2 views

Uploaded by Hemang S. Pandya

© All Rights Reserved

- Digital Simulation of VFT Applications between Power System Networks
- Comparative Evaluation of HVDC and HVAC Transmission Systems
- 10.1.1.63
- Coordinated Static and Dynamic Reactive Power Planning Against Power System Voltage Stability Related Problems
- Grid Code
- 57
- IEEE Std 1277-2000.pdf
- Notatki SEE Przyszlosci
- SP AusNet 2014-17 Revenue Proposal
- Book Review March 2010
- 249167
- Tecsol
- Enhanced Power System Protection
- Power Grid
- IMPLEMENTATION OF BACTERIAL FORAGING ALGORITHM FOR ENHANCING VOLTAGE PROFILE AND LOSS MINIMIZATION USING STATIC VAR COMPARATOR
- Powercor Draft Proposal 2021-2025
- LPT DESSE.docx
- Act Ewa Gl Route Env Report
- 06099783.pdf
- About Reactive Power

You are on page 1of 67

SYSTEMS

K.R.Padiyar

Introduction

divided into two aspects: equipment and

system protection

The equipment includes generator with its

controllers, transmission lines, transformers,

busbars, substations

Protection for the safety of the equipment or

component essentially involves over-current

or overvoltage protection

K.R.Padiyar

Introduction

preserve the integrity of the system, prevent

loss of load and cascading outages leading

to widespread blackouts

Frequency or voltage actuated load shedding

voltage regulator characteristics are some of

the features of system protection

K.R.Padiyar

Outline of the lecture

systems and the complexities of system

operation

Review the system states defined by

(DyLiacco, Fink and Carlsen) and control

issues related to them

Specifically look at loss of synchronism (LOS)

and undamped low frequency oscillations

K.R.Padiyar

Basic Features of Power Systems

Generation is Limited

Transmission bottlenecks due to

environmental and resource constraints

Restructured/deregulated operation has

introduced uncertainties

Technological solutions and effective control

strategies can help

K.R.Padiyar

Complexities in System Operation

operate synchronously.

2. Fast and efficient energy storage devices

are not yet available for practical use.

3. The electrical power flows at speeds

approaching that of light.

NOTE: 2 and 3 imply that at any time the

generated power equals load plus losses

K.R.Padiyar

Complexities

control options unless introduced using

FACTS Controllers. HVDC links are

controllable, but are limited in number.

5. The system is very large, complex and

spread over a wide geographic area

NOTE: The above implies need for

decentralized or hierarchical control

K.R.Padiyar

Complexities

known and require forecasting.

7. There are limits on the rate of change of

generator output depending on the prime

mover characteristics.

8. Power flows in AC transmission lines are also

determined by KVL in addition to injections.

Deregulation has increased uncertainties in

injection.

K.R.Padiyar

Complexities

power depending on the power flow.

Reactive power control is necessary to

regulate voltages and ensure stability.

10. Loss of synchronous operation caused by

small or large disturbances leads to system

break up and power blackouts. It is essential

to stabilize the system for robust operation

K.R.Padiyar

Routes to System Collapse

generating units and islanding

Undamped low frequency oscillations(0.2-

2Hz) that lead to loss of synchronism

Voltage collapse at load buses although

generators remain in synchronism

K.R.Padiyar

System Collapse

voltage instability (leading to voltage collapse)

However, LOS is also accompanied by large voltage

variations

Small spontaneous oscillations (which the operator

cannot track) indicate instability of the equilibrium

(operating) point. In some cases the operation may

persist and will reduce the available transfer

capacity( ATC) of the AC transmission network

However, in many cases, the oscillation grow leading

to LOS

K.R.Padiyar

System Collapse

tackled effectively using modulation of voltage

regulators in generating stations (using PSS) and

shunt FACTS/HVDC controllers and or modulation of

current/power in series FACTS/HVDC controllers

Voltage instability is affected by loss of voltage

regulation in generators and presence of voltage

regulation in loads. Essentially it is due to inadequate

power transfer capacity of the transmission network

K.R.Padiyar

Recent Developments in Technology

FACTS Controllers

Custom Power Devices

VSC based HVDC Transmission

Wide Area Measurement System (WAMS)

based on GPS technology

Application of Sensor Networks

K.R.Padiyar

FACTS Controllers

Flexible AC Transmission System(FACTS)

