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Properties and

Strength
of Materials
Helwan University
Faculty of Engineering Dr. Wael
Civil Engineering Ibrahim
Department
Lecture no 4
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Properties of Harden
Concrete
The important properties of hardened
:concrete are
. Strength. 1
.2
.
.3Deformation
.Durability
. Permeability. 4
.Shrinkage. 5
2
.2
Strength
The Strength of Concrete is defined as the
maximum (Load/Stress) it can carry. As the
strength of concrete increases its other
properties usually improve.
Compressive 2.1
Strength
The compressive strength of concrete is taken
as the maximum compressive load it can carry
per unit area. (Cube test)
Tensile 2.2
Strength (10%)
The tensile strength of concrete is also
importance in the design of concrete roads
and runways. (Direct /Indirect Tension test)
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Factors influencing Strength 2.3
of concrete
Several factors, which affect the strength of
concrete, (Compressive / Tensile strength)
influence of the Constituent 2.3.1
Materials
)Cement 2.3.1.1
+Fineness
(Chemical composition
Water 2.3.1.2

Aggregate 2.3.1.3

Admixtures 2.3.1.4
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Cement 2.3.1.1
A. The Effect of Cement
fineness

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The Effect of Chemical
composition

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Water 2.3.1.2
A Concrete mix containing the minimum
amount of water required for complete
hydration of its cement, if it could be fully
compacted, would develop the maximum
attainable strength at any given age.

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Aggregate 2.3.1.3
In general, the aggregates are stronger than
the concrete itself and in such cases the
aggregate strength has little effect on the
strength of concrete.
The Bond (aggregate-matrix interface) is an
important factor determining concrete
strength.
The Bond strength is influenced by the shape
of the aggregate, its surface texture,
aggregate size and clean.
Aggregate shape and surface texture affect
the tensile strength more than the
compressive strength.
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Admixtures 2.3.1.4
Accelerating admixtures increase the rate of
hydration there by providing an increased
early strength with little on change at later
ages.
Retarding admixtures the early strength of
concrete is reduced owing to the delay in
setting time.

Air entraining admixture in concrete will cause


a reduction in strength at all ages and to
achieve required strength the mix cement has
to be increased.

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Strength. 2
influence of the Methods of 2.3.2
Preparation
When concrete materials are not adequately
mixed into a consistent and homogeneous
mass, some poor quality concrete is inevitably
the result.
Even when a concrete is adequately mixed
care must be taken during Placing and
Compaction to minimize the probability of the
occurrence of Bleeding, Segregation and Hone
Combing.
If full Compaction is not achieved the resulting
voids produce a marked reduction in concrete
strength.
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Strength. 2
influence of Curing 2.3.3
Curing of concrete is a prerequisite for the
hydration of the cement content.
Generally speaking, the longer the period
during which concrete is kept in water, the
greater its final strength.
It is normally accepted that a concrete made
with Ordinary Portland Cement and kept in
normal curing conditions will develop about
75 % of its final strength in the first 28 days.

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influence of Curing 2.3.3

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influence of Test Conditions 2.3.4
Specimen Shape and Size.
Three basic shape used for the determination
of compressive strength are the Cube,
Cylinder and Square Prism.

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influence of Test Conditions 2.3.4
Specimen Moisture content and Temperature.
The strength of concrete can be influenced by the absence or
presence of moisture and temperature only when these
conditions generate internal stress, which change the
magnitude of the external load, required to bring about failure.
In case of compression tests, air-dry concrete has a
significantly higher strength than concrete tested in a
saturated condition. The lower strength of wet concrete can be
attributed mainly to the development of internal pore pressure
as the external load is applied.
The flexural strength of saturated concrete is greater however
than that of concrete which is only partially dry owing to
tensile stresses developed near the surface of dry concrete by
different shrinkage.
The indirect tensile or split cylinder strength is lower for
saturated concrete than for thoroughly dried concrete.
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influence of Test Conditions 2.3.4
Lateral confining + Rate of Loading .

The compressive strength of


concrete increase as the lateral
confining pressure increases.
The strength of concrete is affected
by the rate of load. In general, for
static loading, the faster rate of
loading, higher strength.
Compression rate 12-24 N / mm 2 .
Min.
The standard rate of loading for
flexural and split cylinder tests are
1.2 - 6.0 and 1.2 2.4 N / mm 2 .
Min.
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Next Week

Deformation

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