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Automotive Transmission

UNIT I

Contents
 Introduction
 Transmission Systems
 Manual
 Automated Manual
 Automatic
 Continuously variable
 Dual Clutch
 Propeller Shaft

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Contents  Universal joints  Differential  Requirements of the Transmission Design Process  Product Life Cycle  Stages in the Design Process • Project Set Up • Concept Design • Detailed Design • Engineering Drawings and Tolerancing 3 .

4 .It is used to transmit engine torque to the drivin wheels to drive the vehicle on the road. Transmission System • Function of transmission: .

Provide relative movement between engine a riving wheels 5 . connect the driving wheels to engine smoothly without shock Leverage between engine and driving wheels be varied Enable the driving wheels to rotate at differe speeds. Requirement of Transmission System To provide for disconnecting the engine from t riving wheels • When engine is running .

Transmission System .Layout 6 .

Transmission Types 7 .

Clutch Function of clutch Clutch is used to disengage and engage th ngine with rest of the transmission systems. 8 . To engage after starting of the engine and gea hift operation. To disengage while starting the engine an while changing gear ratio.

• Damp the vibrations and noise. • Dynamically balanced. Clutch Requirement of Clutch • Transmit maximum torque of the engine. • Dissipate maximum amount of heat. • Engage gradually to avoid sudden jerks. 9 . • Easy to operate. • As small as possible.

Clutch Unit • Flywheel also acts as a driving member • Pressure plate is connected to clutch cover assembly. press the Pressure plate against the clutch plate. • Clutch Cover assembly is bolted to the flywheel. • Clutch springs placed between Pressure plate & Cover plate. • Thus Clutch plate is squeezed between Flywheel & Pressure plate. .

Classification of Clutch • Cone clutch • Flat Plate clutch .No.Actuation spring(Helical or Diaphragm) • Centrifugal clutch 11 . of friction plates (Single or Multiple) .Dry or Wet type clutch .Actuation mode (Cable or Hydraulic) .

Clutch Engaged & Disengaged • Clutch is always is in engaged state.contact of Clutch plate both with Flywhee face & Pressure plate face • Frictional heat is dissipated by openings present in Clutch housing & Cover 12 . • It can be disengaged by pressing of Clutch pedal. Disengagement is effecte by non .

Clutch Material 13 .

Need of Gear Box 14 .

Gear Box • Gear box varies the leverage (speed ratio & hence torque ratio) between the engine & driving wheels. • It is located between Clutch & Propeller shaft. • Gear ratio is varied by Gear shift lever. • It is provided with either 4 speed or 5 speed ratios or more depending on design. 15 .

Types 16 .Manual Transmission .

UNIT II .

• Synchronizer is splined on the shaft Cone on the gear (blue) fits into cone-shaped area in the collar. Synchronizers • A device used to bring two adjacent members to the same speed before allowing the sleeve to engage them. • The two elements are friction clutch and toothed clutch. 17 . • The outer portion of the collar (sleeve) then slides so that the dogteeth engage the gear. • Friction between the cone and collar synchronize the collar & gear. • Establish the positive engagement and power flow. • Lock the positive engagement until speeds are synchronized .

main drive gear 8.outer engaging unit 5.main shaft 4.top gear synchronizing cone 9.inner engaging unit 6.II speed gear 3.counter shaft 18 .top gear engaging teeth 7.I speed gear 2.Synchromesh Gearbox 1.

he first presses down th clutch pedal his operates a single clutch. 19 . which re-connects the engine to th gearbox and transmits power to the wheels. which disconnects th ngine from the gearbox and interrupts power flow to ransmission hen the driver uses the stick shift to select a new gea process that involves moving a toothed collar from on gear wheel to another gear wheel of a different size Devices called synchronizers match the gears befo they are engaged to prevent grinding Once the new gear is engaged. the driver releases th clutch pedal. How Manual Transmission Work? When a driver wants to change from one gear to anoth in a standard stick-shift car.

Manual Transmission • Cheap to make • Durable. efficient • Easy to install • Established in marketplace and with manufacturing infrastructure • Gives control to the driver But driver comfort an issue with increasing tra nsity Hence automation must be considered 20 .

utomated Manual Transmission (AM • Automation of Clutch and Gear shifting operations • Elimination of Clutch Pedal • Modification of Gear Shifting lever • Minimum modifications in manual transmission 21 .

AMT Features Automation of Clutch operation and Gea hifting. • Clutch slip control during starting ill start aid system which will assist the driver ld and move the vehicle in hill slope Necessary fail safe systems such as sudde hifting from higher gear to lowest gear and vic versa 22 .

