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Heat exchanger

• The word exchanger really applies to
all types of equipment in which heat
is exchanged but
• is often used specially to denote
equipment in which heat is
exchanged between two process
• Streams.

These heat exchanger may be classified according to:

• Transfer process
• 1. Direct contact
• 2. indirect contact
• (a) Direct transfer type
• (b) Storage type
• (c) Fluidized bed

Surface compactness

• 1. Compact (surface area density ¸
• 2. non-compact (surface area density
< 700m2=m3)


• 1. Tubular
– (a) Double pipe
– (b) Shell and tube
– (c) Spiral tube
• 2. Plate
– (a) Gasketed
– (b) Spiral plate
– (c) Welded plate
• 3. Extended surface
– (a) Plate fin
– (b) Tube fin
• 4. Regenerative
– (a) Rotory
• i. Disc-type
• ii. Drum-type
– (b) Fixed-matrix

Flow arrangement

• 1. Single pass
(a) Parallel flow
(b) Counter flow
(c) Cross flow
• 2. Multipass
(a) Extended surface H.E.
i. Cross counter flow
ii. Cross parallel flow
(b) Shell and tube H.E.
i. Parallel counter flow (Shell and fluid mixed, M shell pass, N Tube pass)
ii. Split flow
iii. Divided flow
(c) Plate H.E. (N-parallel plate multipass)

Number of fluids • 1. Two-fluid • 2. N-fluid (N > 3) . Three fluid • 3.

Transfer mechanisms • 1. two-phase convection on the other side • 3. Single phase convection on one side. Single phase convection on both sides • 2. Combined convection and radiative heat transfer . Two-phase convection on both sides • 4.

Classification based on service • single phase (such as the cooling or heating of a liquid or gas) • two-phase (such as condensing or vaporizing). and • condensing/vaporizing (one side condensing and the other side vaporizing). services can be classified as follows: • single-phase (both shellside and tubeside). • Since there are two sides to an STHE. • condensing (one side condensing and the other single- phase). The following nomenclature is usually used: . this can lead to several combinations of services. • vaporizing (one side vaporizing and the other side single- phase). Broadly.

These can be cleaned without shutting down the cooler by removing the distributors one at a time and scrubbing the tubes. • Cooler: one stream a process fluid and the other cooling water or air. • Heater: one stream a process fluid and the other a hot utility. By cooling the falling film to its freezing point. Reboiler: one stream a bottoms stream from a distillation column and . The most common application is the production of sized ice and paradichlorobenzene. a higher degree of purity of product can be obtained. The top of the cooler is open to the atmosphere for access to tubes. • Condenser: one stream a condensing vapor and the other cooling water or air. By melting the solid material and refreezing in several stages. Selective freezing is used for isolating isomers. these exchangers convert a variety of chemicals to the solid phase. Dirty water can be used as the cooling medium.• Heat exchanger: both sides single phase and process streams (that is. not a utility). such as steam or hot oil. • Chiller: one stream a process fluid being condensed at sub-atmospheric temperatures and the other a boiling refrigerant or process stream.

in some cases. and. easy accessibility to tubes for cleaning. Fixed tube sheets. heated. The film absorbs the gas which is introduced into the tubes. evaporated. short time of contact (very important for heat-sensitive materials). . The absorbing medium is put in film flow during its fall downward on the tubes as it is cooled by a cooling medium outside the tubes. Principal advantages are high rate of heat transfer. Falling-Film Exchangers: Falling-film shell-and-tube heat exchangers have been developed for a wide variety of services and are described by Sack The fluid enters at the top of the vertical tubes. Distributors or slotted tubes put the liquid in film flow in the inside surface of the tubes.Absorbers: These have a two-phase flow system. and the film adheres to the tube surface while falling to the bottom of the tubes. The film can be cooled. with or without expansion joints. prevention of leakage from one side to another. or frozen by means of the proper heat-transfer medium outside the tubes. and outside-packed-head designs are used. This operation can be cocurrent or countercurrent. Tube distributors have been developed for a wide range of applications. no internal pressure drop.

Classification by construction • The principal types of heat exchanger are listed again as • 1. Regenerative . Extended surface • 4. Plate exchanger • 3. Tubular exchanger • 2.

1 Tubular heat exchanger Tubular heat exchanger are generally built of circular tubes. Tubular heat exchanger is further classified into: • Double pipe heat exchanger • Spiral tube heat exchanger • Shell and tube heat exchanger . 2.1.

