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THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT

Set of concepts or
propositions that describe
of explain a phenomena
SIGMUND FREUD
(PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY)
Concept of mind
---3 segments
1.Conscious-aware (iceberg)
2.Pre-conscious- thoughts, perceptions,
memories
3.Unconscious-most important of all
the 3 segments (drives)
----sexual desire, instinct, irrational
desires
Concept of Personality
3 structures
1.Id-drives (animalistic
nature)/pleasure principleevil side
2.Ego- (self) mediator/ reality priciple/
makataothe good side
3. Superegoconscience /maka diyos
Psychosexual Stages of
Development
1. Oral (first year of life) -mouth
2. Anal (second to third) - anus
3. Phallic (4th to 5th) sex organs
( oedipal and electra complexes
4. Latency (6th to puberty)-- learning
5. Genital ( puberty onwards) sex
organs
Psychosocial Development
Theories by Eric Erickson
1. Trust vs. mistrust-birth to 1
---love/ignore
2. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt- 2-3
years(walk, explore, feed
themselves but when people
demand too much too soon---shame
3. Initiative vs. guilt- (4 5 years old)
---freedom
4. Industry vs. inferiority-(6-11)

5. Identity vs. role confusion (12-18)

6. Intimacy vs. isolation(young adult)

7. Generativity vs. stagnation (middle


adulthood)
Cognitive Development by Jean
Piaget
Assimilation- described human thought
in terms of intelligence
- It means responding to a new stimulus
through existing cognitive structures
- Example
- ---infant places a new object into his
mouth to suck,feel, or explore. Thus
the child assimilates a new toy to the
sucking schema
Schema- hypothetical mental structure
that permits the classification and
organization of new information

Accommodation- modification of
schemas so that information
inconsistent with existing schemas
can be integrated or understood
Object permanence- recognition that
objects removed from sight still
exist, as demonstrated in young
children by continued pursuit
4 stages of cognitive
development
1. Sensorimotor- infant is capable of
assimilating novel stimuli only to
existing reflexes (unlearned/simple)

2. Pre-operational use of words and


symbols to represent objects and
relationships among them think one
dimensionally (law of conservation)
egocentric
---egocentrism-the assumption that others
view the world as one does oneself
3. Concrete Operational --- 7 years- 12
--- logical thinking but more on
tangible objects rather than abstract
----understands law of conservation
---less egocentric
---subjective morality
4. Formal operational
Concepts of cognitive
development
Zone of proximal development and
scaffolding

1.ZPD
--- proximal means nearby or close
Refers to a range of tasks that a child
can carry out with the help of
someone who is more skilled
Lev Vygotsky-Sociocultural
Theory
-how childrens cognitive development is
influenced by the cultures in which they
are reared and the people who teach
them
-transmission of information and cognitive
skills from generation to generation
- focused on how the childs social
interaction with adults organized a
childs learning experiences ---child can
obtain cognitive skills
Scaffloding- term for temporary
cognitive structures or methods of
solving problems that help the child
as she or he learns function
independently
Moral Development by
Lawrence Kohlbergs
1. Preconventional level- applies to
most children through the age of
nine
--moral judgment is based on the
consequences of behavior
(expectations of rewards and
punishment)
2. Conventional right and wrong are
judged by conformity to conventional
standards of right and wrong
3. Postconventional complex
-- focuses on dilemmas in which
individual needs are pitted against
the need to maintain the social order
and on personal conscience