Alternating Current Transmission System

incorporating power electronic-based and other

static controllers to enhance controllability and

increase power transfer capability

FACTS controllers are specific equipment that

provide control of one or more parameters

K.R.Padiyar

FACTS Controllers

voltage or controlling injected reactive power)

Static Var Compensator(SVC)

Static (synchronous) Compensator(STATCOM)

Series Connected Controllers(for power control)

Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor(TCSC)

Static Synchronous Series Compensator(SSSC)

Interphase Power Controller(IPC)

K.R.Padiyar

FACTS Controllers

Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC)

Interline Power Flow Controller (IPFC)

Convertible Static Compensator (CSC)

In a UPFC, one converter is shunt connected while

the second is series connected. Is most versatile.It

can control 3 parameters- voltage at a bus, active

and reactive power flow in a line

K.R.Padiyar

Unified Power Flow Controller

K.R.Padiyar

Equivalent Circuit for UPFC

K.R.Padiyar

UPFC Control and Constraint

Equations

K.R.Padiyar

Constraint Equations and Control

Variables for other FACTS Controllers

K.R.Padiyar

A Two Converter Interline Power

Flow Controller

K.R.Padiyar

Convertible Static Compensator (CSC)

that can be arranged to act as (a) one or two

STATCOMs (b) one or two SSSCs, a

UPFC in either of the two lines, (d) an IPFC.

A CSC made up of 100MVA converters was

commissioned at the 345 kV Marcy

substation of NYPA system in New York

state,USA.

K.R.Padiyar

Single Line Diagram of CSC

K.R.Padiyar

Wide Area Measurement System

area using GPS systems. Phasor

Measurement Units (PMU) in different

substations enable computation of P, Q and

phase angles

Applications include line and system

protection, dynamic state estimation and

control

K.R.Padiyar

Application of Sensor networks

vibration and electric field enables monitoring

of conductors, insulation and towers in

overhead transmission lines. Wireless sensor

networks can ensure security of lines which

are a critical resource

Dynamic rating of transmission lines is

feasible with monitoring ambient temperature

K.R.Padiyar

System Operating States

K.R.Padiyar

Control Objectives

(P/F) and Reactive Power/Voltage (Q/V)

control

Insecure State: Preventive control (Infeasible

in systems with power shortages)

Emergency State: Emergency control to

remove limit violations and stabilize the

system

K.R.Padiyar

Control Objectives

protect the system (Note: the system has

already separated into islands that have to

be protected to prevent further collapse)

In Restorative State: Resynchronization to

restore loads and system integrity

K.R.Padiyar

Comments

has been adopted to enhance system

security

However, this only refers to static security

which can be assessed by contingency

analysis using simplified power flow

This ignores dynamic security issues caused

by loss of synchronism (LOS)

K.R.Padiyar

Comments

system simulation due to complexity

Parallel processing techniques have been used,

computers have become more powerful, but the

modeling issues are insurmountable

System is not invariant as the lines, generators may

be out of service, new equipment is added and load

keeps changing

Transient energy function (TEF) techniques have

been tried, but not very successful

K.R.Padiyar

Preventive Control- A New Approach

defining preventive control taking into

account the dynamic aspects

Inside the feasible region of system

operation defined by TTC/ATC, it is essential

that the operating (equilibrium) point should

be stable

Preventive control should ensure this stability

K.R.Padiyar

Improving Small Signal Stability

using Power System Stabilizers (PSS) for

modulating generator terminal voltages

It is also feasible to utilize power modulation in

HVDC links and in AC links using series FACTS

controllers

Reactive power modulation in shunt FACTS

controllers can also help in damping oscillations

K.R.Padiyar

Emergency Control- A New Approach

Action or Special Protection Schemes etc)

are in place or their effectiveness is not

guaranteed due to changing nature of the

system

The emergency control has to act fast and

result in guaranteed success to achieve the

target of self-healing grids

K.R.Padiyar

Loss of Synchronism (LOS)

governed by the following propositions:

Proposition 1 (Pavella et al. 2000): However

complex, the mechanism of loss of

synchronism in a power system originates

from the irrevocable separation of its

machines into two groups.

K.R.Padiyar

Basic Concepts

cutset (called as the critical cutset) consisting of

transmission lines, transformers (or series

elements), connecting the two groups of machines

that separate, across which, the angles (differences

between the angles of the terminal buses of each

member of the cutset) become unbounded.