The two fluid may flow concurrent (parallel) or in counter current flow configuration. (the pressure containment in the small diameter pipe • or tubing is a less costly method compared to a large diameter shell.This is usually consists of concentric pipes. . One fluid flow in the inner pipe and the other fluid flow in the annulus between pipes. no cleaning problem • ii Suitable for high pressure fluid.Double pipe heat exchanger Constructon :. hence the heat exchanger are classified as: counter current double pipe heat exchanger cocurrent double pipe heat exchanger Advantages :- • Is Easily by disassembly.) Limitation • The double pipe heat exchanger is generally used for the application where • the total heat transfer surface area required is less than or equal to 20 m2 (215 ft2) because • it is expensive on a cost per square meter (foot) basis.

considerable amount of surface area can be accommodated in a given • space by spiraling. Spiral tube heat exchanger • Spiral tube heat exchanger consists of one or more spirally wound coils fitted in a shell . • In addition. Heat transfer associated with spiral tube is higher than that for a straight tube . Thermal expansion is no problem but cleaning is almost impossible. .

They are generally not economical if UA > 50. • Can be used for heating using condensing steam if fabricated with elbows to allow expansion. . Thermal expansion can be an issue. Only suitable for small sizes.Advantages Inexpensive True countercurrent or co-current flow Easily designed for high pressure service Disadvantages Difficult to clean on shell side.000 Btu/hr-oF. • Typical Applications • Single phase heating and cooling when the required heat transfer area is small.

• All connections are at one end of the exchanger. • Limited size – Not economical if UA > 150. Often found in high pressure services and where there is a large temperature difference between the shell and tubeside fluids. The design provides the flexibility of a U-tube design with an extended shell length that improves the exchanger’s ability to achieve close temperature approaches. • Relatively expensive. Advantages • Good countercurrent or co-current flow – good temperature approach. • Use of finned tubes results in compact design for shellside fluids with low heat transfer coefficients.000 Btu/hr-oF. Applications Single phase heating and cooling when the required heat transfer area is relatively small. • Can be designed with removable shell to allow cleaning & inspection. Disadvantages • Designs are proprietary – limited number of manufacturers.HAIRPIN HEAT EXCHANGERS The hairpin heat exchanger design is similar to that of double pipe heat exchangers with multiple tubes inside one shell. • Easily designed for high pressure service. • Able to handle large temperature difference between the shell and tube sides without using expansion joints. .

Shell and tube heat exchanger .

baffles and tube sheets • Shellside Flow In • Shell • Tubeside Flow Out • Tube Bundle • Shellside Flow Out • Tubeside Flow In .Shell and tube heat exchanger is built of round tubes mounted in a cylindrical shell with the tube axis parallel to that of the shell. front end head. the other flow across and along the tubes. rear end head. One fluid flow inside the tube. shell. The major components of the shell and tube heat exchanger are tube bundle.

• The shell and tube heat exchanger is further divided into three categories as • 1. Floating head . U tube • 3. Fixed tube sheet • 2.

• Advantage The fixedtubesheet construction is its low cost because of its simple construction. bonnet-type channel covers . the fixed tubesheet is the least expensive construction type. as long as no expansion joint is required. . Fixed tubesheet • A fixed-tubesheet heat exchanger has straight tubes that are secured at both ends to tubesheets welded to the shell. or integral tubesheets. In fact. The construction may have removable channel covers .

and that leakage of the shell side fluid is minimized since there are no flanged joints. • However. Thus. • In the event of a large differential temperature between the tubes and the shell. the tubesheets will be unable to absorb the differential stress. thereby making it necessary to • Incorporate an expansion joint. if a satisfactory chemical cleaning is designed can be employed. fixed-tubesheet construction may be selected for fouling services on the shell side. This takes away the advantage of low cost to a significant extent. its application is limited to clean services on the shell side. Disadvantage This design is that since the bundle is fixed to the shell and cannot be removed. the outsides of the tubes cannot be cleaned mechanically. tubes can be cleaned mechanically after removal of the channel cover or bonnet. .

• There is only one tubesheet in a Utube heat exchanger. making the cost of a U-tube heat exchanger comparable to that of a fixed tubesheet exchanger. the tubes of a U-tube heat exchanger are bent in the shape of a U. U-tube • As the name implies. the lower cost for the single tubesheet is offset by the additional costs incurred for the bending of the tubes and the somewhat larger shell diameter (due to the minimum U-bend radius). However. .

since the U-bends would require flexible-end drill shafts for cleaning. . the outsides of the tubes can be cleaned.Advantage • U-tube heat exchanger as one end is free. as the tube bundle can be removed. • In addition. Disadvantage U-tube construction is that the insides of the tubes cannot be cleaned effectively. the bundle • can expand or contract in response to stress differentials. Thus. U-tube heat exchangers should not be used for services with a dirty fluid inside tubes.

