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dr. Alya Amila Fitrie, M.Kes
dr. Zulham, M.Biomed
Department of Histology
Medical Faculty
North Sumatera University

Blood Cells
• Mature blood cells : relatively short life
span  continuously replaced with the
progeny of stem cells produced in the
hematopoeitic organs.


stem irreversibly cells differentiate d cell types . Stem Cells Stem cells Pluripotential cells capable of self renewal Remain Specific.

erythrocytes & megakaryocytes .Pluripotential Hematopoietic Stem Cells Migrate from the bone marrow to the lymphoid organ. monocytes. where they proliferate : lymphocytes Lymphoid cells All blood cells arise from a single type of stem cell in the bone marrow  pluripotential stem cells Myeloid cells Develop in bone marrow : granulocytes.

Progenitor & Precursor Cells Stem cells. pluripotential cells Progenitor cells. unipotential or bipotential cell Precursor cells The morphologic characteristics differentiate for the first time Mature cells .

Differentiation of pluripotential cells during hematopoeisis .

Hematopoeitic Growth Factors • Have different chemical composition & complex • Have overlapping functions • Act mainly by : 1. . Enhancing the functions of mature cells. Stimulating proliferation of immature cells 2. Supporting the differentiation of maturing cells 3.

Macrophages. Fibroblast Stimulates malignant (leukemic) cells. Endothelium. Enhance metabolism of granulocytes. Macrophages. T lymphocytes Erythropoeitin (EPO) Chromosome 7 Stimulates red blood cells formation in vivo and in vitro. Granulocyte + Chromosome 5 Stimulates in vitro and in vivo production Macrophage (GM. Endothelium. Endothelium. Fibroblast Increases antitumor activity of macrophages. Interleukin 3 (IL-3) Chromosome 5 Stimulates in vivo and in vitro production of all myeloid cells. Fibroblast Macrophage (M-CSF) Chromosome 5 Stimulates formation of macrophages in vitro. CSF) T lymphocytes. Hematopoeitic Growth Factors (Colony-forming substances) Name Human Gene Location & Producing Main Biologic Activity Cells Granulocyte-CSF Chromosome 17 Stimulates formation of granulocytes. of granulocytes and macrophages. Renal interstisial cells (outer cortex) .

Red or hematogenous bone marrow  blood & blood- forming cells 2.m. • Two types of bone marrow : 1.m. • Growth : red  yellow b. BONE MARROW • Found in the medullary canals of long bones & in the cavities of cancellous bone. Yellow bone marrow  adipose cells • All newborn  red b. .

. some bacterial toxins. hematopoietic cords & sinusoidal capilarries. e.hormone.destruction of worn-out RBC & storage of iron derived from the breakdown of Hb. • Function : production blood cells. Red Bone Marrow • Composed of : stroma.q. • Release of mature blood cells  releasing factors . C3.

The passage of blood cells across a sinusoid capillary in red bone marrow .


Summary of erythrocyte maturation • Hemoglobine concentration  • Nuclear volume gradually • Chromatin condensation  • Extrussion of pyknotic nucleus .

nucleus (-) . no visible nucleolus Polychromatophili Appear several colors in the cell c erytroblast Condensed nucleus. Differentiation of Erythrocytes Large cell. no basophilic Orthochromatophil cytoplasm. visible Proerythroblast nucleoli. erythroblast condensed nucleus. Reticulocyte nucleus (-) Erythrocyte Biconcave form. lacy chromatin. a uniformly acidophilic ic erythroblast cytoplas Small number of polyribosomes. basophilic cytoplasm Basophilic Strongly basophilic cytoplasm.


Change in synthetic activity  production of several proteins that are packed in specific granules . Cytoplasmic changes : synthesis of a number of proteins that are packed in 2 organelles : azurophilic & specific granules 2. Maturation Process of Granulocytes 1.

Lobulated nucleus except basophilia . locally acidophilic (+) as azurophilic granules. Differentiation of Granulocytes Myeloblast  larger. Metamyelocyte Azurophilic’s <<. Azurophilic >>. spherical or ovoid nucleus. Myelocyte Specific granules <<. Promyelocyte basophilic cytoplasm but. band nucleus Abundant specific granules.

Granulopoeisis .

Stages in the development of erytrocytes and granulocytes .

Section of stimulated red bone marrow .

Section of red bone marrow with a group of erythropoeitic cells & a group of neutrophilopoeitic cells .


Kinetics of Neutrophil Production .


B lymphocytes organs. attributes of T lymphocytes lymphocytes differentiate  B lymphocytes migrate T lymphocytes Peripheral lymphoid Peripheral lymphoid populate spesific organs. Lymphocytes Lymphocytes progenitor migrate cells in the bone marrow Thymus  full In the bone marrow. B regions of peripheral inhabit & multiply lymphocytes inhabitin& lymphoid organs their own multiply special in their own compartments special compartments .

large & slightly indented nucleus.connective s tissue . basophilic Promonocyt cytoplasm. Monocytes Identical to the myeloblast Monoblas in its morphologic characteristic t  up to 18 m. nucleoli are e evident differentiatio n Monocyt Macrophage e bloodstream --.


irregularly lobulated nucleus.Origin of Platelets  15-50 m. cytoplasm homogenous and basophilic Differentiation  35-150 m. numerous nucleoli. no visible nucleoli Fragmentation of the cytoplasm of mature megakaryocyte . large ovoid nucleus. coarse chromatine.

Megakaryocyte • A megakaryocyte in a section of red bone marrow. • One nucleus • Granular cytoplasm .