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Excessive discharge of undesirable
foreign substances into the
atmospheric air thereby adversely
affecting the quality of air and
causing damage to human, plants
and animal lives.
Air Pollutants
Particulates Dust, Smoke,
Fly Ash
Carbon monoxide (CO)
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Ammonia (NH3)
Sulphur dioxide (SO2)
Nitrogen Oxides (NxOy) Phosgene
Hydrogen Cyanide Asbestos
Hydrogen Sulphide Aldehydes
Hydrogen fluoride Radiations
Chlorine Hydrocarbons
Classification of Air Pollutants

Primary Air Pollutants Secondary Air Pollutants

The poisonous gases and Derived from Primary Air
undesirable chemicals Pollutants
which cause air pollution. In bright sunlight nitrogen,
nitrogen oxides, oxygen and
Carbon particles from
hydrocarbons photochemical
unburned fuel, Ammonia reaction powerful oxidants
(NH3), Sulphur dioxide Ozone, Aldehydes, Sulphuric
(SO2), Hydrocarbons, acid, Peroxy acetyl nitrate
(PAN), Peroxides, etc.
Oxides of nitrogen,
They form photochemical
Oxides of carbon, Lead. Smog
Sources of Air Pollution

Natural Man Made

Natural contaminants Rapid industrialization
(fungi, spores, cysts, bacteria, Automobile Revolution
methane, dust, etc.) Deforestation
Carbon monoxide from
Methane Gas
Volcanic Eruptions
Forest fires
Electric storms and Solar
Salt spray from oceans
Dust storms
Classification of Pollutants

Gases Particulates
Oxides of Sulphur Dust
Oxides of Nitrogen Smoke
Oxides of Carbon Fog
Carbon dioxide Smog
Ozone London Smog
Hydrogen Sulphide Los Angels Smog
Chlorofluoro Carbons Fly Ash
Hydrogen fluoride Soot
Hydrocarbons Fumes
Photochemical oxidants Natural Particulates
Effect of Air Pollution
On Human Health
Irritate respiratory tract
Irritate eyes, nose and throat
Lead particles cause Lead Poisoning
Cadmium particles Cardio vascular disease,
Kidney and Liver damage
Nickel particles respiratory damage
Mercury Central nervous system, kidney and
Radioactive substances affect future generations
Effect of Air Pollution Contd...

On Animals
Feeding particulate coated plants (fluorine,
lead, arsenic) Arsenic Poisoning
Lead Poisoning Bronchitis, Lack of appetite
in pet animals
Effect of Air Pollution Contd...

On Plants
Spraying Pesticides, Organic manure and
agricultural applications affect growth of plants
Destroy chlorophyll formation disturb
SO2 decreases chlorophyll content causes
NO2 permanent leaf fall
Ozone Necrosis - dead area on leaf damages
the leaves
Effect of Air Pollution Contd...

On Materials
Chemical attack on surface

Acid Rain
Effect of Air Pollution Contd...

On Climate
Increase in CO2 increase temperature of
atmosphere ice and polar glaciers melt
flooding of coastal towns change rainfall
pattern agricultural output changes
Depletion of Ozone layer increase
penetration of harmful UV rays on earth skin
diseases, sunburns, inactivation of RNA, DNA
and protein molecules
Construction activity, including road
and Metro works, has pushed
up pollution levels across the city and
its suburbs.
The ambient air quality assessment by
the Kerala State Pollution Control
Board indicated that the district
stations in Kochi were polluted more
than other stations in the State. During
the five year-long assessment, the
Board looked for presence of Sulphur
dioxide, Oxides of Nitrogen and RSPM.
While Sulphur dioxide and Oxides of
Nitrogen were well within the
permissible limits, the RSPM values
On an average, over 30 new patients come in the
respiratory OP per day. Many patients have been
confirmed with pulmonary tuberculosis, extrapulmonary
tuberculosis and asthma, said Dr. Anitha Thilakan,
assistant professor of Respiratory Medicine at Cochin
Cooperative Medical College.

Over the past two years,

the Metro Rail construction
has contributed to the
increase in air pollution
and cases of respiratory
ailments in the city.
Auto drivers, Metro
workers and those
exposed to the dust come
with respiratory
The major air quality parameters of concern in this area are SPM, VOC, CO,
SO2, NH3, NOx from Kochi Refinery and other petrochemical industries &
fertilizers industries.
All the industries have provided air pollution control measures to control the
emission at the source itself. Most industries use furnace oil as fuel which
contains around 3% sulphur. To mitigate the air pollution problems, KSPCB
has give direction to draw actionplan by individual units.
Several ongoing construction activities and projects including the
Vallarpadam Container Terminal, kochi metro are taking place in the
industrial cluster area, giving rise to dust pollution.
Kerala state pollution control board had put
forward an action plan for greater kochi area

The Greater Kochi Area (GKA) ranks 24 th

(with CEPI score of 75.08) amongst the
critically polluted areas (CPA) in the
country. The State Pollution Control Board
was instructed by the CPCB to evolve a
time bound action plan for improving the
environmental quality in the CPA.
Greater Kochi encompasses Kochi Corporation 6
Municipalities and 25 Grama Panchayats with a
total area of 631.68 km2 and a population of 3.28
million (2011 Census).