Thus. one tubesheet is fixed relative to the shell. and also the costliest. floating- head SHTEs can be used for services where both the shell side and the tube side fluids are dirty-making . Floating head • The floating-head heat exchanger is the most versatile type of STHE. and the other is free to ”float” within the shell. This permits free expansion of the tube bundle. as well as cleaning of both the insides and outsides of the tubes. • In this design.

and then the floating-head cover.The standard construction type used in dirty services. then the split backing ring. The design with backing service is the most common configuration in the chemical process industries (CPI). after which the tube bundle can be removed from the stationary end. such as in petroleum refineries. The floating-head cover is secured against the floating tubesheet by bolting it to an ingenious split backing ring.head construction. There are various types of floating. . This floating-head closure is located beyond the end of the shell and contained by a shell cover of a larger diameter. To dismantle the heat exchanger. The two most common are the pull-through with backing device and pull through without backing service designs. the shell cover is removed first.

The floatinghead cover is bolted • directly to the floating tubesheet so that a split backing ring is not required. including the floating-head assembly. thus reducing maintenance time. . the entire tube bundle. since the shell diameter is larger than the floating-head flange. This design is particularly suited to kettle reboilers having a dirty heating medium where Utubes cannot be employed. this construction has the highest • cost of all exchanger types. can be removed from the stationary end. • The advantage of this construction is that the tube bundle may be removed from the shell without removing either the shell or the floatinghead cover.• In the design without packing service construction (Figure 2. Due to the enlarged shell.8).


Plate heat exchangers • These exchangers are generally built of thin plates. Generally • theses exchanger cannot accomodate high pressure/temperature differential relative the . The plate are either smooth or have • some form of corrugations and they are either flat or wound in exchanger.

• This type of exchanger is further classified as: • Gasketed plate • Fixed plate • Spiral plate .

bounded by elastomeric gaskets are hung off and guided by longitudinal carrying bars. then compressed by large-diameter tightening bolts between two pressure retaining frame plates (cover plates) . Gasketed plate heat exchanger Gasketed plate heat exchanger consists of a series of corrugated alloy material channel plates.

e. Construction The frame and channel plates have portholes which allow the process fluids to enter alternating flow passages (the space between two adjacent-channel plates) Gaskets around the periphery of the channel plate prevent leakage to the atmosphere and also prevent process fluids from coming in contact with the frame plates. No inter fluid leakage is possible in the port area due to a dual-gasket seal. pull back the frame plate. and tighten the frame plate. In fact. add the additional channel plates. Expansion of the initial unit is easily performed in the field without special considerations. if a known future capacity is available during fabrication stages. and later. When the expansion is needed. The original frame length typically has an additional capacity of 15-20 percent more channel plates (i. simply untighten the carrying bolts. . a longer carrying bar could be installed. increasing the surface area would be easily handled. surface area).

Industrial users typically have chevron style channel plates while some food applications are washboard style. . Close temperature approaches and tight temperature control possible with PHE’s and the ability to sanitize the entire heat transfer surface easily were a major benefit in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Typical particle size should not exceed 75 percent of the single plate (not total channel) gap. Wide-gap units are used with larger particle sizes. Fine particulate slurries in concentrations up to 70 percent by weight are possible with standard channel spacing's.Applications: Most PHE applications are liquid-liquid services but there are numerous steam heater and evaporator uses from their old ages in the food industry.

Advantages: - Easily assembled and dismantled Easily cleaned both chemically and mechanically Flexible (the heat transfer can be changed as required) Can be used for multiple service as required Leak is immediately deteced since all plates are vented to the atmosphere. and the fluid split on the floor rather than mixing with other fluid Heat transfer coefficient is larger and hence small heat transfer area is required than STHE The space required is less than that for STHE for the same duty Less fouling due to high turbulent flow Very close temperature approach can be obtained low hold up volume LMTD is fully utilized More economical when material cost are high .

