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STABILITY AND PROTECTION

RELATED ISSUES IN POWER


SYSTEMS

K.R.Padiyar
Introduction

In power systems, the protection can be


divided into two aspects: equipment and
system protection
The equipment includes generator with its
controllers, transmission lines, transformers,
busbars, substations
Protection for the safety of the equipment or
component essentially involves over-current
or overvoltage protection
K.R.Padiyar
Introduction

The role of the system protection is to


preserve the integrity of the system, prevent
loss of load and cascading outages leading
to widespread blackouts
Frequency or voltage actuated load shedding

Controlled system separation, modification of


voltage regulator characteristics are some of
the features of system protection
K.R.Padiyar
Outline of the lecture

We look at the basic features of power


systems and the complexities of system
operation
Review the system states defined by
(DyLiacco, Fink and Carlsen) and control
issues related to them
Specifically look at loss of synchronism (LOS)
and undamped low frequency oscillations

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Basic Features of Power Systems

Generation is Limited
Transmission bottlenecks due to
environmental and resource constraints
Restructured/deregulated operation has
introduced uncertainties
Technological solutions and effective control
strategies can help

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Complexities in System Operation

1. In steady state, all generators have to


operate synchronously.
2. Fast and efficient energy storage devices
are not yet available for practical use.
3. The electrical power flows at speeds
approaching that of light.
NOTE: 2 and 3 imply that at any time the
generated power equals load plus losses

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Complexities

4. Most transmission lines are AC and have no


control options unless introduced using
FACTS Controllers. HVDC links are
controllable, but are limited in number.
5. The system is very large, complex and
spread over a wide geographic area
NOTE: The above implies need for
decentralized or hierarchical control
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Complexities

6. The load variations with time are not precisely


known and require forecasting.
7. There are limits on the rate of change of
generator output depending on the prime
mover characteristics.
8. Power flows in AC transmission lines are also
determined by KVL in addition to injections.
Deregulation has increased uncertainties in
injection.
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Complexities

9. The AC lines generate or consume reactive


power depending on the power flow.
Reactive power control is necessary to
regulate voltages and ensure stability.
10. Loss of synchronous operation caused by
small or large disturbances leads to system
break up and power blackouts. It is essential
to stabilize the system for robust operation

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Routes to System Collapse

Transientinstability that leads to tripping of


generating units and islanding
Undamped low frequency oscillations(0.2-
2Hz) that lead to loss of synchronism
Voltage collapse at load buses although
generators remain in synchronism

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System Collapse

LOS is called as angle instability as compared to


voltage instability (leading to voltage collapse)
However, LOS is also accompanied by large voltage
variations
Small spontaneous oscillations (which the operator
cannot track) indicate instability of the equilibrium
(operating) point. In some cases the operation may
persist and will reduce the available transfer
capacity( ATC) of the AC transmission network
However, in many cases, the oscillation grow leading
to LOS

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System Collapse

Small oscillations should be a major concern and


tackled effectively using modulation of voltage
regulators in generating stations (using PSS) and
shunt FACTS/HVDC controllers and or modulation of
current/power in series FACTS/HVDC controllers
Voltage instability is affected by loss of voltage
regulation in generators and presence of voltage
regulation in loads. Essentially it is due to inadequate
power transfer capacity of the transmission network

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Recent Developments in Technology

FACTS Controllers
Custom Power Devices
VSC based HVDC Transmission
Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS)
based on GPS technology
Application of Sensor Networks

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FACTS Controllers

Concept proposed by Dr.Hingorani in 1988


Flexible AC Transmission System(FACTS)
Alternating Current Transmission System
incorporating power electronic-based and other
static controllers to enhance controllability and
increase power transfer capability
FACTS controllers are specific equipment that
provide control of one or more parameters

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FACTS Controllers

Shunt Connected Controllers(for regulating bus


voltage or controlling injected reactive power)
Static Var Compensator(SVC)
Static (synchronous) Compensator(STATCOM)
Series Connected Controllers(for power control)
Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor(TCSC)
Static Synchronous Series Compensator(SSSC)
Interphase Power Controller(IPC)

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FACTS Controllers

Two or more converter FACTS:


Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)
Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)
Convertible Static Compensator (CSC)
In a UPFC, one converter is shunt connected while
the second is series connected. Is most versatile.It
can control 3 parameters- voltage at a bus, active
and reactive power flow in a line

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Unified Power Flow Controller

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Equivalent Circuit for UPFC

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UPFC Control and Constraint
Equations

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Constraint Equations and Control
Variables for other FACTS Controllers

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A Two Converter Interline Power
Flow Controller

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Convertible Static Compensator (CSC)

This is a flexible 2 converter configuration


that can be arranged to act as (a) one or two
STATCOMs (b) one or two SSSCs, a
UPFC in either of the two lines, (d) an IPFC.
A CSC made up of 100MVA converters was
commissioned at the 345 kV Marcy
substation of NYPA system in New York
state,USA.