There are 83 red category industries

( Industries identified by Ministry of Environment
& Forests, Govt. of India as heavily polluting and
covered under Central Action Plan )in Greater
Kochi area.
Out of that 79 industries (ie, 95% of the total) fall within the
industrial clusters at EloorEdayar and Ambalamugal which
together constitute 17.4 km2 or 2.8 % of Greater Kochi Area.

Because Eloor and Edayar are situated on the left and right
banks of River Periyar, Eloor Edayar area is considered
together. Ambalamugal is area wise bigger than Eloor & Edayar
but the major part of the area is occupied by just four large scale
Action Plans & their project cost

Air pollution\Doc1 table.docx

The action plan consists of short
and long term measures.
At present, there is one continuous ambient air
quality monitoring station at Eloor (maintained by
FACT), and two stations at Ambalamugal
(maintained by Kochi Refineries). The Board need
to have one station of its own in Kochi city. The
estimated cost of the new station with five years
maintenance and operation contract is Rs. 1.5
crore. The project period would be 5 years.

Localised problems need to be attended to and solved promptly. Mobile monitoring laboratories
with continuous reading equipment, one each for air and water quality, need be procured. The
anticipated cost is Rs. 2.5 crore.
Ambient air quality monitoring
systems(AAQMS) the first among the new
set of devices as been installed at the
Vyttila mobility hub in Kochi. The public can
see the pollution levels in the two display
systems coming up at Vyttila junction and on
the Gold Souk building on NH 66 on
Edappally-Vyttila stretch.

The AAQMS at industrial belt of Eloor in

Ernakulam will be overhauled. Another
system will be installed on a commercial
building on Banerji road in Kochi.
The new system can measure all common air
pollutants including ozone (O3), nitrogen
dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon
monoxide (CO), sulphur dioxide (SO2), volatile
organic compounds (VOC), hydrogen sulphide
(H2S), non methane hydrocarbons (NMHC),
carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter
(PM10, PM2.5), noise and meteorological
parameters such as rainfall, temperature,
humidity, pressure, wind speed and direction.

In order to convert the diesel fuelled vehicles to those run

by LNG and to have uninterrupted supply of LNG, it is
proposed to have LNG fuelled public transport system and
LNG bunks. As a LNG terminal is there at Puthuvypin, there
is scope for the project.
An initiative may be made by providing 10 LNG fuelled buses
in the public sector and 10 LNG dispensation bunks.
The greenery for which Kerala is famous is
yielding to a concrete jungle. It is proposed to
restore and improve greenery with the support
of Social Forestry Dept. of Govt. of Kerala and
participation of student volunteers from
National Service Scheme, Bhoomithrasena,
National Cadet Corps and National Green
Many industries have installed on-line stack
monitoring and effluent monitoring systems. Data is
also generated by installing ambient air monitoring
For timely action on the data, real time data have to
be available at the Board Offices. A telemetric data
linking system is planned. The expected cost is Rs.
25 lakh. The project period is one year. As a first
phase it is proposed to have linkage with large and
medium scale industries in red category / 17

There is a wide spread public perception that the area

is extensively polluted and the local community is
suffering from ill effects of industrialisation.
The public says that the local people are suffering
from various ill effects due to the pollution, an
authentic study on the health effects on the people in
the area had been done.
A study, first of its kind in the area, was conducted by
an agency appointed by the Government, on request
of public, in nine wards in Eloor Grama Panchayath
(affected area).
The study report recommended a
comprehensive study by a competent agency
regarding the occupational health problems
among workers in the industries of Eloor
The report also recommended introducing a
health insurance package for the residents. It
is also suggested to extent the survey to the
other industrial area of Ambalamugal area.
Kochi being the commercial hub of Kerala has plans for new
developmental projects like IT parks, container terminal,
LNG terminal, gas pipeline projects, Airport, Special
Economic Zone etc.
The present network roads are just 15 m wide, resulting in
traffic congestion and consequent automobile pollution.
Inadequate public transport in the routes has led to people
traveling to the city in cars, autorickshaws and two-wheelers,
causing more congestion on the roads.
two flyovers or bridges near north and south railway stations
would reduce the congestion considerably
The proposed METRO would also help in reducing the traffic
National Air Quality Index
National Air Quality Index for 85 cities
at 225 locations, June 2015