12 views

Uploaded by ZaidHomsi

save

- Physics
- velocityandacceleration-110502131038-phpapp02
- 20 motion in one dimension
- HW 2.3 Acceleration-solutions.pdf
- How to Calculate Velocity Acceleration
- Acceleration
- Untitled
- Phy 1 (12)
- <HTML><HEAD> <TITLE>Refresh</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <FONT face="Helvetica"> <big><strong></strong></big><BR> </FONT> <blockquote> <TABLE border=0 cellPadding=1 width="80%"> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica"> <big>Refresh (dynamic_bypass_reload)</big> <BR> <BR> </FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica"> Click <a href="">here</a> if you are not automatically redirected. </FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica"> </FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica" SIZE=2> <BR> For assistance, contact your network support team. </FONT> </TD></TR> </TABLE> </blockquote> </FONT> </BODY></HTML>
- Chapter 13 Speed
- Chapter 2 Topical Test
- Grade 11 Physics - Kinematics Review
- phys12_sm_01_1
- physics form4chapter
- unit plan
- Problem Solving Exercises Conceptual Physics
- M01_KNIG9404_ISM_C01.pdf
- bio sprint lab
- ENGN 37 Homework
- Dynamics 1
- 9 Velocity Time Graphs
- 00_Lab #14-Final Exam Review SOLUTIONS
- PAPER 2 PHYSICS FORM4 SBP 2007 MID YEAR
- 2014 Essay Final
- page 3-individual unit final version
- CPStudyGuideCh2
- Binder 1
- Tutorials in Introductory Physics
- 09 Velocity
- 100920131023302
- AutoCAD-Korištenje.pdf
- ciencias
- 2006_Matemticas3EP
- Obat Tumor Perut de Nature Herbal Terbaru
- Germán García- La Gran Epidemia
- BAB 1.pdf
- iir.pdf
- 121790-abril_13_A (2)
- syok
- rd2013
- New York vs Exxonmobil SUPREME COURT OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK COUNTY OF NEW YORK
- Tugas Mantel 1- Pak Suhar - Peran Mantel Dalam Teknik Lingkungan
- Asuhan Keperawatan Manajemen Cairan Pada Hemodialisa
- Boletim-01-07-2018
- Makalah_Canes_or_Tongkat-1[1].docx
- Ciclo de 2 Tiepos
- Ben Carson - Imaginea de Ansamblu
- boletinenero2017-170311030046
- Fase Perkembagan
- (1) INTRODUCCIÓN A LAS COMPUERTAS LÓGICAS
- Third Week of Practicum
- 42277553300-807079122-ticket
- Foundation.docx
- pelaksanaan pembinaan1.docx
- Cursos de Estacion Aplicado a La Construccion
- lamai culese
- RCP_3154543=0741107300.pdf
- PANDUAN_IDENTIFIKASI_PASIEN.docx
- Jadwal Kerja JULI 18
- training-timeline-powerpoint-template.pptx
- Mixed Housing
- اللون وتأثيراته البصرية
- 1-Intro Overview About This Level
- Zaha Hadid Bridge Pavilion.docx
- Astana
- How-to-design-your-exhibition.pdf
- اللون وتأثيراته البصرية(1).pdf
- License Agreement.rtf
- 2 DB & Leveles Word
- Zaha Hadid Bridge Pavilion.docx
- chapt545er2m
- chapter2m
- Fuck You, You Son of a Bicth
- chapt545er2m.ppt
- ch3
- wedewcwrfc
- ch3.pdf
- Doc1
- ch2
- dsgbewyiew

You are on page 1of 54

Textbook:

Physics for Scientists and Engineers, seventh

edition, Jewett / Serway

Lecturer: Dr. Maan Salim

Chapter 2

Motion in One Dimension

Kinematics

Describes motion while ignoring the agents

that caused the motion

For now, will consider motion in one

dimension

Along a straight line

Will use the particle model

A particle is a point-like object, has mass but

infinitesimal size

Position

The object’s position is

its location with respect

to a chosen reference

point

Consider the point to be

the origin of a coordinate

system

In the diagram, allow

the road sign to be the

reference point

**Position-Time Graph
**

The position-time graph

shows the motion of the

particle (car)

The smooth curve is a

guess as to what

happened between the

data points

Motion of Car Note the relationship between the position of the car and the points on the graph Compare the different representations of the motion .

Data Table The table gives the actual data collected during the motion of the object (car) Positive is defined as being to the right .

and the distance is always positive.Displacement Definedas the change in position during some time interval Represented as x x ≡ xf . .xi SI units are meters (m) x can be positive or negative Differentthan distance – the length of a path followed by a particle.