• Disadvantages: - Low pressure <30 bar (plate deformation) Working temperature of < (500 F) [250 oC] (maximum gasket temperature) .

weld up both sides but use a horizontal • nickel brazing. passage plates • Typical applications include district heating where the low cost and minimal maintenance • have made this type of heat exchanger especially attractive.and Brazed-Plate exchanger • To overcome the gasket limitations. There are numerous approaches to this solution: weld plate pairs together • with the other fluid-side conventionally gasketed. Welded. . PHE manufacturers have developed welded-plate • exchangers. diffusion bond then pressure form plates and bond etched.

mechanical cleaning of that surface. or in general the repair or plugging ability for severe services. . has solids. Consider these limitations when the fluid is heavily fouling. and have limited ability to repair or plug off damage channels.Most methods of welded-plate manufacturing do not allow for inspection of the heattransfer surface.

or welded (stainless steel. Advantages Very compact design High heat transfer coefficients (2 – 4 times shell & tube designs) Expandable by adding plates Ease of maintenance Plates manufactured in many alloys All connections are at one end of the exchanger Good temperature approaches Fluid residence time is very short No dead spots Leakage (if it should occur) is generally to the outside – not between the fluids Low fouling due to high turbulence . the most common type being the first. for ease of inspection and cleaning. The closure of the stacked plates may be by clamped gaskets.PLATE & FRAME HEAT EXCHANGERS A plate and frame heat exchanger is a compact heat exchanger where thin corrugated plates are stacked in contact with each other. copper. and the two fluids flow separately along adjacent channels in the corrugation. brazed (usually copper brazed stainless steel). titanium).

Typical Applications • Low pressure and temperature single phase heating and cooling when fluids are not hazardous. • Gasket compatible with fluids are not always available • Poor ability to handle solids – due to close internal clearances • High pressure drop • Not suitable for hazardous materials • Not suitable in vacuum service. . a high pressure drop can be tolerated and alloys are required for the fluids being handled.Disadvantages • Designs are proprietary – limited number of manufacturers • Gaskets limit operating pressures and temperatures & require good maintenance • Typical maximum design pressures are 150-250 psig.

hot and cold fluid passages are sealed off on opposite ends of the SHE. • A single rectangular flow passage is now formed for each fluid. Spiral Plate Exchanger (SPHE) SPHEs offer high reliability and on-line performance in many severely fouling services such as slurries. producing very high shear rates compared to tubular designs. Removable covers are provided on each end to access and clean the entire heat transfer surface. . upon each other into clock- spring shape and This forms two passages. with welded-on spacer studs. CONSTRUCTION :- The SHE is formed by rolling two strips of plate. Passages are sealed off on one end of the SHE by welding a bar to the plates.

The SHE can be expensive when only one fluid requires high alloy material. the helical flow pattern combines to entrain any solids and create high turbulence creating a self-cleaning flow passage. There are no thermal-expansion problems in spirals.0.• Pure countercurrent flow is achieved and LMTD correction factor is essentially = 1. . Since the center of the unit is not fixed. • Since there are no dead spaces in a SHE. it can torque to relieve stress.

. SHEs can be fabricated out of any material that can be cold-worked and welded. it is required to be fabricated out of the higher alloy. As the coiled plate spirals outward. the plate thickness increases from a minimum of 2 mm to a maximum (as required by pressure) • up to 10 mm.• Since the heat-transfer plate contacts both fluids. This means relatively thick material separates the two fluids compared to tubing of conventional exchangers. The channel spacings can be different on each side to match the flow rates and pressure drops of the process design. The spacer studs are also adjusted in • their pitch to match the fluid characteristics.


• As an additional antifoulant measure. Only fibers that are long and stringy cause SHE to have a blockage it cannot clear itself. but this is not guaranteed due to pinholes in the lining process. • A localized restriction causes an increase in local velocity which aids in keeping the unit free flowing. The rectangular channel provides high shear and turbulence to sweep the surface clear of blockage and causes no distribution problems associated with other exchanger types. This provides some degree of corrosion protection as well.Applications: • The most common applications that fit SHE are slurries. . SHEs have been coated with a phenolic lining.

The removable covers on each end allow access to one side at a time to perform maintenance on that fluid side. SHEs are also used as oleum coolers. Type II units are the condenser and reboiler designs One side is spiral flow and the other side is in cross flow. By • reversing the flow sides. by switching fluid sides to clean the fouling (caused by the fluid that previously flowed there) off the surface. . Type III units are a combination of the Type I and Type II where part is in spiral flow and part is in cross flow. and phosphoric acid deposit crystals. the water dissolves the acid crystals and the acid clears up the organic fouling. slop oil heaters.There are three types of SHE to fit different applications: Type I is the spiral-spiral flow pattern It is used for all heating and cooling services and can accommodate temperature crosses such as lean/rich services in one unit. water. A SHE can be fitted with special mounting connections for reflux-type ventcondenser applications. Never remove a cover with one side under • pressure as the unit will telescope out like a collapsible cup. This SHE can condense and subcool in a single unit. as you expect. The unique channel arrangement has been used to provide on-line cleaning. sludge coolers/ heaters.passage designs have not performed well. and in other services where multiple flow. The vertically mounted SHE directly attaches on the column or tank. These SHEs provide very stable designs for vacuum condensing and reboiling services. Phosphoric acid coolers use pond water for cooling and both sides foul.