System Block Diagram 23 .

When engine is not running and in power on.Starter should be operated only when the gear in neutral position . Clutch Actuation Control • Engine Start . ECU controls the clutch .On pressing the accelerator pedal.actuator travel and clutch engagement 24 .When engine speed exceeds a specified rpm. EC engages clutch gradually • Vehicle Start . EC will disengage clutch .

if the vehicle speed is lower than a set speed for select gear position.While engaging the clutch after gear shift. Clutch Actuation Control • Gear Change . the ECU determines clutch actuator travel based on shifted gear position and accelerator pedal stroke • Clutch disengagement . .While gear shifting and when accelerato pedal is released. the ECU disengages clutch 25 .

Advantages of AMT • Reduced driver effort • Improved Clutch life • Utilization of existing manufacturing facilitie for manual transmission • Lower production cost than automatic transmissions • Higher efficiency than automatic transmissions 26 .

Normally automatic timing and actuation 27 . Automatic Transmission (AT) Conventional Definition • Moving away from rest .Wet plate clutches and brakes • Control of ratio change .Torque converter • Achieving ratio change .Planetary gear set • No power interruption • Mechanism for ratio change .

typically an electric or ICE. • The output turbine is connected to the drive train of the vehicle or the drive system of a machine. • Mineral oil is used 28 .outer shell or housing. • The input turbine is connected to the power supply. . Fluid Coupling • Converts or transmits rotating mechanical energy or power. • Basic components.impeller or pump and turbine or runner • Both of these units are contained within the housing via oil-tight seals. .

In sufficient centrifugal force for the oil to turn the turbine • Low to medium speed: .Fluid Coupling: Working • Standstill . O/p shaft rotating at about 98% of speed of I/p shaft (2% slip). Large degree of slip in the unit. 29 .The entire operating fluid in the coupling is at rest • Idling . O/p shaft is rotating slowly than input shaft.Oil force is sufficient to transmit full power.Centrifugal force pushes oil into turbine and some turning effort is transmitted. • Medium to High Speed .

UNIT III .

and transmission fluid 30 . Torque Convertor • Serves as automatic clutch which transmits engine torque to the transmission input shaft • Multiplies torque generated by the engine • Absorbs torsional vibration of engine • Acts as a flywheel and smoothes out engine rotation • Drives oil pump • A torque converter consists of .Turbine .Stator .Impeller .

Sectional Vie 31 .Torque Convertor .

Impeller 32 .

Turbine 33 .

Stator 34 .

Working of Torque Convertor Vehicle accelerates 35 .

Planetary Gear System

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Planetary Gear System: Constructio
• Input shaft is connected to Ring gear(Blue)
• Output shaft is connected to Plane carrier(Green) which is also
connected to Multi-disk clutch
• Sun gear is connected to a Drum(Yellow), which can be locked
by brake band (Red). It is also connected to the other half of
Clutch

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Planetary Gear System: Operatio
• In Neutral
Both
• band and clutch sets are released
Planets
• assembled to carrier with NRB
Ring
• gear only drive planet gear not the planet carr
(Output shaft)
• The planet gears drive the sun gears to spin freel

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Planetary Gear System: Operatio • In Low Gear (forward reduction) • Band locks the sun gear by locking the drum • Planets walk around the sun gear • Planet carrier to spin in same direction as ring gear • Gear ratio= sun & ring teeth/no of teeth of ring gear 39 .

Planetary Gear System: Operatio • In High Gear (Direct drive) • Band is released. • Ring Gear (Input shaft) will spin at the same speed the Planet Carrier (Output shaft) 40 . • Lock any two members • Clutch is engaged so that the sun gear and planet carrier is locked to act as a rigid member • Planets has to walk around the ring gear.

Planetary Gear System: Operation • Reverse Gear • Planet carrier is locked • Ring gear (Input shaft) will cause the sun gear (Output Shaft) to turn in the opposite direction 41 .

UNIT IV .

Automatic Transmission (AT) Advantages The only option for comfortable automatic shifting Cost issue mitigated by high volume manufacturing Disadvantages Cost for development and manufacturing Fuel economy due to torque converter Lack of control by the driver Modern improvements Better control algorithms Torque converter lock up Most useable transmissions based on a couple of standard arrangements Ravigneaux Lepelletier 42 .

no torque interruption & power loss 43 .Continuously Variable Transmissio (CVT) • CVT provides infinite number of gear ratios (between a minimum & a maximum). • Shifts automatically with an infinite number of ratios • Seamless power delivery.