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Single Line Diagram of CSC

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Wide Area Measurement System

Synchronized measurements over a wide


area using GPS systems. Phasor
Measurement Units (PMU) in different
substations enable computation of P, Q and
phase angles
Applications include line and system
protection, dynamic state estimation and
control

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Application of Sensor networks

Measurement of temperature, stress, strain


vibration and electric field enables monitoring
of conductors, insulation and towers in
overhead transmission lines. Wireless sensor
networks can ensure security of lines which
are a critical resource
Dynamic rating of transmission lines is
feasible with monitoring ambient temperature

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System Operating States

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Control Objectives

In Normal Secure State: Power/Frequency


(P/F) and Reactive Power/Voltage (Q/V)
control
Insecure State: Preventive control (Infeasible
in systems with power shortages)
Emergency State: Emergency control to
remove limit violations and stabilize the
system
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Control Objectives

In Extremis State: Control to cut losses and


protect the system (Note: the system has
already separated into islands that have to
be protected to prevent further collapse)
In Restorative State: Resynchronization to
restore loads and system integrity

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Comments

Indeveloped countries, preventive control


has been adopted to enhance system
security
However, this only refers to static security
which can be assessed by contingency
analysis using simplified power flow
This ignores dynamic security issues caused
by loss of synchronism (LOS)
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Comments

It is difficult to handle dynamic security issues by


system simulation due to complexity
Parallel processing techniques have been used,
computers have become more powerful, but the
modeling issues are insurmountable
System is not invariant as the lines, generators may
be out of service, new equipment is added and load
keeps changing
Transient energy function (TEF) techniques have
been tried, but not very successful

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Preventive Control- A New Approach

Itis necessary to have a new approach in


defining preventive control taking into
account the dynamic aspects
Inside the feasible region of system
operation defined by TTC/ATC, it is essential
that the operating (equilibrium) point should
be stable
Preventive control should ensure this stability

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Improving Small Signal Stability

It is possible to damp low frequency oscillations


using Power System Stabilizers (PSS) for
modulating generator terminal voltages
It is also feasible to utilize power modulation in
HVDC links and in AC links using series FACTS
controllers
Reactive power modulation in shunt FACTS
controllers can also help in damping oscillations

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Emergency Control- A New Approach

So far no emergency controls (Remedial


Action or Special Protection Schemes etc)
are in place or their effectiveness is not
guaranteed due to changing nature of the
system
The emergency control has to act fast and
result in guaranteed success to achieve the
target of self-healing grids

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Loss of Synchronism (LOS)

Loss of synchronism in a power system is


governed by the following propositions:
Proposition 1 (Pavella et al. 2000): However
complex, the mechanism of loss of
synchronism in a power system originates
from the irrevocable separation of its
machines into two groups.

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Basic Concepts

Proposition 2 (Padiyar. 2013): There is a unique


cutset (called as the critical cutset) consisting of
transmission lines, transformers (or series
elements), connecting the two groups of machines
that separate, across which, the angles (differences
between the angles of the terminal buses of each
member of the cutset) become unbounded.

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Basic Concepts

Xue et al. (1989) proposed the (Extended Equal Area


Criterion(EEAC) based on Proposition 1. In this
method, the system is reduced to the SMIB system
and EAC is applied to infer the stability properties of
the original system. Further developments have led
to SIME, which is a transient stability method based
on generalized SMIB. It is a hybrid technique
involving simulation and EEAC.

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Basic Concepts

Unlike Proposition 1, which is justified based on


observations of a large number of system stability
studies, it is possible to prove Proposition 2. It is
interesting to note that there is only one and unique
outset that separates the system into two areas . As
an example, consider the 17-generator, 162-bus
IEEE test system. The swing curves for the critically
unstable three-phase fault at bus 129, which is
cleared by tripping the line 5129, are shown in the
following Figure.

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Swing curves for the 17 generator
IEEE (Stability) test system

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A Case Study of IEEE 17 Generator
System

The system separates into two groups; group A consists of seven


generators connected at buses 6, 73, 76, 114, 121, 130, and
131. There are 19 lines in the critical cutset. The angles across
these lines are plotted in the figure. For the 10-generator New
England test system, for several faults at different buses,
generator 2 (which is the largest) separates from the rest and the
critical cutset consists of two lines 1112 and 1819 (Padiyar
and Krishna 2006). It is obvious that even for the 10-generator
system involving the separation of one generator from the rest,
there can be several possible cutsets. However, there is only one
unique critical cutset, where the angles across the members
(made of series elements) become unbounded.

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Angles across the lines forming the
cutset (17 generator IEEE test system)

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Process of system separation into 4
groups following instability

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Swing Curves of 7 advanced
generators (group A) following
controlled system separation

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Swing Curves of remaining 10
generators (group B) following
Controlled System Separation

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Swing Curves of generators in group A
after tripping generator at 114

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Swing Curves of generators in group B
after tripping generator at 118

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A Network Analogy

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A Network Analogy

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A Network Analogy

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A Network Analogy

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A Network Analogy

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A Network Analogy

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Comments

The network analogy provides the basis to


develop analytics to detect on-line, LOS.
It also provides tools for developing
algorithms for optimal damping control (for
small oscillations) and nonlinear control for
enhancing stability in the first swing and
damping nonlinear oscillations following large
disturbances.

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An Emergency Control Strategy

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A two machine system

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Control Strategy

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Control Strategy

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Control Algorithm

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Power Angle Curve for a two machine
system

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Control Strategy in Multi-machine
Systems

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Separation into Two Areas

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A Case Study of the 10 generator
system

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A Case Study of the 10 generator
system

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Swing curves with control action

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System energy variation

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Comments

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Conclusions

A knowledge of the cutsets enables optimal


location of the FACTS controllers
The emergency control helps not only in
stabilizing the system in the first swing, but
also damping the system oscillations so that
the post fault equilibrium is reached fast.
The control requires measurement of power
flows and bus frequencies
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References

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