K.R.Padiyar

Basic Concepts

Criterion(EEAC) based on Proposition 1. In this

method, the system is reduced to the SMIB system

and EAC is applied to infer the stability properties of

the original system. Further developments have led

to SIME, which is a transient stability method based

on generalized SMIB. It is a hybrid technique

involving simulation and EEAC.

K.R.Padiyar

Basic Concepts

observations of a large number of system stability

studies, it is possible to prove Proposition 2. It is

interesting to note that there is only one and unique

outset that separates the system into two areas . As

an example, consider the 17-generator, 162-bus

IEEE test system. The swing curves for the critically

unstable three-phase fault at bus 129, which is

cleared by tripping the line 5129, are shown in the

following Figure.

K.R.Padiyar

Swing curves for the 17 generator

IEEE (Stability) test system

K.R.Padiyar

A Case Study of IEEE 17 Generator

System

generators connected at buses 6, 73, 76, 114, 121, 130, and

131. There are 19 lines in the critical cutset. The angles across

these lines are plotted in the figure. For the 10-generator New

England test system, for several faults at different buses,

generator 2 (which is the largest) separates from the rest and the

critical cutset consists of two lines 1112 and 1819 (Padiyar

and Krishna 2006). It is obvious that even for the 10-generator

system involving the separation of one generator from the rest,

there can be several possible cutsets. However, there is only one

unique critical cutset, where the angles across the members

(made of series elements) become unbounded.

K.R.Padiyar

Angles across the lines forming the

cutset (17 generator IEEE test system)

K.R.Padiyar

Process of system separation into 4

groups following instability

K.R.Padiyar

Swing Curves of 7 advanced

generators (group A) following

controlled system separation

K.R.Padiyar

Swing Curves of remaining 10

generators (group B) following

Controlled System Separation

K.R.Padiyar

Swing Curves of generators in group A

after tripping generator at 114

K.R.Padiyar

Swing Curves of generators in group B

after tripping generator at 118

K.R.Padiyar

A Network Analogy

K.R.Padiyar

A Network Analogy

K.R.Padiyar

A Network Analogy

K.R.Padiyar

A Network Analogy

K.R.Padiyar

A Network Analogy

K.R.Padiyar

A Network Analogy

K.R.Padiyar

Comments

develop analytics to detect on-line, LOS.

It also provides tools for developing

algorithms for optimal damping control (for

small oscillations) and nonlinear control for

enhancing stability in the first swing and

damping nonlinear oscillations following large

disturbances.

K.R.Padiyar

An Emergency Control Strategy

K.R.Padiyar

A two machine system

K.R.Padiyar

Control Strategy

K.R.Padiyar

Control Strategy

K.R.Padiyar

Control Algorithm

K.R.Padiyar

Power Angle Curve for a two machine

system

K.R.Padiyar

Control Strategy in Multi-machine

Systems

K.R.Padiyar

Separation into Two Areas

K.R.Padiyar

A Case Study of the 10 generator

system

K.R.Padiyar

A Case Study of the 10 generator

system

K.R.Padiyar

Swing curves with control action

K.R.Padiyar

System energy variation

K.R.Padiyar

Comments

K.R.Padiyar

Conclusions

location of the FACTS controllers

The emergency control helps not only in

stabilizing the system in the first swing, but

also damping the system oscillations so that

the post fault equilibrium is reached fast.

