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Distributions

Group 2-

3DMT

**Properties of Normal Distributions
**

A continuous random variable has an infinite

number of possible values that can be represented

by an interval on the number line.

**Hours spent studying in a
**

day

0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24

**The time spent
**

studying can be

any number

between 0 and 24.

**The probability distribution of a continuous random
**

variable is called a continuous probability

distribution.

2

Normal curve x A normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution for a random variable. The graph of a normal distribution is called the normal curve or Gaussian curve. 3 .Properties of Normal Distributions The most important probability distribution in statistics is the normal distribution. x.

median. The mean. The normal curve approaches. The points at which the curve changes from curving upward to curving downward are called the inflection points. 4 . The total area under the curve is equal to one. but never touches the x-axis as it extends farther and farther away from the mean. 3.Properties of Normal Distributions Properties of a Normal Distribution 1. 2. 4. and mode are equal. The graph curves upward to the left of μ σ and to the right of μ + σ. the graph curves downward. Between μ σ and μ + σ (in the center of the curve). 5. The normal curve is bell-shaped and symmetric about the mean.

Properties of Normal Distributions Inflection points Total area = 1 x μ 3σ μ 2σ μσ μ μ+σ μ + 2σ μ + 3σ If x is a continuous random variable having a normal distribution with mean μ and standard deviation σ. ) σ 2 .14 y= e-(xμ.178 =3. you can graph a normal curve with the equation 1 2 2 eπ =2. σ 2π 5 .

5 Mean: μ = 6 Standard Standard deviation: σ deviation: σ 1. Inflection The mean gives points Inflection the location of points the line of symmetry. 6 .9 The standard deviation describes the spread of the data.Means and Standard Deviations A normal distribution can have any mean and any positive standard deviation.3 1. x x 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Mean: μ = 3.

The line of symmetry of curve B occurs at x = 9. so curve B has the greater standard deviation. Curve B is more spread out than curve A. Which curve has the greater mean? 2. 7 . Which curve has the greater standard deviation? B A x 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 The line of symmetry of curve A occurs at x = 5. Curve B has the greater mean.Means and Standard Deviations Example: 1.

8 .7 Height (in feet) The heights of the magnolia bushes are normally distributed with a mean height of about 8 feet and a standard deviation of about 0.Interpreting Graphs Example: The heights of fully grown magnolia bushes are normally distributed. What is the mean height of a fully grown magnolia bush? Estimate the standard deviation. x 6 7 8 9 10 σ 0. The curve represents the distribution. REMEMBER! The inflection points are one μ=8 standard deviation away from the mean.7 feet.

The horizontal scale corresponds to z- scores.Mean xμ- z= = . Standard deviation σ 9 .The Standard Normal Distribution The standard normal distribution is a normal distribution with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. z 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 Any value can be transformed into a z-score by using the formula Value .

The area that falls in the interval under the nonstandard normal curve (the x-values) is the same as the area under the standard normal curve (within the corresponding z- boundaries). 10 . z 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 After the formula is used to transform an x-value into a z-score. the Standard Normal Table in the Z table is used to find the cumulative area under the curve. the result will be the standard normal distribution.The Standard Normal Distribution If each data value of a normally distributed random variable x is transformed into a z-score.

11 .

3.49 z=0 Area is 0. The cumulative area is close to 0 for z-scores close to z = 3.49 Area is close to 0. The cumulative area is close to 1 for z-scores close to z = 3.The Standard Normal Table Properties of the Standard Normal Distribution 1. The cumulative area increases as the z-scores increase. Area is close to 1.49 z = 3.49. 4. 2. 12 . z 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 z = 3. The cumulative area for z = 0 is 0.5000.5000.

Sketch the standard normal curve and shade the appropriate area under the curve.23 is 0.Guidelines for Finding Areas Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve 1. 13 . Find the area by following the directions for each case shown. find the area that2.8907.23 1. To find the area to the left of z. Use the table to find the area for the z-score.corresponds The area to the to z in the Standard Normal Table. 2. a. z 0 1.left of z = 1.

