2) Expected Behavior Entering the


room quietly, go to desks, begin
task, keep hands to self.
121
Pre-Correction Scenario,
cont.
3) Context modification Teacher
meets students at door, has them
wait and then go to desk to begin
entry tasks.

4) Behavior rehearsal Teacher


reminds students just before recess of
expected behaviors. Asks student
to tell what are expected behaviors.

122
Pre-Correction Scenario,
cont.
5) Strong reinforcement Students are told
that if they cooperate with teacher
requests, they will have additional break
and 5 extra minutes for recess.

6) Prompts Teacher gives signals at the


door to be quiet and points to activity on
Chalkboard. Teacher says ssshh to
noisy students and praises students who
are beginning work.

123
Pre-Correction Scenario,
cont.
7) Monitoring plan Teacher uses a
watch to measure how long it
takes for all students begin their
tasks immediately (within 10
seconds).

124
5 Steps to Correction
1) List Previous Positive Behavior.
Elizabeth, yesterday you did such a good
job staying in your seat and paying
attention. I really appreciate how you
behaved.

2) State Current Behavior.


However, today Elizabeth, youve been out
of your seat, disrupting class several times.

125
5 Steps to Correction,
cont.
3) State Expectations.
Elizabeth, what I expect from you is, for
you to go to your seat, sit in your seat, pay
attention, and only talk to your neighbors
when I give you permission.
4) Child Repeats.
You want me to go to my seat, sit down,
listen, and keep my mouth shut.

126
5 Steps to Correction,
cont.
5) Praise Any Efforts.
Acknowledge any compliance
Be positive
Be sincere
Be encouraging
You need a positive relationship with
the student to use this effectively.

127
If you want itteach it. If
you expect to maintain it,
encourage it, acknowledge
it, and reinforce it.

source unknown

128
Post-Correction
Adapted from the Life Space Interview model,
Fritz Redl.

Allows the child an opportunity to process and


learn from the experience.

Should be done by the adult who witnessed the


incident.

Should be done within 24 hours. (As soon as


both parties are calm)

129
5 Steps to Post-Correction
1) Youths Perception-
Adult should:
Listen
Refrain from judgments and corrections
Ask questions which help student with
description
Attempt to find out what student was trying to
achieve

130
5 Steps to Post-Correction,
cont.
2) Adults Perception-
Discuss what parts of incident you see same
and differently
Provide reality base

3) Connection Incident to Pattern of


behavior
Assist student in seeing a behavior pattern
he/she has developed

131
5 Steps to Post-Correction,
cont.
4) Explore Alternative Behaviors-
Prompts may be used
Important to let student find options

5) Develop A Plan-
May use behavior contract
Assure student of adult commitment
Discuss consequences for next incident

132
Always say what you
mean, and mean what
you saybut dont say it
in a mean way.
Nicholas Long

133
Classroom
Environment

134
No improvement will occur in
instruction until the
classroom climate improves.

Classrooms have personalities


just like people.

-63 Ways of Improving Classroom Instruction


(Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons)

135
Classroom Environment
Polskys Diamond Dr. Howard
Polsky

The Five Ranks of Social Power:


Leaders
Lieutenants
Members
Status Seekers
Scapegoats

136
Polskys Diamond, cont.
The Social Interaction with-in
diamond is prompted by the need
for 3 things.

1)Power influence over ones own life


2)Affiliation belonging
3)Achievement status

137
.so their behaviors look
like:
Social functions of Behavior:
Attention Seeking (adult/peer)
Power/control
Fear of failure/frustration
Imitation

Other functions of Behavior:


Getting something (sensory input)
Revenge or retaliation
Avoidance (person/activity, demands or requests)
Feels Good/Play

138
Social Skills
How do Tough Kids meet these needs?

Behavioral Excesses-
Aggression Arguing
Hitting Fighting
Shouting Teasing
Blaming Provoking

Behavioral Deficits-
Using self-control Cooperating
Problem Solving Helping
Sharing Making good decisions
139
Need for Social Skills
In order to assist the child in
meeting the 3 needs, effective
social skills instruction should be
employed.

