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Fatigue Failure

It has been recognized that a metal subjected


to a repetitive or fluctuating stress will fail at a
stress much lower than that required to cause
failure on a single application of load. Failures
occurring under conditions of dynamic loading
are called fatigue failures.
Fatigue failure is characterized by three stages
Crack Initiation
Crack Propagation
Final Fracture

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 1


Jack hammer component,
shows no yielding before
fracture.

Crack initiation site

Fracture zone
Propagation zone, striation
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 2
VW crank shaft fatigue failure due to cyclic bending and torsional stresses

Propagation
zone, striations

Crack initiation site Fracture area

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 3


928 Porsche timing pulley

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU Crack started at the fillet 4


Fracture surface of a failed bolt. The
fracture surface exhibited beach marks,
which is characteristic of a fatigue failure.

1.0-in. diameter steel pin from


agricultural equipment.
Material; AISI/SAE 4140 low
allow carbon steel

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 5


bicycle crank spider arm

This long term fatigue crack in a high quality component took a


considerable time to nucleate from a machining mark between the spider
arms on this highly stressed surface. However once initiated propagation
was rapid and accelerating as shown in the increased spacing of the 'beach
marks' on the surface caused by the advancing fatigue crack.
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 6
Crank shaft

Gear tooth failure

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 7


Hawaii (1988), Aloha
Flight 243, a Boeing
737, an upper part of
the plane's cabin
area rips off in mid-
flight.

Metal fatigue
compounded by
corrosion

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 8


Fracture Surface Characteristics

Mode of fracture Typical surface characteristics


Ductile Cup and Cone
Dimples
Dull Surface
Inclusion at the bottom of the dimple

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 9


Brittle Fracture
The cracks usually travel so fast that you can't tell when the material is about to
break. In other words, there is very little plastic deformation before failure occurs.
In most cases, this is the worst type of fracture because you can't repair visible
damage in a part or structure before it breaks.

Cleavage fractures

Grain Boundary cracking

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 10


Brittle fracture surfaces

slightly bumpy crack surface

Chevron Fracture Surface


Brittle fracture in a mild steel (shinny surface)

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 11


Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 12
Low temperatures can severely
embrittle steels. The Liberty ships,
produced in great numbers during the
WWII were the first all-welded ships. A
significant number of ships failed by
catastrophic fracture. Fatigue cracks
nucleated at the corners of square
hatches and propagated rapidly by
brittle fracture.

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 13


Striations (beach markes
Fatigue Initiation sites
Propagation zone
Final fracture zone

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 14


Fatigue Failure Type of Fluctuating Stresses
a = max
max = - min
a = Alternating Stress
m = Mean Stress

Alternating stress
max min
a = 2
min = 0
Mean stress
a = m = max / 2 max min
+
m = 2

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 15


Fatigue Failure, S-N Curve

Test specimen geometry for R.R. Moore


rotating beam machine. The surface is
polished in the axial direction. A constant
bending load is applied.

Typical testing apparatus, pure bending

Motor

Load

Rotating beam machine applies fully reverse bending stress

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 16


The standard machine operates at an
adjustable speed of 500 RPM to 10,000
RPM. At the nominal rate of 10,000
RPM, the R. R. Moore machine Bending moment capacity
20 in-lb to 200 in-lb
completes 600,000 cycles per hour,
14,400,000 cycles per day.
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 17
Fatigue Failure, S-N Curve
(Strength vs. # of cycles to failure)

N < 103 N > 103

Finite life

Infinite life

Se

Se = endurance limit of the specimen

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 18


Relationship Between Endurance Limit
and Ultimate Strength
Steel
Steel
0.5Sut Sut 200 ksi (1400 MPa)
Se = 100 ksi Sut > 200 ksi
700 MPa Sut > 1400 MPa

Cast iron Cast iron

0.4Sut Sut < 60 ksi (400 MPa)


Se = 24 ksi Sut 60 ksi
160 MPa Sut < 400 MPa
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 19
Relationship Between Endurance Limit and
Ultimate Strength
Aluminum
Aluminum alloys
0.4Sut Sut < 48 ksi (330 MPa)
Se = 19 ksi Sut 48 ksi
130 MPa Sut 330 MPa

For N = 5x108 cycle

Copper alloys
Copper alloys
0.4Sut Sut < 40 ksi (280 MPa)
Se = 14 ksi Sut 40 ksi
100 MPa Sut 280 MPa
For N = 5x108 cycle

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 20


Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit
For materials exhibiting a knee in the S-N curve at 106 cycles
S = endurance limit of the specimen (infinite life > 106)
e

Se = endurance limit of the actual component (infinite life > 106)

S Se

103 106 N

For materials that do not exhibit a knee in the S-N curve, the infinite
life taken at 5x108 cycles

Sf = fatigue strength of the specimen (infinite life > 5x108)


Sf = fatigue strength of the actual component (infinite life > 5x108)

S Sf

Ken Youssefi 103 5x108


MAE dept., SJSU
N 21
Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit
Material exhibits a knee in S-N curve, infinite life at 106 cycle
Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Se)

Material does not exhibit a knee in S-N curve, infinite life at 5x108 cycle
Sf = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Sf)

Load factor, Cload (page 330, Nortons 4th ed. or page 362 in 5th ed.)