One process fluid stream enters the exchanger at the centre and flows outwards while the second fluid enters on the outside and flows inward.SPIRAL PLATE HEAT EXCHANGERS Spiral plate heat exchangers are fabricated from two metal plates that are wound around each other. • Ability to handle two highly fouling fluids • No dead spots for solids to collect inside exchanger • Countercurrent flow • Manufactured in many alloys • Very low pressure drop . This creates almost a true countercurrent flow. Advantages • •Single flow paths reduce fouling rates associated with fluids containing solids.

Vapour/liquid condensing. particularly at very low pressure and/or high-volume flow. cooling or heat recovery.• Disadvantages • Designs are proprietary – limited number of manufacturers • Generally more expensive than shell & tube designs Typical Applications • 1. . Liquid/liquid heating. • 2. where one or both of the fluids may cause fouling.

In some cases the tubing is installed inside a fabricated bundle to provide a compact stand alone heat exchanger. Advantages Compact very inexpensive exchanger for small applications Can handle high pressures Disadvantages Designs are proprietary – limited number of manufacturers . These exchangers are used primarily for small services such as pump seal fluid and sample coolers.SPIRAL TUBE & HELIFLOW HEAT EXCHANGERS Spiral tube type heat exchangers are fabricated from coiled tubing. See attached article "Graham Spiral Flow Heat Exchangers.pdf" for a more detailed description.


• The very low heat transfer coefficient associated with air on the outside of the tubes is partially overcome through extensive use of finned tubes to increase the outside surface area. • Air-cooled heat exchangers are usually used when the heat exchanger outlet temperature is at least 20 oF above the maximum expected ambient air temperature. AIR COOLED HEAT EXCHANGERS • locations where there is a shortage of cooling water. • Air cooled exchangers are expensive compared to water cooled exchangers due to their large size. There are two basic arrangements: • • • Induced draft Fans draw air through the tube banks. low heat transfer coefficients on the air size. • • • Forced draft Fans blow air through the tube banks. . but often become expensive compared to a combination of a cooling tower and a water-cooled exchanger. • Air cooled heat exchangers use electrically driven fans to move air across a bank of tubes. In addition air cooler exchangers require large plot areas and must be designed to handle diurnal and seasonal changes in air temperature. and structural and electrical requirements. They can be designed for closer approach temperatures.


Advantages Do not use water for cooling Disadvantages Requires large plot area Expensive Fins can plug in "dirty" environments Fans can be noisy Typical Applications Cooling and condensing where cooling water is unavailable or is uneconomical to use. Smaller units (similar to radiators) are available and commonly used for small duty applications.Changes in ambient air temperatures are often handled by using variable speed or pitch fans to adjust the air flow. In cold climates. it may be necessary to design in the ability to recirculate air to prevent freezing in the process. .


for low density fluid (gases). so a question arises how can we increase both the surface area and flow area together in a reasonably shaped configuration. This results in a large heat transfer area requirements. The surface area may be increased by the fins. Extended surface • The tubular and plate exchangers described previously are all prime surface heat exchangers. There are two most common types of extended surface heat exchangers. pressure drop constraints tend to require a large flow area. • Usually either a gas or a liquid having a low heat transfer coefficient is the fluid on one or both sides. . In many application an effectiveness of up to 90 % is essential and the box volume and mass are limited so that a much more compact surface is mandated. The flow area is increased by the use of thin gauge material and sizing the core property. The design thermal effectiveness is usually 60 % and below and the heat transfer area density is usually less than 300 m2/m3.

the fins form the individual flow passages. . Plate fin • Plate -fin heat exchanger has fins or spacers sandwiched between parallel plates (refereed to as parting plates or parting sheets) or formed tubes. • While the plates separate the two fluid streams. In gas- liquid applications fins are used in the gas side. Fins are used on both sides in a gas-gas heat exchanger.

tension wound. soldering. gluing. they are attached to the tube by tight mechanical fit. tubes of round. Tube fin • In tube fin heat exchanger. brazing. welding or extrusion. rectangular. Fins are generally used on the outside and also used inside the tubes in some applications. Tube fin exchanger . or elliptical shape are generally used.