CVT: Construction  Uses a pair of axially adjustable sets of pulley halves (Variators)  Both pulleys have one fixed and one adjustable pulley halve  A “belt” is used to transfers the engine's power from one shaft to another 44 .

• The variators are adjusted hydraulically. • When one pulley is varied. . the other pulley must adapt itself inversely since the length of the belt is fixed. CVT: Functioning • The transmission ratio is varied by adjusting the spacing between the pulleys in line with the circumference of the tapered pulley halves.

Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT 46 .

DCT: Construction .

Basic Dual Wet Clutch .

 In a DCT. power delivery changes from ON to OFF to ON during gearshift. fourth and sixth)  Using this arrangement. however. there is not a continuous flow of power from the engine to the wheels.  Sophisticated electronics and hydraulics control the clutches.  Instead. third. causing a phenomenon known as "shift shock" or "torque interrupt  A dual-clutch transmission uses two clutches. fifth and reverse). gears can be changed without interrupting the power flow from the engine to the transmission 49 . just as they do in a standard automatic transmission. but has no clutch pedal. the clutches operate independently  One clutch controls the odd gears(first. How DCT Works?  In a conventional manual transmission. while the other controls the even gears (second.

Propeller Shaft  Single piece  Two piece  Front engine rear wheel drive  Reduction in car height (lowering of body) Crash energy management  Material  Aluminum  steel  Composite (75% carbon.Renault) Cold rolled and seam welded 50 . 25% glass-fibre with bonded steel end fittings.

so called propeller shaft  A Propeller Shaft connects a gearbox to a Differential. 51 . Propeller Shaft  It propels the vehicle forward.  It is used to transmit the drive force generated by the engine to the axles.  Shaft diameter and its thickness decides the torque carrying capacity and angle of operation.  It is strong enough to handle maximum low gear torque  It is provided with two U-joints to maintain constant velocity and positioning of differential at different plane.  It is provided with a slip joint to take care of the change in length.

Propeller Shaft • Design requirements • Critical speed is at least 15% above top speed • Torque carrying capacity requirements • Plunge requirements (suspension travel • Assembly requirements 52 .

two universal joints are used with yoke lugs in phase. 53 . speed fluctuations will not be neutralized. Universal joints • Designed to eliminate torque and speed fluctuations (constant velocity joints) • If only one universal joint is used. • To maintain uniform motion.

Universal joints 54 .

Hooke‟s Joint Condition for Constant velocity drive with two Hooke’s 55 .

56 . Differential • To transfer the engine power to the wheels • To act as the final gear reduction in the vehicle • To make the wheels to rotate at different speeds while negotiating a turn.

 If the resistance at both wheels is equal. which turns the entire carrier. which in turn may drive the left and right wheels. and both wheels turn at the same rate. the pinion gear does not rotate.fferential: In Straight Ahead Mot  Input torque is applied to the ring gear. 57 . providing torque to both side gears.

Differential: In a Turn • If the left side gear (red) encounters resistance. 58 . in turn applying extra rotation to the right side gear (yellow). the pinion gear(green) rotates about the left side gear.

Axle Transmits rotary motion and torque from t ngine-transmission-driveshaft to the wheels Changes torsional direction from longitudinal ansverse  Provides speed reduction and torque multiplication Provides a differential action to permit veh rnering Provides mounting points for suspension a akes 59 .

Transmission Troubleshooting • Leaking Transmission Fluid • Slipping of Transmission • Damaged Transmission Fluid • Surging of Transmission • Gear Problems • Fluid Leaking • Spilling out of Fluid • Erratic Gear Shifting • Overheating of Transmission 60 .

Germany . Majority of the MT are using 5speed GB as compared to 6 speed ut many of the luxurious car manufactures are now using AMT o Source: Mahr GmbH. Transmission Trend Passenger Car Transmission in India ual transmission is more dominant in India as compared to other missions.

Global Transmission Trend timated global market share (%) for passenger car transmission 1% 1% 2% 4% 2% 6% MT MT AT AT 47% 50% CVT CVT 46% DCT 41% DCT AMT AMT 2005 2010 3% 7% 10% MT AT 43% CVT DCT 37% AMT 2015 .

Requirements of the Transmission Design Process .

Product Life Cycle • Product Life Cycle must be developed to delive Company goals New Product Introduction Prototype Manufacturing Feasibility Studies/ Transmission Product suppor Production Ready New Concepts Design Development Transmission and development Market feedback. Technical Development. Application experience Research 64 . Market research.

Stages in the Design Process • Timeline Project set up Concept design Detail design Tolerancing & drawings Prototype testing 65 .

