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Occupational Health

(PTPPOH 2412)

Ngang Siew Ping
BPHF 13091124
Cohort2 Direct Entry

Description of the centre visited:

• small distributor company(Plencess Trading Sdn,Bhd)
• The company role is to acquire products from
manufacturers that meet their quality and price
standards. Then they mark up the products and try to
earn profit by reselling them to retailers at a higher price
point.(Neil Kokemuller,2016)
• a three-storey shop ( office,store, and meeting area with
director office)
• 3 office girls-computer work,4 storekeepers,1 director,3
salesmans
• Working hours is 8-5pm except weekends and lunch break
is one hours
• A lot of workload

photostat machine.• good lighting environment and air conditioning available • Pantry-3rd floor(lack of short break time during working hours) • Facilities:Fax machine.office chair.2007) .desk.lorry • have to use stairs to go to upstairs.computers. can gradually lead to musculoskeletal disorder(Tone Morken et al.vans.

So the workload of the other 2 office girls are heavier than usual as everyday • Therefore. Reflection on the experience gained: • The environment of the working place is quite good but the ergonomic of the workers should be re- corrected to prevent further musculoskeletal injury. . Currently. for my opinion. one of the office girl take leave as her family out of the situation. The company should provide better facilities(adjustable office chair)and small pantry located first floor to improve the level of the comfortable of the office workers. the company should also employ a temporary office girl to replace the job.

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Critical Analysis of the Possible Occupational Health Problems: • It is estimated that musculoskeletal conditions are responsible for 31 million lost working days across the UK every year and. with up to 80 per cent of adults likely to be affected by an MSD in their lifetime and 40 per cent taking time off work at some point in their life due to MSDs(WHO 2003 and Bevan et al. .the office workers had forward head posture that cause neck pain.stoop posture which complaint back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome which complaint hand painful and numbness.2007) • Due to prolong sitting in front of computer.

p. • Prolonged: excessive compression on the facet joint and vertebral bodies • Biomechanics of the head & neck altered (Fernandez-D-L-P.166).D et al. lower cervical flexion lengthen deep neck flexor muscle & rhomboid muscle ( Truong. p.94) • upper cervical vertebrae apply loading on facet joint of atlanto-occipital joint & lower cervical vertebrae compress intervertebral disc of C2-4: Cervicogenic headache/ upper cross Syndrome(Robert D. p.1)Forward head posture • Upper cervical hyperextension shorten sternoclenoidmastoid(SCM) & scalenus anterior.M et al.C et al. 2010.19) • Resulting in Neck pain . 2009.1999.

-In sitting. p. increase extensive lumbar curve.P et al. p. -Without seat cushion.103). p. psoas muscles will be shorten. (Padoa. pectoralis. A et al.2) Stoop posture -during prolong sitting in front of computer in stoop posture due to poor chair design can directly cause low back pain(Janwatanakul.176).1-8). it will increase maximum compressive stress to the ischial tuberosity (Ragan R et al. 2002.872-875) . resulting in anterior pelvic tilt leading vertebral disc compression & strain on soft tissue of low back & iliopsoas trigger point (Scheumann. 2007. -Prolonged sitting can cause iliopsas tight. p.DW.thoracic & lumbar kyphosis and spinal inclination cause intradiscal pressure increase /abdominals. 2016. 2011.

p.1-14). p. 2016. -Prolonged hour typing with pressure rise in wrist extension & external palm loading cause carpal tunnel syndrome d/t compression of median nerve in carpel tunne (Rempel D.M et al. p.A et al.3) Carpal Tunnel Syndrome -A computer user (keyboard/ mouse user)/ typist has high prevalence (93%) of risk factor in carpal tunnel syndrome d/t spending on keyboard 9 hr/day (Rhode B. 2008. -When the forearm is not resting against the table & the level of wrist is higher than elbow. contribute stress to the forearm leads to muscle strain (Chasen C.1269-1273).34).2009. .

2009. 2013. Focusing on deep breathing. et al.81-93) • Research stated that frequent short break from continuous computer- mediated work can improve 15% productivity & well-being during working with 3 minutes break in every each hour & perform 5 stretches exercise during the short break (Henning R. improve the proprioception & strength after 6 weeks in intervention group (Abdelnaeem A. splenius capitis to prevent muscle imbalance.(Pramod Kerkar. • Advises on postural transition for every 20-30 minutes and take 5 minutes break every hour (Owen N et al. p.deep cervical flexor strengthening such as chin tuck exercise has significant reduced forward head posture as measured by the craniovertebral angle.Deep cervical flexor help in maintain cervical lordosis & improve cervical posture (Iqbal Z.78-91) • Advice given on getting up and walk around every half an hour that work at a desk. p. p.A et al. p. 2015.657-661). Strategies for Prevention & Management of OHP • Stretching exercise for pectoralis muscle.2016) .581-586).O et al.So. practicing optimal posture and mindfulness is greatly beneficial for the musculoskeletal system thus helps in correcting the forward head posture.A et al. SCM. 1997.

