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2 .Series RLC Circuits The second-order differential equation. In order to visualize the three possibilities. has a solution that can take three different forms. a second-order mechanical system is shown in following figure. each form depending on the circuit elements.

3 . or underdamped (oscillatory). A damping device D is attached to the mass M. If the mass is displaced from its rest position and then released at t = 0. its resulting motion will be overdamped.The mass M is suspended by a spring with a constant k. critically damped.

The figure below shows the graph of the resulting motions of the mass after its release from the displaced position z1 (at t = 0). 4 .

5 . In physics and engineering. friction is one such damping effect. In physics. damping may be mathematically modeled as a force synchronous with the velocity of the object but opposite in direction to it. In mechanics.Damping Damping is caused by the resistance in the circuit. damping is any effect that tends to reduce the amplitude of oscillations in any oscillatory system.

Likewise. diminishing it with time if there is no driving AC power source in the circuit. 6 .Oscillatory A mechanical analog is a weight suspended on a spring which will oscillate up and down when released. Friction will slowly bring any oscillation to a halt if there is no external force driving it. the resistance in an RLC circuit will “damp” the oscillation.

Critical Damping Example: Door closer seen on many hinged doors in public buildings. after the recoil due to firing. the recoil mechanism in most guns are also critically damped so that they return to their original position. in the least possible time. 7 .

Overdamping An over-damped door-closer will take longer to close than a critically damped door would. or would oscillate in the case of a swinging door. Under-damping An underdamped door-closer would close quickly. 8 . but would hit the door frame with significant velocity.

Given a series RLC circuit. the application of KVL results in the integro- differential equation: di 1 Ri  L dt  c  idt V 9 .

CASE 1: OVERDAMPED CASE • The roots of the auxiliary equation are REAL and DISTINCT. ic  c1e m1t  c2 e m2 t • The system returns (exponentially decays) to equilibrium without oscillating. critically damped or overdamped (oscillatory). The solution to the equation is then overdamped. 10 .

ic  (c1  c2 x )e mt 11 . • The system returns to equilibrium as quickly as possible without oscillating.CASE 2: CRITICALLY DAMPED CASE • The roots of the auxiliary equation are REPEATED.

CASE 3: UNDERDAMPED CASE (or OSCILLATORY) • The roots of the auxiliary equation contains REAL and IMAGINARY. ic  e at (c1 cos bt  c2 sin bt ) 12 . • The system oscillates (at reduced frequency) with the amplitude gradually decreasing to zero.