UNIT V .

providin all parties agree to them 66 . Project Set Up .The PDS contains all the specification data and design targets • This document should be approved before work star on concept design .The first stage of the design process is to set targets  Existing product knowledge  Market research Product Design Specification  Standards  Load data (PDS)  Customer specific requirements .The PDS is a „live‟ document • This means that changes can be made to it.

Very high or very low ambient values temperature conditions . eg: .Unusual off-road usage .Interfaces operation • Gear ratio must be defined.Packaging envelope constraints .Extremely tight vehicle .Review all validation testing for unusual manoeuvres (Vehicle/Transmission) • Rig .Application specifics .Duty cycle .Number of gear ratios and their .Customer PDS . • Special considerations .Occasional vehicle overload . Project Set Up To be included in the Product Design Specification • Understanding the customer needs/wants from .Weight packaging space • Special operational cycles.Market Understanding • Vehicle .Prior Design Experience • Special environmental operation • General Requirements conditions. 67 . eg: .

Project Set Up • To be included in the Product Design Specification: . so defi the hierarchy of importance.It may not be possible to meet all requirements. normally (approximately): • Packaging within the vehicle • Assemble-ability • Durability • Ratio • Weight • Cost • Gear shift quality • Noise 68 .

Maximum transient overload torque (static overload only) • Factors vary according to specific vehicle and are genera based off of historical vehicle test results • Typical values range from 1. Reverse) . Project Set Up To be included in the Product Design Specification: • Design Loads & Duty Cycles .Maximum net engine output torque including • Reserve capacity for enhanced engine torque or larger engin application: 0% to 10% typical • Factor for unusually high engine torsionals output: 0% to 5 typical .5x maximum engine torque 69 . new concre • Usually only significant in lowest ratios (eg: 1st.Maximum vehicle skid torque • Max skid torque in each gear for operation on dry.5x to 2.A design load case may be comprised of a series of loads and cycles/time at those loads combined into a duty cycle definition • Design loads are typically modified somewhat .

Calculation of Component Reliability . Project Set Up: Duty Cycle • A key component of the “targets” is the Duty Cycle • What is a Duty Cycle? .single loadca Material Properties Operating Conditions Select Required Reliability Analysis to Component Operating Analysis to predict Geometry Stresses predict life stress Applied Loads (Duty Cycle) 70 .

Multiple ratios .“Miner‟s Rule” (Linear Damage Hypothesis) • To combine the effect of different loadcases • Damage Fraction & Percentage • We need to account for the effect of these many loadcase 71 . 30% … 100% torque • Accounting for Multiple-loadcases . 20%. Project Set Up: Duty Cycle • A Duty Cycle is a collection of loadcases .All automotive transmissions are loaded with multip loadcases .Different torque levels for each ratio • 10%.Damage .

Project Set Up: Duty Cycle In-service Loads must be converted into a du cycle for design and testing Durability In-Service Loads Calculation Design Duty Cycle Time/torque To derive the Equivalent duty cycle history for the 95th damage for each appropriate for centile component in the transmission design transmission Test Duty Cycle Equivalent duty cycle appropriate for rig testing 72 .

sizing design blanks and and and Inputs from dog teeth packaging rating PDS: •Gear ratios Can Create ratios Yes Output: •Engine torque and initial Iterative Design and Proposed duty cycle gearbox of the Gearbox packagin concept •3D Concept g be layout concept packaging achieved space ? Define Define No shaft roller sections bearings 73 . Concept Design • Activities within Concept Design (part A) Design gear Synchroniser Spline teeth and design.

Create as many different design layouts as possib to meet the ratio and packaging requirements Option A Option B Option C Option D Option E Option F 74 . Concept Design • Generation of Design Options (Layouts/ Topology) .

Spline • Stress 75 .Bearings . Analysis and Optimisation. by CA . Concept Design Iterative Design.Shaft • Durability • Durability • Misalignment targets • Deflection .Synchronizers • Tooth numbers • Shift force • Rating to ISO 6336 • Cone to index torque • Contact Ratio targets ratio • Misalignment targets .Gears .

other Iterate on items defined in Concept Design Part A if designs necessary Once the concepts have been modelled and analysed. their stren and weaknesses can be evaluated The selected concept will then form the basis for the detailed de 76 . Concept Design • Activities within Concept Design (part B) Casing Design and Differential Shift Proposed Concept Layout Mechanism Check for Completed compatibility withand with other vehicle components Concept packaging. Check for Design Assembly Rank against PDS.