Social Skills: Basic skills needed to


successfully interact with adults and
peers.
140
6 Components of an
Effective Social Skills
Program
1) Rationale
2) Modeling
3) Concept Teaching
4) Role Playing/Behavior Rehearsal
and Practice
5) Coaching
6) Contingent Reinforcement
141
Social Skill Topics
Basic Social Skills:

Body Basics- (FEVER)


Face person
Eye contact
Voice volume/tone/rate
Expression should match
Relaxed posture

Starting, Joining, and Maintaining a Conversation


With Adults
With Peers

142
Social Skills Topics, cont.
Basic Social Skills:
Recognizing and Expressing Feelings
Playing Cooperatively
Solving Problems
Using Self-Control
Solving Arguments
Dealing with Teasing
Dealing with Being Left Out
Accepting NO
Following Directions

143
Social Skill Topics, cont.
Intermediate to Advanced Skills:
Accepting negative feedback
Learning how to say NO.
Assertiveness
Resisting peer pressure
Resisting teasing
Managing anger
etc.

144
Social Skills Assessment
Social Skills Survey
Can be completed by student
May be determined by age/maturity
Can be completed by teacher
Can be completed by parent
Average and rank scores
Deliver necessary Social Skills
Instruction

145
Social Skills Programs
Second Steps

Skill Streaming

Tough Kid Series

SCORE Skills
146
Designing Lessons to
Enhance Student
Learning

150
Why Plan?

Plan
Ahea
d 151
The Correct Question
DONT ASK: What am I going to
cover tomorrow?

DO ASK: What are my students going


to learn, achieve, and accomplish
tomorrow?

The role of the teacher is not to


cover. The role of the teacher is to
UNCOVER.
152
Learning has nothing to do with
what the teacher COVERS.

Learning ahs to do with what the


student ACCOMPLISHES.

153
What is a lesson plan?
Teachers guide
Design for the learning of the student
Series of student centered learning
Focused on what the student needs
to know and be able to do
Covers one day or several days
Allows for the teachable moment

154
Experienced Teacher
Standards
1. Demonstrates Professional Leadership
2. Demonstrates Knowledge of Content
3. Designs/Plans Instruction
4. Creates and Maintains Learning Climate
5. Implements/Manages Instruction
6. Assesses and communicates Learning
Results
7. Collaborates with
Colleagues/Parents/Others
8. Engages in Professional Development

155
Performance Criteria
Standard 3
Focuses instruction on one or more of KYs
learning goals and academic expectations
Develops instruction that requires students to
apply knowledge, skills, and thinking
processes
Integrates skills, thinking processes, and
content across disciplines
Creates/utilizes learning experiences that
challenge, motivate, and actively involve the
learner
Creates and uses learning experiences that
are developmentally appropriate for learners

156
Performance Criteria
Standard 3
Develops and incorporates strategies that
address physical, social, and cultural
diversity and that show sensitivity to
others
Arranges the physical classroom to support
the types of teaching and learning to occur
Includes creative and appropriate use of
technology to improve student learning
Develops and implements appropriate
assessment processes

157
Performance Criteria
Standard 3
Secures/uses a variety of appropriate
school and community resources to support
learning
Develops/incorporates learning experiences
that encourage students to be adaptable\,
flexible, resourceful, and creative
Uses knowledge required from past
teaching experiences to anticipate
instructional challenges

158
Thinking About Lesson
Planning
Who Am I Planning For?
What Am I Supposed To Do?

159
Two Types of
Assignments
Ineffective Assignments:
The teacher tells the class what is to be
covered
Chapter 7; Moby Dick; long division; ecosystems

Effective Assignments:
The teacher tells the students what they are
to have accomplished or mastered at the
end of the lesson
Teach with the end in mind

160
Creating Effective
Assignments
Think what you want the students to
accomplish

Write each step as a single sentence.