Displacement – An Example Assume a player moves from one end of the court to the other and back Distance is twice the length of the court Distance is always positive Displacement is zero Δx = xf – xi = 0 since xf = xi .Distance vs.

Distance vs. Displacement – An Example .

Vectors and Scalars Vector quantities need both magnitude (size or numerical value) and direction to completely describe them Will use + and – signs to indicate vector directions Scalarquantities are completely described by magnitude only .

avg t t The x indicates motion along the x-axis The dimensions are length / time [L/T] The SI units are m/s It is a vector quantity Is also the slope of the line in the position – time graph .Average Velocity The average velocity is is rate at which the displacement occurs : x xf xi v x .

Average Speed Speed is a scalar quantity same units as velocity d total distance / total time: v avg t The speed has no direction and is always expressed as a positive number Neither average velocity nor average speed gives details about the trip described .

1: Findthe displacement. and average speed of the car in Figure 2. average velocity.1a between position (A) and (F) . .Example 2.

5 m / s 50 .1:Solution: Displacement : x x F x A 53 30 83m x F x A 53 30 Average velocity : v x.avg 1.7m / s tF tA 50 0 127 Average Speed : v avg 2.Example 2.

Instantaneous Velocity The limit of the average velocity as the time interval becomes infinitesimally short. . or as the time interval approaches zero The instantaneous velocity indicates what is happening at every point of time Instantaneous velocity is a vector quantity.

Instantaneous Velocity. or zero . negative. equations Thegeneral equation for instantaneous velocity is x dx v x lim t 0 t dt Theinstantaneous velocity can be positive.

Instantaneous Speed The instantaneous speed is the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity The instantaneous speed has no direction associated with it .

Vocabulary Note “Velocity” and “speed” will indicate instantaneous values Average will be used when the average velocity or average speed is indicated .

Its position varies with time according to the expression x=-4t+2t2. (B). where x is in meters and t is in seconds.Determine the displacement of the particle in the time intervals t=0 s to t=1 s and t=1 s to t=3 s. . The position-time graph for this motion is shown in figure 2. is momentarily at rest at the moment t=1 s.4.Calculate the average velocity during these two time intervals. (C).5 s. and moves in the positive x direction at times t>1 s. Example 2. (A). Notice that the particle moves in the negative x direction for the first second of motion.Find the instantaneous velocity of the particle at t=2.3: A particle moves along the x-axis.

avg(BD) 4m/s t 2 dx vx 4 4t 4 4(2.5) 6 m / s dt .avg(AB) 2 m / s t 1 x BD 8 v x.Example 2.3: Solution: x AB x B x A [4(1) 2(1) 2 ] [4(0) 2(0) 2 ] 2 m x BD x D x B [ 4(3) 2(3) 2 ] [ 4(1) 2(1) 2 ] 8 m x AB 2 v x.

Particle Under Constant Velocity Constant velocity indicates the instantaneous velocity at any instant during a time interval is the same as the average velocity during that time interval vx = vx. avg The mathematical representation of this situation is the equation x x f x i v x practice Common is to let ti = 0orand the x i v x t x f equation t t becomes: xf = xi + vx t (for constant vx) .

Graph The graph represents the motion of a particle under constant velocity The slope of the graph is the value of the constant velocity The y-intercept is xi .Particle Under Constant Velocity.

(A).Example 2. She determines the velocity of an experimental subject while he runs along a straight line at a constant rate. The time interval indicated on the stopwatch is 4 s.4: A scientist is studying the biomechanics of the human body. what is his position after 10 s has passed? .If the runner continues his motion after the stopwatch is stopped. The scientist starts the stopwatch at the moment the runner passes a given point and stops it after the runner has passed another point 20 m away.what is the runner’s velocity? (B).

4: Solution: (A).If the runner continues his motion after the stopwatch is stopped. what is his position after 10 s has passed? x f x i v x t 0 5 10 50 m .Example 2.what is the runner’s velocity? x x f x i 20 0 vx 5m/s t t 4 (B).

positive and negative can be used to indicate direction .Average Acceleration Acceleration is the rate of change of the velocity v x v xf v xi ax .avg t tf ti Dimensions are L/T2 SI units are m/s² In one dimension.

Instantaneous Acceleration The instantaneous acceleration is the limit of the average acceleration as t approaches 0 v x dv x d x 2 ax lim 2 t 0 t dt dt Theterm acceleration will mean instantaneous acceleration If average acceleration is wanted. the word average will be included .

