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It converts dc power supply to the ac power in the load ( just opposite to rectifier ) It incorporates active and passive components It delivers an output voltage of given waveform without the application of an external input signal

Classification of Oscillators

S. Kal,

IIT-Kharagpur

2

Oscillators

S. Kal,

IIT-Kharagpur

3

Principle of Sinusoidal Oscillation

**Let switch S1 be closed and S2 be opened initially. (ϕ f=0) ϕ i = ϕ s and ϕ f = B(ω ) ϕ 0 = B(ω ) . A(ω ) . ϕ i or ϕ f /ϕ I = B(ω) . A(ω) = open – loop gain
**

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

4

**Principle of Sinusoidal Oscillation
**

Both A and B are functions of frequency. If frequency, ω = ω 0 , B(ω 0 ) . A(ω 0 ) = 1 then ϕ f

for a particular = ϕi = ϕs

Now if S1 is open and S2 is closed to close the loop, then since ϕ f = ϕ i at ω = ω 0 , the feed back signal will be in phase with the input signal and has the same magnitude. Hence the system will sustain oscillation at the particular frequency ω 0 ( = 2π f ), even if ϕ s is withdrawn. The condition of oscillation, also called Barkhausen criterion, is B (ω 0) . A (ω 0) = 1

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

5

**Principle of Sinusoidal Oscillation
**

Since A and B are complex quantities, it gives two alternative sets of conditions 1) Re [B(ω 0 ) . A(ω 0 )] = 1 ⇒ | B(ω 0 ) . A(ω 0 )| = 1 2) Im [B(ω 0 ) . A(ω 0 )] = 0 ⇒ ∠ B(ω 0 ) . A(ω 0 ) = 0

The first condition means that the signal fed back to the input should be of the same magnitude as the input signal, while the second condition dictates that the feedback should be positive with zero phase shift. The second oscillation. condition determines the frequency

S. Kal,

of

IIT-Kharagpur

6

**Principle of Sinusoidal Oscillation
**

If the first condition is satisfied, but not the second condition, oscillation will die out ( or decay ) because the input signal will gradually decay due to phase cancellation of signals fed back to the input after successive trips round the loop.

The practical oscillators do not require an input signal, ϕ s to trigger oscillation. Then how does oscillation grow ? And, from what ?

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

7

**Principle of Sinusoidal Oscillation
**

The random movement of electrons in conductors and resistors, random emission of carriers in a transistor and diode, random electron-hole recombination phenomena etc. produce random fluctuation of voltage of very small magnitude ( nV - µ V range ) called electrical noise. Noise has a broad spectrum consisting of all frequencies. The noise voltage at ω = ω 0 is the starting or triggering signal from which oscillation grows. Other frequency components cannot grow because they do not satisfy the phase reinforcement condition, viz., net phase shift = 0. For the starting of oscillation, in fact, AB should be slightly greater than unity. But in the steady state, | AB| = 1 and ∠ AB = 0.

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

8

**Principle of Sinusoidal Oscillation
**

Thus the condition of oscillations are : (i) the magnitude of the loop gain must be equal to unity and (ii) the feed back must be of regenerative type ( positive feed back , phase of AB is either 0 or integer multiples of 3600 )

S. Kal,

IIT-Kharagpur

9

**Some Oscillator Circuits
**

1. RC Phase Shift Oscillator ( using BJT )

The basic amplifier ( CE ) provides a phase shift of 1800 , and the feed back network provides another 1800 of phase shift, so that the total phase shift is 3600 or 00 ( Note that any integral multiple of 2π or 3600 is equivalent to 00 phase shift).

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

10

The maximum phase shift provided by each CR section of the feedback network is limited to 900 for which RC → 0 ( θ = tan-1 1/ω CR for each RC section). R and C are adjusted such that each section provides a phase shift of 600 at the oscillation frequency. So, at least three CR sections will be required to produce a phase shift of 1800. In this connection, feedback signal is coupled through the feed back resistor R` in series with the amplifier stage input resistance ( Ri ) such that (R`+Ri = R). The frequency of oscillation is given by fo = 1/ [2π RC √ ( 6 + 4Rc / R)] The condition of oscillation is given by hfe(min) = 4Rc / R + 23 + 29.R / Rc

S. Kal,

IIT-Kharagpur

11

1. RC Phase Shift Oscillator using Op Amp

The output of the Op Amp is fed to a three stage RC network which provides the needed 1800 of phase shift (at an attenuation factor of 1/29) . If the Op Amp provides gain ( set by resistors R1 and Rf , A = - R1/ Rf ) of greater than 29, a loop gain greater than unity results and the circuit acts as an oscillator. The frequency of oscillation is given by, f0 = 1 / [ 2π RC√ 6 ]

S. Kal,

IIT-Kharagpur

12

1. Wien Bridge Oscillator

A balanced bridge is used as a feed back network, which is Wien bridge The active element is an op Amp which has a very large positive voltage gain (non-inverting mode) Av, negligible output resistance, very high input resistance. It is further assumed that Av is constant over the range of frequency of operation of this circuit.

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

13

**1. Wien Bridge Oscillator
**

Analysis of the bridge results, R3/R4 = R1/R2 + C1/C2 Frequency of oscillation is given by : f0 = 1 / (2π √ R1R2C1C2 ) In practical circuit, R1 = R2 = R ( say) and C1 = C2 = C (say) ∴ f0 = 1 / 2π RC and R3 /R4 = 2 or R3 = 2 R4 Thus a ratio of R3/R4 greater than 2 will provide sufficient loop gain for circuits to oscillate at the frequency, f0 = 1 / 2π RC. S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

14

4. High Frequency Tuned Oscillators

Hartley Oscillator f0 = 1/ (2 π √ LC)

**Colpitts Oscillator f0 = 1/ [2 π √ (LC1C2/(C1+C2))
**

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

15

5. Non – Sinusoidal Oscillators (Astable Multivibrator)

Circuit diagram

Waveform

S. Kal, IIT-Kharagpur

16

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