Lumbar support & backrest angle of 110°-130° provides the lowest compression force on the lumbar disc (Amit Bhattacharya A et al. enhance spinal mobility & improving ROM of back.3359-3363).435).It has significant improved in lumbar mobility during 2 hours sitting section in 74 subject which performed every 20 minutes(Chatchawan. p.• Hamstring & ilipsoas stretching are significant improve in flexibility. • Company director advised to change the chair which has height & back adjustable.provide seated pan depth & proper lumbar support & arm rest to prevent spinal pain if possible. corrected the pelvic inclination by reducing the stress in lumbar spine & reduce pain (Devi K. p.Z et al. p. 2014.U et al 2015.403-410) • Dynamic sitting exercise increase extensibility of non-contractile capsular & ligamentous tissue around the spine. . 2011.

2010) . 2006. which fit under most keyboards. pain reduction.2002) • Some recommendations is given such as wrist rests. 2013) • A study stated provide a large forearm support combined with ergonomic training is an effective intervention to prevent upper body musculoskeletal disorders (Rempel D.M et al.et al. can help keep the wrists and fingers in a comfortable position and keeping the computer mouse as close to the keyboard and the body as possible. and stress relief.• Wrist pain-Stretching exercise will help to increase sarcromere length.(John.300- 306). realign the collagen fibers.Wrist stretching can help to tense the muscle. p.improve blood circulation and prevent cumulative trauma disorder.(Simon H. (Katz. to reduce shoulder muscle movement. • A general full-body warmup &massage the sore areas-muscle relaxation.

-apply to an accident while employee was required to work outside of Singapore  -apply on die in work-related accidents -medical expenses. death of permanent incapacity. Singapore Armed Forces. medical leave wages can be claimed -does not cover for: self employed persons. (SS0.2015). -Dependents of an employee who died because of a workplace accident can also make a claim on behalf of the employee. uniformed -personnel such as Singapore Police Force. . etc. independent contractors. Recommendations: 1)Work Injury  Compensation Act -apply on all workplace injuries. domestic workers.

493). provide equipment to prevent musculoskeletal disorder.2) Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 -ensure safety. . -promote an occupational environment for persons at work which is adapted to their physiological & psychological needs. seated chair. 2012. p.P et al. welfare of all persons at all places of work. -recommendations: ergonomics of posture.  (Hughes. health. -Protect person at a place of work other than person’s at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work.

3)Employment Act 1955 -limit work hours to 8 hours perday.75). -a minimum 30 minutes break for each period of 5 consecutive hours of work. -Every employee shall be allowed in each week a rest day of one whole day -For overtime work on a rest day. 2004. -48 hours perweek. (Varia & Nisha. . -overtime working hours should not be longer than 10 hours/day. p. an employee shall be paid at a rate which is not less than two times his hourly rate of pay.

but low forces and repetition (except for keying and mousing activities. 2000). • RULA has undergone initial validation. are good candidates for RULA. 1996). Outcome measure: • Jobs that are characterized by static postures. for example. . and children’s computing posture (Dockrell et al. such seated office work is a good candidate for RULA. for instance. computer mouse users (Cook et al... of course). and is widely used for testing computer workstations. RULA for computer use (Lueder. Since office work involves long term static postures. 2002) • used to evaluate the level of ergonomic risk by observation of participants’ posture while they were working • RULA found to be a proper method for the assessment of the ergonomic risk factors of the ULMSDs in order to prevent such disorders.

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google. FFARCSI.epainassist[ONLINE].my/books? id=hWVkSf3D8OoC&pg=PA75&dq=working+hour+in+Employment+Act+1955&hl=en&sa =X&ved=0ahUKEwiC2uetvNPKAhUHMaYKHRCLAE8Q6AEIKDAD#v=onepage&q=working %20hour%20in%20Employment%20Act%201955&f=false.net/publication/6574430_Work- related_musculoskeletal_disorders_in_Norway's_offshore_petroleum_industry[Accessed on 17/1/17] • Varia & Nisha. New York: Human Rights Watch.  [Accessed on 17/1/17] • Hughes Phil et al. MD.• Tone Morken.my/books? id=TkfJAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA493&dq=occupational+safety+and+health+act+1994&hl=en&sa =X&ved=0ahUKEwjt9ZryutPKAhUOxY4KHZsNB7UQ6AEIITAB#v=onepage&q=occupational %20safety%20and%20health%20act%201994&f=false[Accessed on 17/1/17] • Pramod Kerkar.google. Volume 16.com.com. Exercises.Available at https://www. Available from: https://books.(2016). (2004) Help Wanted : Abuses Against Female Migrant Domestic Workers in Indonesia and Malaysia. Available from: https://books. 9.epainassist.Available at https://www.researchgate. Forward Head Posture: Causes. USA: Taylor & Francis Group.  . Treatment. (2012) Introduction to International Health and Safety at Work.com/fitness-and- exercise/forward-head-posture[Accessed on 17/1/17].Bente Elisabeth Moen , Ingrid Sivesind Mehlum , (2007) ,Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in Norway‘s offshore petroleum industry , in Occupational Medicine 57(2):112-7 Researchgate [ONLINE]. Symptoms.

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