(A). where t is in seconds.Determine the acceleration at t=2 s. .Find the average acceleration in the time interval t=0 to t=2 s.6 The velocity of a particle moving along the x axis varies according to the expression vx=(40-5t2) m/s.Example 2. (B).

avg 10 m / s 2 tB tA 20 (B).6: Solution: (A).Example 2. dv x ax 5 2t 5 2 2 20 m / s 2 dt .Determine the acceleration at t=2 s. v x (A) (40 5t 2 ) (40 5(0) 2 ) 40 m / s v x (B) (40 5t 2 ) (40 5(2) 2 ) 20 m / s v x (B) v x (A) 20 40 a x.Find the average acceleration in the time interval t=0 to t=2 s.

1 When an object’s velocity and acceleration are in the same direction. the object is speeding up When an object’s velocity and acceleration are in the opposite direction. the object is slowing down .Acceleration and Velocity.

The car is moving with constant positive velocity (shown by red arrows maintaining the same size) Acceleration equals zero . 2 Images are equally spaced.Acceleration and Velocity.

3 Images become farther apart as time increases Velocity and acceleration are in the same direction Acceleration is uniform (violet arrows maintain the same length) Velocity is increasing (red arrows are getting longer) This shows positive acceleration and positive velocity .Acceleration and Velocity.

Acceleration and Velocity. 4 Images become closer together as time increases Acceleration and velocity are in opposite directions Acceleration is uniform (violet arrows maintain the same length) Velocity is decreasing (red arrows are getting shorter) Positive velocity and negative acceleration .

Kinematic Equations – summary .

specific For constant a. v xf v xi ax t Can determine an object’s velocity at any time t when we know its initial velocity and its acceleration Assumes ti = 0 and tf = t Doesnot give any information about displacement .Kinematic Equations.

1 2 xf xi v xi t ax t 2 Gives final position in terms of velocity and acceleration Doesn’t tell you about final velocity .Kinematic Equations. specific For constant acceleration.

v 2 xf v 2ax xf xi 2 xi Gives final velocity in terms of acceleration and displacement Does not give any information about the time .Kinematic Equations. specific For constant a.

vxf = vxi = vx xf = xi + v x t The constant acceleration model reduces to the constant velocity model .When a = 0 When the acceleration is zero.

Graphical Look at Motion: velocity – time curve The slope gives the acceleration The straight line indicates a constant acceleration .

Graphical Look at Motion: acceleration – time curve The zero slope indicates a constant acceleration .

If the jet touches down at position xi=0. what is its final position? .7: A jet lands on an aircraft carrier at 140 mi/h = 63m/s.what is its acceleration (assumed constant) if it stops in 2 s due to an arresting cable that snags the jet and brings it to a stop? (B). (A).Example 2.

what is its final position? 1 1 x f x i v xi v xf t 0 63 0 2 63 m 2 2 1 2 1 x f x i vi t a x t 0 63 2 31.5 m / s 2 t 2 (B).5 2 2 63 m 2 2 .Example 2.If the jet touches down at position xi=0.what is its acceleration (assumed constant) if it stops in 2 s due to an arresting cable that snags the jet and brings it to a stop? v xf v xi 0 63 ax 31.7: Solution: (A).

Example 2. How long does it take her to overtake the car? . One second after the speeding car passes the billboard. accelerating at a constant rate of 3 m/s2.8: A car travelling at a constant speed of 45 m/s passes a trooper on a motorcycle hidden behind a billboard. the trooper sets out from the billboard to catch the car.

8: Solution: How long does it take her to overtake the car? See figure 2.Example 2.13 x car x B v x car t 45 45t 1 2 1 x f x i v xi t a x t 0 (0)t 3t 2 2 2 to overtake it must be : x trooper x car 1 3t 45 45t 2 t 31 s 2 .

A person walks first at a constant speed of 5. (a) What is her average speed over the entire trip? (b) What is her average velocity over the entire trip? .00 m/s.Example 3.00 m/s along a straight line from point A to point B and then back along the line from B to A at a constant speed of 3.

Solution .

Example 13.0 s and (c) in the time interval t = 0 to t = 20.A velocity–time graph for an object moving along the x axis is shown in NEXT Figure a) Plot a graph of the acceleration versus time. .00 s to t = 15.0 s. Determine the average acceleration of the Object (b) in the time interval t = 5.

.

00 s and t = 3. and (d) the instantaneous acceleration at t = 2.Example 18.00 s and at t = 3.00t + 3.00 s.00 s and t = 3.2. . (b) the instantaneous speed at t = 2. (c) the average acceleration between t = 2. where x is in meters and t is in seconds.An object moves along the x axis according to the equation x = 3.00 s and t = 3.00 s. Determine (a) the average speed between t = 2.00.00t 2 .00 s.00 s.