Write in simple language

Duplicate the list of steps and give it to


the students

161
Effective Assignments
Must have structure and be precise

Structure
The assignment must have a consistent and familiar
format that the students can recognize as their
assignment
The assignment must be posted daily in a
consistent location BEFORE students enter the room

Preciseness
The assignment must state clearly and simply what
the students are to ACCOMPLISH

162
To teach for learning, use words,
especially verbs, that show learning has
taken place.

Blooms Taxonomy
Knowledge
Comprehension
Application
Analysis
Synthesis
evaluation
163
If the classroom is a fish
bowl

Piranha

Catfish

Goldfish
164
Piranha..
Are usually the trouble-makers
Can be passive aggressive or
overtly aggressive
Have negative attitude
Have attendance problems
Are at risk
Etc., etc., etc
165
Catfish..
Go with the flow
Are usually good-natured, but have
limited motivation
Are social beings
Tend to cooperate; follow MOST rules
Perform to the average or just enough
to stay out of trouble with mom/dad
Etc., etc., etc

166
Goldfish..
Are in the top 10-15% of their class
Are teacher pleasers
Are highly motivated to perform well
Show enthusiasm for learning
May be over achievers and /or high
achievers
Etc., etc., etc.

167
Pre-Planning Strategies
1. Determine the learning styles of your
students
2. Determine reading levels/skills of students
3. Inventory access to technology
4. Connect writing to what is being taught
5. Focus on academic expectations and core
content
6. Establish a variety of instructional
strategies

168
Essential Questions
What do I want all students to know and be
able to do at the end of this lesson?
What will I do to cause this learning to
happen?
What will students do to facilitate this
learning?
How will I assess to find out if this learning
happened?
What will I do for those who show through
assessment that the learning did not take
place?

169
Think-Pair-Share

Best Practices in Lesson Planning


Some Guiding Principles

Adapted From: 63 Ways of Teaching or Learning


Anything by Gary Phillips and Maurice Gibbons

170
Thinking It Through
Lesson Content
Learning Level
Instructional Methods, Materials,
Activities
Student Activities
Evaluation Tools, Strategies,
Activities

171
The Lesson Plan Rubric
Academic Focus
Instructional Strategies
Student Engagement
Writing Strategy
Reading Strategy
Technology Strategy
Assessment Strategy
172
Unmotivated Students

173
The Unmotivated
Student
Problems often emerge during late
elementary or middle school.
Often initiated by early academic
problem.
Begins to see school as a place of
drudgery.
Will most often become discipline
problem.
At risk of becoming a drop out.
174
Unmotivated Student,
cont.
Factors That Influence Motivation:
Fear of Failure Better to look bad, than
stupid. Safer not to try.
Lack of Meaning May not see relevance
to assignments.
Emotional Distress Anxiety/Depression
from influences at home.
Learning Disability Give up in
frustration.

175
Unmotivated Student,
cont.
Lack of Challenge
Desire for Attention look helpless to
teacher
Peer Concern not cool to like school
Low Expectation no encouragement
from home
Expression of Anger due to pressure
from parents

176
Unmotivated Student
Interventions
Assess the origin,(records, teachers, etc)
Talk with the Student Privately develop the
relationship.
Provide a Warm, Accepting Climate
Stay Close to the Student
Introduce the Lesson with Enthusiasm
Give Clear Direction and Feedback
Present Tasks in Manageable Doses
Orchestrate the Students Success
Highlight the Students Talents

177
Unmotivated Student
Interventions, cont.
Vary Your Teaching Style
Relate Instruction to Students Interests
Make Instruction Relevant to Real World
Provide Hands-on Activities
Apply Meaningful WorkCHAMPs
Allow Student Some Control over What and How
He Learns
Praise Students Efforts and Accomplishments
If Student is Too Cool, consider incentives, rewards,
group recognition ( spark some competition)
Challenge the Student

178
HYPERACTIVITY
Constant movement Provide structured high
activity tasks

Easily distracted
Allow for control
movement
Lack of control
Reward on-task
behaviors
Verbal

Use color codes for


Does not attend to recognitions of
cues behaviors

179
INATTENTION
Passive Focus attention on key
elements of activity

Minimal problem-
Develop and mental
solving skills map with student

Dependent learner Facilitate routine


success
Views ability versus
effort as a problem Help the student self-
monitor performance

180
IMPULSIVITY
Speaks before Provide short and
thinking out answers specific directions

Reflective evaluation
Cannot monitor
behavior
Develop problem-solving

Impatient with Model expected


repetition behaviors

Avoids anxiety Allow behavior outlets

181
DISRUPTIVE BEHAVIOR
Refuses to do work Reinforce positive
behavior
Defy authority
Use high interest
Intimidates other personally relevant
students material