The area to 3.23: 1.8907 = 0. 14 . use the Standard Normal Table to find the area that corresponds to z.1093.23 is 0.8907.Guidelines for Finding Areas Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve b. To find the area to the right of z. 2. Then subtract the area from 1.23 1. z 0 1. Use the table to find the area for the z-score. Subtract to find the area the left of z = to the right of z = 1. 1 0.

To find the area between two z-scores. Subtract to find the area of the region between the the left of z = 1.75 0 1.2266. 15 . find the area corresponding to each z-score in the Standard Normal Table.23 1.75 is 0. 4.2266 = 3.6641.8907 0.8907. Then subtract the smaller area 2.23 is two z-scores: 0. The area to the 0. 0. left of z = 0. Use the table to find the area for the z-score. z 0. The from the larger area to area.Guidelines for Finding Areas Finding Areas Under the Standard Normal Curve c.

33.33 0 From the Standard Normal Table.0099. 16 . the area is equal to 0.Guidelines for Finding Areas Example: Find the area under the standard normal curve to the left of z = 2. Always draw the curve! z 2.

94.1736 z 0 0.8264 = 0.94 From the Standard Normal Table. 17 . the area is equal to 0. Always draw the curve! 0.8264 1 0.1736.Guidelines for Finding Areas Example: Find the area under the standard normal curve to the right of z = 0.

98 and z = 1.8338.Guidelines for Finding Areas Example: Find the area under the standard normal curve between z = 1.07.0239 = 0.07 From the Standard Normal Table.8338 z 1.8577 0. 18 .0239 0.8577 the curve! 0.98 0 1. Always draw 0. the area is equal to 0.

Normal Distributions: Finding Probabilities .

μ = 10 P(x < σ=5 15) x μ =10 15 20 . is normally distributed.Probability and Normal Distributions If a random variable. you can find the probability that x will fall in a given interval by calculating the area under the normal curve for that interval. x.

8413 21 .Probability and Normal Distributions Normal Distribution Standard Normal μ = 10 Distribution μ=0 σ=5 σ=1 P(x < 15) P(z < 1) x z μ =1015 μ =0 1 Same area P(x < 15) = P(z < 1) = Shaded area under the c = 0.

find the probability that a student receives a test score less than 90.5) = 0. μ = 78 xμ.9332 22 .5 P(x < 90) = P(z < 1. 90-78 σ=8 z = σ 8 =1.5 P(x < 90) The probability that a x student receives a test μ =78 90 score less than 90 is z μ =0 ? 0.9332.Probability and Normal Distributions Example: The average on a statistics test was 78 with a standard deviation of 8. 1. If the test scores are normally distributed.

8106 = 23 .88 ? 0.88) = 1 P(z < 0. x -μ 85-78 μ = 78 z= = σ 8 σ=8 =0.Probability and Normal Distributions Example: The average on a statistics test was 78 with a standard deviation of 8.88 P(x > 85) The probability that a x student receives a test μ =7885 score greater than 85 is z μ =0 0. find the probability that a student receives a test score greater than than 85. If the test scores are normally distributed. P(x > 85) = P(z > 0.1894.875 0.88) = 1 0.

78 =0. 80 .Probability and Normal Distributions Example: The average on a statistics test was 78 with a standard deviation of 8. 1 σ 8 P(60 < x < 80) xμ.5865. P(60 < x < 80) = P(2.5865 24 .78 and -2.25) = 0.25 z2 = σ 8 μ = 78 σ=8 The probability that a x student receives a test 60 μ =7880 score between 60 and z 2.2580.25 ? 80 is 0.25 < z < 0. find the probability that a student receives a test score z = between xμ- = 60 = 60 .25) = P(z < 0.0122 = 0.25 ? μ =00.5987 0.25) P(z < 2. If the test scores are normally distributed.

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