The control requires measurement of power

flows and bus frequencies

K.R.Padiyar

References

K.R.Padiyar

- Digital Simulation of VFT Applications between Power System NetworksUploaded byidescitation
- Comparative Evaluation of HVDC and HVAC Transmission SystemsUploaded byJithin Sreenivasan
- 10.1.1.63Uploaded bySaijie Sim
- Coordinated Static and Dynamic Reactive Power Planning Against Power System Voltage Stability Related ProblemsUploaded bywvargas926
- Grid CodeUploaded byAzaad Ius
- 57Uploaded bywebambulist
- IEEE Std 1277-2000.pdfUploaded byEdwin Capdepomt
- Notatki SEE PrzyszlosciUploaded byDésiré Dauphin Rasolomampionona
- Book Review March 2010Uploaded bynooralhud
- SP AusNet 2014-17 Revenue ProposalUploaded bypnrahman
- 249167Uploaded bysajuaanalsa
- TecsolUploaded byCao Minh Trí
- Enhanced Power System ProtectionUploaded byVankurd
- Power GridUploaded byindhu.cs
- IMPLEMENTATION OF BACTERIAL FORAGING ALGORITHM FOR ENHANCING VOLTAGE PROFILE AND LOSS MINIMIZATION USING STATIC VAR COMPARATORUploaded byInternational Journal for Research and Development in Engineering
- Powercor Draft Proposal 2021-2025Uploaded byAlexander Darling
- LPT DESSE.docxUploaded byOwen Bawlor Manoz
- Act Ewa Gl Route Env ReportUploaded byvilensky3cediel
- 06099783.pdfUploaded byMani Ashouri
- About Reactive PowerUploaded byMohammad Khairul Halim Rimon
- 2_sem_ME_Elect_Power.pdfUploaded byVishal Dibya
- QB APS IIUploaded byJay Thakar
- zfii1Uploaded bySagar Gadhia
- 05735924Uploaded byyesid
- Series Capacitors are generally applied to compensate the excessive inductance of long transmission lines.docxUploaded bytamann2004
- Starting PagesUploaded by9897856218
- Power System Protection SwitchgearUploaded bySaurabh Verma
- 5- System Reliability and Ancillary ServicesUploaded bySari M.I
- 02Uploaded byDante Filho
- download.pdfUploaded byvishnumdu22

- Towards an information infrastructure.pdfUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 151611-2150908-EPS-IUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 151605-2150908-EPS-I.pdfUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 151704-2150908-EPS-I.pdfUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 151711-2150908-EPS-I.pdfUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 151512-2150908-EPS-I.pdfUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- Stability & Protection Issues.pptUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 08. INDIA Baseline_TR_low.pdfUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 51 Ch21B CoulombsLaw Electric FieldUploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- 111Uploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- MatlabUploaded byVenkata Ramana
- 5 Mercados Unbundling SessionUploaded bydinesh4148
- finally to be doneUploaded byAbhinav Tripathi
- E-1[2]Uploaded byHemang S. Pandya
- Etienne_thesisUploaded byHemang S. Pandya

- Standard for ELECT DesignUploaded bywado11
- iso5852sUploaded byGhasem A. Javid
- Seven Year Electricity Planning Statement-Main-report (1)Uploaded by2003vinay
- Implementación de Redes Inteligentes en IndiaUploaded byEdna López
- ENP Power Systems MCQ.docxUploaded bysalman bhatti
- AC-DC harmonics HVDCUploaded byJayakrishnan Marangatt
- Energetica India 01Uploaded bytb77
- Electrical QuestionnaireUploaded bySneha Mittal
- Electric and Static ControlUploaded byavinashavi93
- Commutation Techniques PDFUploaded byBonnie
- Embedded Systems, Power Electronics,Power Systems, Bio Medical, Image Processing, VLSI, Cloud Computing, Data Mining, Android IEEE Project Titles 2016-2017 & Mechanical Project TitlesUploaded bysathish
- Pauli Development IEEE 1988Uploaded byeswar110582
- 5150 Full DocumentUploaded byHaile Meles
- LAT-05 GL Pak Matiari Lahore Transmission Company 19-02-2018.pdfUploaded byMubashir Hussain
- mcdUploaded byKỳ Thủ
- Power Electronics Lec 6 - TRIAC GTOUploaded byUmer Hanif
- POWER UPGRADING OF TRANSMISSION LINE BY COMBINING AC-DC TRANSMISSIONUploaded byShailesh Senta
- EE986 PresentationUploaded byArshad Ali
- Qbank Capacitor BankUploaded byDANIEL3991
- pwrtrandistUploaded byswq
- 8.pdfUploaded byGopinath B L Naidu
- flexible AC transmission systemsUploaded bySusmita Panda
- Hyosung - Introduction of Hyosung STATCOMUploaded byGustavo Aguayo
- Adaptive Droop Control for Effective Power Sharing in Multi-Terminal DC MTDC GridsUploaded byAnkit Sakhuja
- ETT_vs_LTTUploaded byRobert Posligua
- Power Electronics QuizUploaded byHardeep Singh Kang
- 07556717Uploaded byAtiqMarwat
- List of International Electrotechnical Commission Standards - WikipediaUploaded bysaiyedasad
- Impedance Model of Different Network ElementsUploaded byVander Kum Eugène
- En51 Power Quality on Electric Ships PSCADUploaded bymaria_bustelo_2