Distract teaching Provide short


through verbal or successes
physical means

182
Key Ideas

183
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom
that Reflects Excellent Instruction in
the Area of Behavior Management
The classroom is organized in a manner that
encourages order, participation, independence, and
continuous learning
There is a small number of meaningful rules
Students understand and enforce rules
The teacher is constantly teaching independent
behavior management skills
The teacher spends an appropriate amount of time
at the beginning of the school year establishing the
culture and climate for positive acceptable behavior
Students demonstrating appropriate behaviors
constantly receive positive reinforcement

184
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom
that Reflects Excellent Instruction in
the Area of Behavior Management
The teacher handles inappropriate behavior in a
firm, fair, consistent, and caring manner
The teachers interactions with students are positive
and reinforce the importance of student success
The teacher has several motivators that reinforce
and shape student positive behaviors
Classroom instruction is well organized, meaningful,
and allows for student differences (individual and
group)
Classroom management strategies are appropriate
to the environment and needs of the students

185
Descriptors of the Ideal Classroom
that Reflects Excellent Instruction in
the Area of Behavior Management
There is an established communication
between home and school
Students receive constant positive
reinforcement for doing good work and
encouragement to do better
Student work is displayed throughout the
classroom and behavior and learning
reinforcers are visible throughout the room

186
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is
Successful at Behavior Instruction
and Reinforcement
The teacher has the ability to KNOW
and effectively RELATE to his/her
students
Establishes rapport and trust
Separates unacceptable behavior from
student as a person
Knows total student in and out of school
Knows students interests/likes/dislikes

187
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is
Successful at Behavior Instruction
and Reinforcement
The teacher has practical and
current KNOWLEDGE of behavior
management strategies
Classroom design
Classroom management
Establishing baseline data
Developing a behavior plan

188
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is
Successful at Behavior Instruction
and Reinforcement
The teacher APPLIES behavior
management strategies in a
FLEXIBLE and TIMELY manner
Ability to quickly analyze situation
and appropriately apply techniques
Has good timing-when and where to
react and respond

189
Descriptors of a Teacher Who is
Successful at Behavior Instruction
and Reinforcement
The teacher is CONSISTNET, has good
FOLLOW-THROGUH, and FOLLOW-UP
WITH STUDENTS
Is clear and predictable from day 1
Communicates expectations often
Can re-establish respect after encounters
constantly reinforces expected behavior

190
Teachers who are successful at
behavior instruction and
reinforcement
Have a keen AWARENESS of the classroom
ATTEND to more than one matter at a time
Train students to follow established classroom
PROCEDURES/ROUTINES without disturbing others
PACE their instruction without unnecessary delays
Use a variety of techniques to keep students
INTERESTED and INVOLVED
Use various techniques to check student
INVOLOVEMNT, LEARNING, and ATTENTION
Use EFFECTIVE TECHNIQUES with individual
students that guide other students behavior

191
Word Wall Activity
In your group, discuss the term(s) that
you have chosen.

Think about what we have discussed


about this item today.

Share:
Your thoughts and
A factual statement

192
Now What?

Where do I go from
here?

193
Resources

194
Contacting Todays
Presenters.
Lisa Smith, Instruction/Behavior Consultant
Upper Cumberland Special Education
Cooperative
Phone: 606-337-3555
Email: galasmith@jellico.net

Keith Lakes, Behavior Consultant


Upper Cumberland Special Education
Cooperative
Phone: 606-364-4673
Email: prtcnet.org

195
UPPER CUMBERLAND SPECIAL
EDUCATION COOPERATIVE STAFF

Ginger Brashear, Director Carla Jordan, Complex


Phone: 549-7000 ext 34 Needs/AT
Email: Phone: 606-546-3111157
gbrashear@whitley.k12.ky.us Email:
cjordan@knox.k12.ky.us

Gary Smith, Due Process Keith Lakes, Behavior


Phone: 606-337-3555 Phone: 606-364-4673
Email: gsmith@jellico.com Email: prtcnet.org

Angela Bray, Instruction Lisa Smith,


Phone: 606-679-1123 Instruction/Behavior
Email: abray1@pulaski.net Phone: 606-337-3555 196