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K EB U D AYA A N

K O N S EP D A N
C A K U PA N N YA

Semiarto A. Purwanto

Chapter 2 in Cultural Anthropology, Appreciating Cultural Diversity

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is that complex whole which includes knowledge. art. ethnographic sense. belief. custom. taken in its broad.W H AT IS CU LTU RE? Tylor: Culture or civilization. morals. law. and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society .

Som e issues on culture  Culture Is Learned  Culture Is Symbolic  Culture Is Shared  Culture and Nature  Culture Is All-Encompassing  Culture Is Integrated  Culture Can Be Adaptive and Maladaptive .

.CU LTU RE’S EVO LU TIO N ARY BASIS The human capacity for culture has an evolutionary basis that extends back at least 2. based on observation of tool use and manufacture by apes).6 million years—to early toolmakers whose products survive in the archeological record (and most probably even further back.

.What We Share with Other Primates?  ability to learn from experience and change behavior as a result  humans do employ tools much more than any other animal does  hunting How We Differ from Other Primates?  Cooperation and sharing are much more developed among humans.  humans maximize their reproductive success by mating throughout the year  Marriage : exogamy and kinship systems.

 Generality : regularities that occur in different times and places but not in all cultures  Particularity: patterns of culture .UN IVERSALITY.G EN ERALITY. AN D PARTICULARITY  Universality  Biological and psycological universality  Social universals: life in groups and in some kind of family.

CU LTU RE AN D TH E IN D IVID U AL: AG EN CY & PRACTICE  Levels of Culture: international. subculture  Ethnocentrism. and Human Rights . Cultural Relativism. national.

 Independent invention  the process by which humans innovate.M ECH A N ISM S O F CU LTU R A L CH A N G E  Diffusion  borrowing of traits between cultures.  Acculturation  the exchange of cultural features that results when groups have continuous firsthand contact. creatively finding solutions to problems .

G LO B A LIZATIO N The term globalization encompasses a series of processes. working to promote change in a world in which nations and people are increasingly interlinked and mutually dependent . including diffusion and acculturation.