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Protective Packaging and

Materials Handling

Product Characteristics
 Physical Characteristics
 Density of bulk materials
 Ability to withstand exposure to elements
 Respiration
 Chemical Characteristics
 Incompatible products
 Products requiring chemicals
 Characteristics must be made known to
consumers

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Product Characteristics
 Hazardous Cargo
 Explosives
 Compressed gases
 Flammable liquids
 Oxidizers
 Poisons
 Radioactive materials
 Corrosive materials

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Product Characteristics  Environmental Protection  Reduce packing materials used  Use packaging materials that are more environmentally friendly with recycled content  Use reusable containers  Retain or support services that collect used packaging and recycle it 5-4 .

Packaging  Building-blocks concept  Smallest unit is consumer package  Each unit is stacked within the next larger one to protect the product  Promotional functions of boxes 5-5 .

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Packaging  Protective functions of packaging  Enclose materials  Restrain materials from undesired movement  Separate contents to prevent undesired contact  Cushion contents from outside vibrations and shocks  Support the weight of identical containers stacked above  Position the contents to provide maximum protection  Provide for uniform weight distribution  Provide exterior surface for labeling  Be tamperproof  Be safe for consumers or others 5-13 .

Packaging  Package testing  Vibrations  Dropping  Horizontal impacts  Compression  Overexposure to extreme temperatures or moisture  Rough handling 5-14 .

Packaging  Designing a package requires 3 types of information  Severity of the distribution environment  Fragility of the product  Performance characteristics of various cushion materials 5-15 .

The term “unitization” describes this type of handling. used in closed- loop system  Should be less than 50 pounds—difficult with plastic  Metal also used in closed loop systems 5-16 .  Basic unit is a pallet or skid  Lumber is expensive so firms want pallets returned  Provides cushioning effect in transport  Quality of pallets varies widely  Chep USA rents pallets in wood or plastic. Unit Loads in Materials Handling  A unit load is one or more boxes secured to a pallet or skid.

Figure 15-25: The Building-Blocks Concept of Packaging: A Summary 5-17 .

Unit Loads in Materials Handling  Slip sheet can be used in place of pallet  Saves vertical room  Weighs far less than pallet  Requires more care when moving 5-18 .

Unit Loads in Materials Handling  Advantages  Disadvantages  Additional protection  Provides large quantity  Pilferage is discouraged that sometimes is of limited value to resellers  More fragile items can be dealing in smaller stacked inside the load quantities  Mechanical devices can  Must use mechanical or be substituted for hand automated device to labor move 5-19 .

Figure 5-19: A Battery Powered Lift Truck Used for Stock Picking 5-20 .

Unit Loads in Materials Handling  An intermodal container holds the unit load  Interchangeable among rail. truck. and water carriers  Air carriers usually use irregular shaped containers made to fit fuselage 5-21 .

Figure 5-21: Various Types of Intermodal Surface Containers 5-22 .

Materials Handling  Materialshandling refers to how the materials or products are handled physically.  How the products are handled depends on whether they are packaged or in bulk  Handling may change the characteristics of the product 5-23 .

less flexible  Unit load – handling materials in  Flexibility large blocks 5-24 . relationship to other systems  Maximize space utilization and physical limitations  Ergonomics – protect workers  Requirements – expected from difficult or repetitive functions performance  Energy efficiency  Integrated system – coordination of all storage & handling systems  Ecology – environmental friendly  Standardization – of package  Mechanization – substitute sizes machines for humans  Just-in-time – products not moved  Automation – very capital until needed intensive. Materials Handling Principles  Orientation – understand entire  Minimum travel system.

Materials Handling Principles  Simplification – avoid overly  Systems flow complicated systems  Layout  Gravity – rely on gravity to move  Cost materials when possible  Maintenance  Safety  Obsolescence  Computerization  Team solution  Systems flow 5-25 .

Problems in Materials Handling 5-26 .

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