Pure bending Cload = 1


Pure axial Cload = 0.7
Pure torsion Cload = 1 if von Mises stress is used, use
0.577 if von Mises stress is NOT used.
Combined loading Cload = 1

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 22


Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Size factor, Csize (p. 331, Nortons 4th ed. or page 363 in 5th ed.)

Larger parts fail at lower stresses than smaller parts. This is


mainly due to the higher probability of flaws being present in
larger components.

For rotating solid round cross section

d 0.3 in. (8 mm) Csize = 1


0.3 in. < d 10 in. Csize = .869(d)-0.097
8 mm < d 250 mm Csize = 1.189(d)-0.097

If the component is larger than 10 in., use Csize = .6

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 23


Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit
For non rotating components, use the 95% area approach to calculate
the equivalent diameter. Then use this equivalent diameter in the
previous equations to calculate the size factor.

A95 = (/4)[d2 (.95d)2] = .0766 d2


d95 = .95d d A95
dequiv = ( )1/2
0.0766

Solid or hollow round non-rotating parts Rectangular parts

dequiv = .37d dequiv = .808 (bh)1/2


Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 24
Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

I beams and C channels

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 25


Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit
surface factor, Csurf (p. 332/3, Nortons 4th ed. or page 363/4 in 5th ed.)

The rotating beam test specimen has a polished surface. Most


components do not have a polished surface. Scratches and
imperfections on the surface act like a stress raisers and reduce
the fatigue life of a part. Use either the graph or the equation with
the table shown below.

Csurf = A (Sut)b

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 26


Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Temperature factor, Ctemp (p.335, Nortons 4th ed. or page 367 in 5th ed.))

High temperatures reduce the fatigue life of a component. For


accurate results, use an environmental chamber and obtain the
endurance limit experimentally at the desired temperature.

For operating temperature below 450 oC (840 oF) the


temperature factor should be taken as one.

for T 840 oF (450 oC) Ctemp = 1

for 840 oF < T 1020 oF Ctemp = 1 0.0032(T 840)

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 27


Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Reliability factor, Crel (p. 335, Nortons 4th ed. or page 367 in 5th ed.)

The reliability correction factor accounts for the scatter and


uncertainty of material properties (endurance limit).

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 28


Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor, Kf
Experimental data shows that the actual stress concentration factor is not as
high as indicated by the theoretical value, Kt (depends on the geometry only).
The stress concentration factor seems to be sensitive to the notch radius and
the ultimate strength of the material.
Notch sensitivity factor
Fatigue stress
concentration factor
Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q
(p. 344, Nortons 4th ed. or p. 376 in 5th ed.)

Steel

Theoretical stress
concentration factor, Kt

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 29


Fatigue Stress
Concentration Factor,
q for Aluminum

(p. 345, Nortons 4th ed. or p. 376 in 5th ed.)

Steel
q = .6 for r =.04 and
Sut = 50,000 psi

Aluminum heat treated


q = .52 for r =.04
and Sut = 50,000 psi

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 30


Design process Fully Reversed Loading for Infinite Life
Mean stress = 0
Determine the maximum alternating applied stress (a ) in terms of
the size for the selected cross sectional profile
Select material Sy, Sut
Choose a safety factor n

Determine all modifying factors and calculate the endurance


limit of the component Se (infinite life 106) or, Sf (infinite life 5x108)
Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf , q and Kt

Use the design equation to calculate the size for infinite life
S Sf
Kf a = e or Kf a =
n n
Investigate different cross sections (profiles), optimize for size or weight

You may also assume a profile and size, calculate the alternating stress
and determine the safety factor. Iterate until you obtain the desired
safety factor
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 31
Fatigue Failure, S-N Curve
(Strength vs. # of cycles to failure)

N < 103 N > 103

Finite life

Infinite life

Se

Se = endurance limit of the specimen

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 32


Design for Finite Life

Strength for
finite number
of cycle
Sn = a (N)b equation of the fatigue line
A A

S B S B
Se Sf

103 106 N 103 5x108 N

Sn = .9Sut Sn = .9Sut
Point A Point A
N = 10 3
N = 103

Sn = Se Sn = Sf
Point B Point B
N = 10 6
N = 5x108
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 33
Design for Finite Life
Sn = a (N)b log Sn = log a + b log N

Apply boundary conditions for point A and B to


find the two constants a and b
2
(.9Sut)
a=
log .9Sut = log a + b log 103 Se
log Se = log a + b log 106 1 .9Sut
b= log
3 Se

S e
log ( .9S )
N
Sn = Se ( 10 )
ut
6

Calculate Sn and replace Se in the design equation


Sn
K f a = or Kf (na) = Sn Design equation
n
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 34
Nortons book (Machine Design) notations

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 35


Nortons book (Machine Design) notations

N = N1 = 103 For all materials

N = N2 = 106 For materials


showing the knee

N = N2 For materials that exhibit


no knee. Select N2 and
look up the value for z
from the table
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 36
For material exhibiting an endurance-limit knee
Bending and combined load N1 = 103 and N = N2 = 106

