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KE16403 Logic Design

Lecture 1 Introduction
Organizational Matters
Textbook
Roth, C.R., Kinney, L.L. Fundamentals of Logic Design,
2014, CENGAGE Learning
Website
https://piazza.com/ums.edu.my/spring2016/ke16403/home
Lecture Hours
Tuesday 8:00 -10:00 BT 18-19 (8:30 9:30 most weeks, 8
10 for class replacement)
Wednesday 2:00 - 3:00 BT 18-19
Friday 2:00 - 3:00 BT 18-19
Tutorial Hours
TBA (Compulsory 1 hour, need at least 2 hour schedule)

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What is a Digital Circuit?
Defined by the interpretation of the signals (waveforms,
if in time) in the circuit.
Analog
Continuous Values
Fast, economical, low accuracy
Susceptible to noise & distortion
Digital
Discrete Levels
Accuracy related to cost (no. of "bits")
Less susceptible to noise
Binary
2 Levels or States
Multi-valued
More than two Levels

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History
The first electronic logic was implemented using valves
or relay as switches
slow by today's standards
Large
got hot
relatively unreliable
Transistor switches used now
many transistors can be "integrated" onto a single chip of
silicon
fast (switch on and then off in around < 100 picosecond)
very small (order of 0.1 micron)
can get warm
very reliable

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Example Applications
Numeric
Calculators for addition, multiplication etc.
Aircraft navigation systems for calculating
position, ETA etc.
Computers for averaging your exam marks
Non-numeric
Parking meters for timing
Satellite TV encoding and decoding for revenue
protection
Disk drives for controlling the rotation and head
position
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The Future is Now

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Classification of Designs
COMBINATIONAL
Output only depends on the instantaneous input values.
IDEAL: Output responds instantly.
REALITY: Propagation delay, spurious outputs ("glitches")
that must eventually settle.
No feedback path exists from the outputs to the inputs.
SEQUENTIAL
Circuit contains "memory" (store) so the output may
depend on the sequence of previous inputs (since power-
up!)
REALITY: Output depends on the duration of the inputs.
There must be at least one feedback path from the outputs
to the inputs.

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Classification of Designs
SYNCHRONOUS
All feedback occurs at the same time, as defined by a
special signal called a clock.
ASYNCHRONOUS
Feedback occurs whenever values change. No special
clock signals.

Remember: Avoid asynchronous design if you


can! Try to identify the unavoidable asynchronous
interfaces and convert them to synchronous form
as reliably and with as few gates as possible.

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Logic Design/Digital Design
Given a functional description and performance, cost, & power
constraints, come up with an implementation using a set of
primitives.
How do we learn how to do this?
1. Learn about the primitives.
2. Learn about design representation.
3. Learn formal methods to optimally manipulate the representations.
4. Look at design examples.
5. Use trial and error - CAD tools and prototyping.

Digital design is in some ways more an art than a science. The


creative spirit is critical in combining primitive elements & other
components in new ways to achieve a desired function.
Unlike art we have objective measures of a design:
Performance, cost, power

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Basic Design Tradeoffs
You can improve on one at the expense of worsening one or
both of the others.
These tradeoffs exist at every level in the system design -
every sub-piece and component.
Design Specification -
Functional Description.
Performance, cost, power constraints.
As a designer you must make the tradeoffs necessary to
achieve the function within the constraints.

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Example Digital Systems
Digital Computer
Usually design to maximize performance. "Optimized for
speed
Handheld Calculator
Usually designed to minimize cost.
Optimized for low cost
Of course, low cost comes at the expense of speed.
Digital Watch
Designed to minimize power. Single battery must last for
years.
Low power operation comes at the expense of:
lower speed
higher cost

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Design Example:
Traffic Light Controller
Specification
The traffic light points in 4 directions (N, S,
E, W)
The lights on N and S are always the same,
as are E and W
It cycles through the sequence green-
yellow-red
N/S and E/W are never both green or yellow
Green lasts 45 seconds, yellow 15 seconds,
red 60 seconds
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Design Example:
Traffic Light Controller
What are the outputs?
12 (one for each light) but only 6 are unique
What are the inputs?
start the controller (reset)
timing inputs (clocks)
What about
Performance
Reliability
Cost
Power consumption
Size, etc ?

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The Role of Abstraction in Design
"Abstraction: The principle of ignoring those aspects of
a subject that are not relevant to the current purpose
in order to concentrate more fully on those that are."...
Dictionary of Computing, Oxford Univ. Press, 1986
To be able to abstract something, you must first be
able to encapsulate an aspect of the design
(sometimes called Information Hiding)
Levels of Abstraction
Low-Level: Electric Circuits
Middle-Level: gates, flip-flops
High-Level: software tools such as HDL (Hardware
Description Language)

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Philosophy of the Course
Provide the framework for students to
be able to work on all three different
levels of abstractions of digital design
Emphasis on fundamental concepts, not
algorithmic procedure.
Design with constraints and trade-offs in
mind: more realistic design opportunity.
Design using abstract representation that
can be translated into any of the three
different levels of abstraction.

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Course Outcomes
1. Evaluate the performance of logic
components
2. Apply systematic techniques for
simplification of a logic circuit
3. Analyze sequential logic circuit in
terms of timing charts and state
graphs
4. Design complex combinational and
sequential logic circuits
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Course Coverage

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Relationship with Future
Courses
Provides the foundation for higher
order digital systems & digital
integrated circuit courses
Engineering Lab 2 (Microcontroller)
Microprocessor and Computer
Architecture
Microelectronics

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Grading Requirements
Phase Test 1: 10%
Phase Test 2: 10%
15-minute Test: 15%
Online Quiz: 5%
Design Assignments: 20%
Final Exam: 40%

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Design Assignments
Designing a combinational circuit
that counts the coins placed into an
automatic toll coin collector.
Designing a controller that detects
the four-bit, binary MSB first serial
sequence of the rounded average of
the last digits of the team members
IC Numbers

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