You are on page 1of 20


Nature of strength
Factors effecting strength
Strength in compression and Tension
Compression test
Tension test
Flexure test
Split tensile strength
Code provisions
Schematic description
Nature of strength of
Strength of concrete is increases with
increase of curing period
Concrete gains strength with age
The below graph show typical strength gain
Initially concrete having no compressive
strength up to it reaches final setting
For first three days it gains 22 -25%
14 DAYS - 82 %
21 DAYS - 90%
28 DAYS -95 %
Factors influencing strength
Quality of raw materials
Water cement ratio
Ratio of cement to aggregate
Degree of compaction
Quality of materials

The influence of grade of cement and the

need of storing cement is important
Influence of quality ,size, shape ,texture
and deleterious materials
Good quality of water also is a factor
w/c ratio
Water cement ration is the water used in
making concrete to the quantum of cement
in the mixture
It is the one of the major factors influencing
the strength of concrete
Lower w/c ratios gives better strength
Higher w/c ratio results poor strength , &
bleeding proprtey
Avoid higher w/c ratios
Ratio of cement to aggregate
The strength of cement depends upon the
bond between aggregates which is
provided by cement paste
Higher cement consent more is the cement
paste gives better bond strength
If the proportion of fine aggregate is
increased the surface area of aggregates is
increased hence cement paste is
Degree of compaction
Compaction is required to expel the air
locked in the concrete
Air is locked in the concrete reduce the
bond b/w cement and aggregates
1% air is reduce strength of 3-6 %
Poor compaction results in reduced
strength and honey combing
Temperature & humidity
Too low temperature also makes the
concrete weak
Make sure optimum temperature for better
Relative humidity should be high for
hydration reaction
If humidity is allowed to dry out the
hydration reaction stops
Compression test of concrete
Clean the bearing surface of the testing machine
Place the specimen in the machine in such a
manner that the load shall be applied to the
opposite sides of the cube cast.
Align the specimen centrally on the base plate
of the machine.
Apply the load gradually without shock and
continuously at the rate of 140kg/cm2/minute
till the specimen fails
Record the maximum load and note any unusual
features in the type of failure.
Tensile strength