Concept Selection • Evaluation criteria • List all the requirements for the design from t specification • Apply a weighting importance to each requiremen (e.g. 1-5) • Determine what objective measures can be tak from concept model • Weight • Number of parts • Safety factors 77 .

Concept Selection • Concept scoring • Assign a score to each concept according to t extent to which it meets each requirement • Multiply each score by the appropriate weighti factor • The best scoring concept will then form the basis f the detail design 78 .

Detailed Design Activities within Detailed Design • Focus on system deflections and gear micro-geomet design Gear Micro- Differential geometry Design Detailing Completed Detailed FE. all Completed Concept Design Casing Detailing Contact Detailed Nominal Analysis Dimensions Complete Detailed Design and Analysis of Other Components. Lubrication system Check for compatibility with other components Iterate on Concept Design Parts A and B if necessary 79 . System Deflection and Gear Tooth Design.

Detailed Design • Calculation of System Deflections Load distribution Shaft deflection Load distribution factor Contact Stress Stress • Calculation of Durability 80 .

Do we have to calculate everything before we make a decisio . Detailed Design Accurate analysis is required to determine wheth targets are met • Simple methods do not give accurate results .Increased risk of problems later in product life cycle .Many design options .How do we manage these methods in the design process? 81 .Lack of clear direction for optimisation • Detailed analysis methods have their own issues .

Analysis Methods • Principles .Hierarchy of design parameters • Understand how design parameters affe other design parameters and transmissio performance • Understand the „hierarchy‟ of desig parameters • Define the most important ones first .

Some parameters are needed to define othe parameters . Analysis Methods • Hierarchy of Design Parameters .e.g. gear centre distance Gear tangential loadGear stress Gear durability Gear centre distance Bearing load Bearing durability Housing design Housing stiffness Gear misalignment .Some parameters have a big effect on gearbo performance .

Other parameters have a smaller effect on gearb performance .They are dependent on preceding parameters bei defined .e. gear micro-geometry Gear centre distance Gear tangential load Gear macro-geometry Gear tooth contact and transmission Gear micro-geometry error Housing design and stiffness Gear misalignment . Analysis Methods • Hierarchy of Design Parameters .g.

e.g.They can be estimated Shaft design . Analysis Methods • Hierarchy of Design Parameters .Other parameters have little effect on the gearbox performance . seal design Seal design Gearbox packaging .

with Drawings Assembly Instructions Identify All Carry out all Tolerance tolerance stack Completed Detailed Design calculation and Stack Loops assess Define Tolerances If tolerance stacks a problem. Deliver Material Assembly and General Completed Specification Arrangement. Sub. adjust tolerances if necessary If major problem iterate on Detailed Design if necessary 86 . Engineering Drawings and Tolerancin Activities within Engineering Drawings and Tolerancin .Major issues should be resolved Complete Drawings Confirm for Components.

turning. grinding etc .g.Initial tolerances applied based on experience • These will be updated during the toleranc analysis 87 .Functionally critical features identified .Engineering Drawings and Tolerancin • Applying Manufacturing Tolerances .Tolerances applied to components based on knowledge of manufacturing process • e.

Engineering Drawings and Tolerancin • Tolerance Stacks Identify checks required Gear and shaft Create master deflections from dimension sheet analysis Final design Create tolerance stacks for each shaft assembly Yes Revise dimensions Check result No on master No Check result dimension sheet Yes No Create tolerance Create housing stacks for shaft to Check result Yes shaft clearances tolerance stacks 88 .

Engineering Drawings and Tolerancin
Potential Problems

• Form and functionality at tolerance extreme
- Symptom (example):
At tolerance extremes, transmission does no
assemble or there is a foul (at zero load)

- Action:
Small iteration: Redefine the tolerances
Large iteration: Nominal dimensions are redefine

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Engineering Drawings and Tolerancin
Potential Problems
Form and functionality at tolerance, temperat
xtremes, under load
- Symptom (example): Transmission does not assem
or there is a foul at:
• Tolerance extremes
• Temperature extremes
• Load (i.e. deflected shapes)
- Example: Gears clash due to thermal expansion an
axial movement due to compliance of
bearings, housing etc.
- Action (as before)
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Output of Design Process
• A layout that satisfies the key requirements of the PDS

All durability targets are met, including the effect of syste
deflections, at all tolerances, thermal extremes etc.

• Bill of Materials and material selection list confirmed

3D
• models complete with all components defined to nomin
dimensions

2D• drawings of all components defined with tolerances

•2D drawings of sub-assemblies and assemblies, with
assembly instructions

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