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Reading to collect details

Know why you are reading
• Make sure you think about what you want to
achieve and keep the purpose in mind as you
• Is it for an assignment? (If so, have the
assignment question to hand)
• Is it for an exam? If so have you mapped out
which areas of the curriculum you will focus on?
• If you are simply working your way through
your study materials, check if there are any
guiding questions or statements for that
particular piece of reading.

Reading for different
• Reading to search for information
(scanning and skimming)
• Reading for quick understanding
• Reading to integrate information
• Reading to evaluate, critique, and
• Reading for general comprehension

You are interested in cricket and want to know what happened in the match .g. locate it and skim through it very quickly to get an overall understanding of the concept • Combination of scanning and skimming • E. Reading to search for information • Locating specific information • Scan for a piece of information.

Reading for quick understanding • To determine what the text is about • Should we spend more time on it or not? • Useful in case of reading a difficult text (so that you know where you need to focus on and what sections you can skip) or you have too many texts to read (to have a glimpse of a text and decide whether to read it or skip it) .

store information and recollect it whenever needed • Synthesize information from multiple texts or bring together details from different sections/ chapters of a long text/ textbook • Integrate with previous information • Sometimes conflicting details – sort out confusions – build your own knowledge system . Reading to integrate information • Read many texts.

Reading to evaluate • Read a text and make decisions about its effectiveness or worth • Carefully analyze details presented and evidences provided to support claims • Understand purpose and decide whether the text is successful in achieving it • Look at use of language and other devices .

as a habit or for passing time • Goal is simple understanding of the text .Reading for general comprehension • Reading a newspaper article or a story • For purposes of entertainment.

Reading Skills .

Role of background knowledge • Reading occurs in a context • “We do not find meaning lying in things nor do we put it into things. but between us and things it can happen” – Buber .

it is better to do too few things at once than too many” . First you arrange things into different groups depending on their makeup. Of course.“The procedure is actually simple. one pile may be sufficient depending on how much there is to do. If you have to go somewhere else due to lack of facilities that is the next step. That is. otherwise you are pretty well set. It is important not to overdo any particular endeavour.

the interpretation in our minds changes • Background knowledge . but.schema .• This passage is about ‘washing clothes’ • If you don’t know the topic. the understanding may be limited • The sentences themselves do not change when you know the topic.

he did most likely. • “Bill had a Volkswagen in the USA” . he didn’t • Did he fetch them himself – May be/ may not be • Did he pay for them? – Yes.• “Bill had some hamburgers in the restaurant” • What did he do with the hamburgers? – He ate them (because we go to restaurants to eat) • Did he cook them? – No.

loos for mixed sexes. tipping in restaurants .• “Script for restaurants” • We don’t need extra details. our mind automatically supplies the information • Conflicts between scripts in foreign travel • Eating snakes.

talk less .• Doctor-patient interaction • English patients prefer to talk to the doctor informally. expect the doctor to ask questions • Hmong patients show respect to the doctor.

• Reading – a psycholinguistic guessing game .

• Mary heard the ice cream man coming down the street. She remembered her birthday money and rushed into the house and… .

Yet. the text does not say all of this.• Upon reading just these few lines most readers are able to construct a rather complete interpretation of the text . • Presumably. presumably. Then she remembered her birthday money which. we readers are referring a lot of this in giving the text an interpretation . • Other interpretations are also possible. Mary is a little girl who heard the ice cream man coming and wanted to buy some ice cream. was in the house. most readers will probably retain the above interpretation unless some contradictory information is encountered . . she hurried into the house to try to get the money before the ice cream man arrived . • Of course. So.

She remembered her birthday money and rushed into the house and… …locked the door! .• Mary heard the ice cream man coming down the street.

Cna Yuo Raed Tihs? • 1) A vheclie epxledod at a plocie cehckipont near the UN haduqertares in Bagahdd on Mnoday kilinlg the bmober and an Irqai polcie offceir • 2) Big ccunoil tax ineesacrs tihs yaer hvae seezueqd the inmcoes of mnay pneosenirs • 3) A dootcr has aimttded the magltheuansr of a tageene ceacnr pintaet who deid aetfr a hatospil durg blendur .

• 1) A vehicle exploded at a police checkpoint near the UN headquarters in Baghdad on Monday killing the bomber and an Iraqi police officer • 2) Big council tax increases this year have squeezed the incomes of many pensioners • 3) A doctor has admitted the manslaughter of a teenage cancer patient who died after a hospital drug blunder. .

• Why are these versions easier to read? It seems that when we read. • We also scan words and pick out markers that make them easy to identify. These elements make it easier to infer the word even when the letters are not in perfect order. such as certain letter combinations and sounds. . we extract a lot of information from the context—so understanding several words in a sentence can help us guess another one.

fruit flies like a banana. Garden Path Effect • The horse raced past the barn fell. • Time flies like an arrow. • Fat people eat accumulates. • I convinced her children are noisy. . • The complex houses married and single soldiers and their families. • The old man the boat. • The prime number few.

(number = V) • Fat (that) people eat accumulates.• The horse (that) raced past the barn fell. . • (Time) (flies) like an arrow (flies). (man = V) • The prime (people) number few. • The complex houses married and single soldiers and their families. (house = V) • The old man the boat. (fruit flies) like a banana.

determining the writer’s attitude to the topic. Levels of comprehension • Literal comprehension • Drawing inferences . looking at the organisation of the text.working out the main idea of the text. and working out cause and effect and other conjunction relationships which might not be explicitly stated . interpreting characters.

and fitting the ideas in the text into a wider field as in a review of the literature. . imagining extensions of the text. applying the ideas in the text to personal experience. comparing ideas in the text with other ideas from outside the text.• Application • Applying ideas from the text to solve problems.

. • This involves considering the quality of the evidence in the text. evaluating the adequacy of the content of the text. evaluating the quality of expression and clarity of language of the text. expressing agreement or disagreement with the ideas in the text.• Responding critically to the text. and expressing satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the text.

along with punctuation conventions that contribute to syntactic processing. • A large recognition vocabulary of both basic and subject-specific terms. . technology. including their meaning. and probability of occurrence with other lexical items. • Complex sentence structures.• Academic reading .Advanced reading ability in both L1 and L2 is usually required to extract detailed information from L2 texts on science. and other subject matter involving both linguistic and nonlinguistic prerequisite knowledge. graphic representation.

and regressions (movements back to an item already looked at). Increasing reading speed • When people read. • This means that while reading the eyes do not move smoothly along a line of print. jumps (saccades) to the next item to focus on. but jump from one word to another. three types of action are involved—fixations on particular words. .

• Vocabulary and structural knowledge: Fluent reading requires a large recognition vocabulary (some estimates range up to 100.000 words) and a sound knowledge of grammatical structures. • Formal discourse structure knowledge: Good readers know how a text is organized. . including (culture-specific) logical patterns of organization for such contrasts as cause–effect and problem– solution relations. Fluency in reading • Automatic recognition ability: Automatic (as opposed to conscious) word identification and processing is necessary for fluency.

they go beyond merely trying to comprehend what they read. Monitoring involves both recognizing problems that occur in the process of interpreting information in a text. • Comprehension monitoring: Fluent readers have [unconscious] knowledge about knowledge of language and about using appropriate strategies for understanding texts and processing information. . and awareness of non- comprehension. • Synthesis and evaluation processes/strategies: Fluent readers evaluate information in texts and compare it with other sources of knowledge.• Content/world background knowledge: Good readers have both more prior cultural knowledge about a topic and more text-related information than those who are less proficient.