.

with x in meters and t in seconds. . Determine (a) its position when it changes direction and (b) its velocity when it returns to the position it had at t =0. A particle moves along the x axis.4t 2. Its position is given by the equation x = 2 + 3t .Example 32.

.

00 m/s2 because the road is wet. enters a one-lane tunnel.Example Speedy Sue. determine the distance of closest approach between Sue’s car and the van. determine how far into the tunnel and at what time the collision occurs. If no. She then observes a slow-moving van 155 m ahead traveling at 5. Will there be a collision? If yes.0 m/s. . Sue applies her brakes but can accelerate only at -2. driving at 30.00 m/s.

- PhysicsUploaded byHerbert Torres
- velocityandacceleration-110502131038-phpapp02Uploaded byRonald A. Sato
- 20 motion in one dimensionUploaded byapi-235269401
- HW 2.3 Acceleration-solutions.pdfUploaded byHemil Patel
- How to Calculate Velocity AccelerationUploaded byKristine Joy Capote
- AccelerationUploaded byMark Prochaska
- UntitledUploaded byapi-233248496
- Phy 1 (12)Uploaded byGarlapati Srinivasa Rao
- <HTML><HEAD> <TITLE>Refresh</TITLE> </HEAD> <BODY> <FONT face="Helvetica"> <big><strong></strong></big><BR> </FONT> <blockquote> <TABLE border=0 cellPadding=1 width="80%"> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica"> <big>Refresh (dynamic_bypass_reload)</big> <BR> <BR> </FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica"> Click <a href="">here</a> if you are not automatically redirected. </FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica"> </FONT> </TD></TR> <TR><TD> <FONT face="Helvetica" SIZE=2> <BR> For assistance, contact your network support team. </FONT> </TD></TR> </TABLE> </blockquote> </FONT> </BODY></HTML>Uploaded byAinn Syahirah
- Chapter 13 SpeedUploaded byTang Bio
- Chapter 2 Topical TestUploaded bygeok_abee
- Grade 11 Physics - Kinematics ReviewUploaded byfairwayhills702
- phys12_sm_01_1Uploaded byChristie Cho
- physics form4chapterUploaded bySue Suraya Naza
- unit planUploaded byapi-276881452
- Problem Solving Exercises Conceptual PhysicsUploaded byMiquelet1968
- M01_KNIG9404_ISM_C01.pdfUploaded bynorma_jeann
- bio sprint labUploaded byapi-381352732
- ENGN 37 HomeworkUploaded byLucia Antonius
- Dynamics 1Uploaded byorendus
- 9 Velocity Time GraphsUploaded bykhey
- 00_Lab #14-Final Exam Review SOLUTIONSUploaded byOg Di
- PAPER 2 PHYSICS FORM4 SBP 2007 MID YEARUploaded byruslawati
- 2014 Essay FinalUploaded byfazeelm24
- page 3-individual unit final versionUploaded byapi-405442771
- CPStudyGuideCh2Uploaded byVarshLok
- Binder 1Uploaded byHabib Anshor
- Tutorials in Introductory PhysicsUploaded byVinny Tran
- 09 VelocityUploaded byUnsa Manjud
- 100920131023302Uploaded byAnonymous ExAwm00UP

- Mixed HousingUploaded byZaidHomsi
- اللون وتأثيراته البصريةUploaded byZaidHomsi
- 1-Intro Overview About This LevelUploaded byZaidHomsi
- Zaha Hadid Bridge Pavilion.docxUploaded byZaidHomsi
- AstanaUploaded byZaidHomsi
- How-to-design-your-exhibition.pdfUploaded byZaidHomsi
- اللون وتأثيراته البصرية(1).pdfUploaded byZaidHomsi
- License Agreement.rtfUploaded byZaidHomsi
- 2 DB & Leveles WordUploaded byZaidHomsi
- Zaha Hadid Bridge Pavilion.docxUploaded byZaidHomsi
- chapt545er2mUploaded byZaidHomsi
- chapter2mUploaded byZaidHomsi
- Fuck You, You Son of a BicthUploaded byZaidHomsi
- chapt545er2m.pptUploaded byZaidHomsi
- ch3Uploaded byZaidHomsi
- wedewcwrfcUploaded byZaidHomsi
- ch3.pdfUploaded byZaidHomsi
- Doc1Uploaded byZaidHomsi
- ch2Uploaded byZaidHomsi
- dsgbewyiewUploaded byZaidHomsi