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Pulse Width Modulation

A modulation technique used to encode
a message into a pulsing signal that is
commonly used by microcontrollers for
communicating with certain types of
peripherals, such as motors.
•Baseband PWM
PWM employs a train of pulses. All pulses are
flat-topped and have the same amplitude. The
pulse repetition rate is constant. Information is
conveyed by the width of the pulses.
W= a + bx a always +ve
b +ve or -ve

fresnostate. Source http://zimmer. edu/ BASEBAND PWM Duty cycle is the fraction of time period for which pulse is high. .

Source RELATION BETWEEN VOLTAGE AND DUTY CYCLE .

Types of systems For example :- • Driving process .

What is feedback ? . speed control. • Perform better when the input is not stable.position control. etc. . • Applications: . Advantages of close loop • Ability to perform accurately.Process in which effect or output of an action is returned (fed-back) to modify the next action.

e. e i. Terminology • Error Difference between desired value and current value is called error. • Current value The most recent value of the quantity. (Error) = X (Desired value) – x (current value) • Desired value The value of a quantity that we want to attain. .

(Error at time ‘t’). x(t) . X – Current position at time ‘t’. PID Controller PID stands for Proportional (P). Integral (I) and Derivative (D) controller. e(t) = Desired position.