2
(.9Sut)
a=
Se
1 .9Sut
b= log
3 Se

For material exhibiting no endurance-limit knee


If infinite life is taken as 5x108 then,

N1 = 103 and N = N2 = 5x108 2


(.9Sut)
a=
Se
1 .9Sut
b= log
5.699 Se

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 37


Review of fatigue strength notations

Se = endurance limit of a specimen, material showing a knee


Se = corrected endurance limit, material showing a knee

Sf = endurance limit of a specimen, material showing NO knee


Sf = corrected endurance limit, material showing No knee

Sn = Fatigue strength for finite life


Sm = Fatigue strength at N=1000 cycle

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 38


The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life

Mean stress exist if the


loading is of a repeating or
fluctuating type.

a Mean stress is not zero

Gerber curve
Se
Alternating
stress Goodman line

Sy Sut m
Soderberg line
Mean stress
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 39
The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life
Modified Goodman Diagram

a
Sy Yield line

Se
Alternating
stress Goodman line
C
Safe zone

Sy Sut m
Mean stress

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 40


The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life
Modified Goodman Diagram

a
Sy Yield line

Se

Goodman line
C
Safe zone Safe zone

- m - Syc Sy Sut + m

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 41


The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life
Modified Goodman Diagram

Fatigue, m 0 Fatigue, m > 0


a a m 1
+ = Infinite life
Se Sut nf
Se a m
a = n + = 1 Finite life
f Sn Sut
Yield Se
Syc Yield
a + m = n Sy
y
C
a + m = n
y
Safe zone Safe zone

- m - Syc Sy Sut + m

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 42


Applying Stress Concentration factor to Alternating
and Mean Components of Stress
Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf, apply directly to
the alternating stress Kf a

If Kf max < Sy then there is no yielding at the notch, use Kfm = Kf


and multiply the mean stress by Kfm Kfm m

If Kf max > Sy then there is local yielding at the notch, material at the
notch is strain-hardened. The effect of stress concentration is reduced.
Calculate the stress concentration factor for the mean stress using
the following equation,
Sy Kf a
Kfm =
m
Fatigue design equation
Kf a Kfmm 1
+ = Infinite life
Se Sut nf

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 43


Combined Loading
All four components of stress exist,

xa alternating component of normal stress

xm mean component of normal stress

xya alternating component of shear stress

xym mean component of shear stress

Calculate the alternating and mean principal stresses,

1a, 2a = (xa /2) (xa /2)2 + (xya)2

1m, 2m = (xm /2) (xm /2)2 + (xym)2

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 44


Combined Loading

Calculate the alternating and mean von Mises stresses,

a = (1a2 + 2a2 - 1a2a)1/2

m = (1m2 + 2m2 - 1m2m)1/2

Fatigue design equation

a m 1
+ = Infinite life
Se Sut nf

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 45


Design Example 10,000 lb.
12 6 6
A rotating shaft is carrying 10,000 lb force
as shown. The shaft is made of steel with d D = 1.5d
Sut = 120 ksi and Sy = 90 ksi. The shaft A
is rotating at 1150 rpm and has a R1 R2
machine finish surface. Determine the r (fillet radius) = .1d
diameter, d, for 75 minutes life. Use
safety factor of 1.6 and 50% reliability.
Calculate the support forces, R1 = 2500, R2 = 7500 lb.

The critical location is at the fillet, MA = 2500 x 12 = 30,000 lb-in

Mc 32M 305577
Calculate the alternating stress, a = = = m = 0
I d 3
d 3

Determine the stress concentration factor


r = .1
d
Kt = 1.7
D
= 1.5
d
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 46
Design Example
Assume d = 1.0 in

Using r = .1 and Sut = 120 ksi,


q (notch sensitivity) = .85
Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .85(1.7 1) = 1.6

Calculate the endurance limit

Cload = 1 (pure bending)


Crel = 1 (50% rel.)
Ctemp= 1 (room temp)
-.265
Csurf = A (Sut)b = 2.7(120) = .759

0.3 in. < d 10 in. Csize = .869(d)-0.097 = .869(1)-0.097 = .869


Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Se) = (.759)(.869)(.5x120) = 39.57 ksi
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 47
Design Example
Design life, N = 1150 x 75 = 86250 cycles
Se 39.57
N
log (
.9Sut
)
86250 log ( .9x120
)
Sn = Se ( 6 )10
Sn = 39.57 ( 6 10
) = 56.5 ksi

305577 Sn 56.5
a = n= = = .116 < 1.6
d3
= 305.577 ksi Kfa 1.6x305.577

So d = 1.0 in. is too small

Assume d = 2.5 in
All factors remain the same except the size factor and notch sensitivity.

Using r = .25 and Sut = 120 ksi,


Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .9(1.7 1) = 1.63
q (notch sensitivity) = .9

Csize = .869(d)-0.097 = .869(2.5)-0.097 = .795 Se = 36.2 ksi

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 48


Design Example
36.2
log ( .9x120 )
86250
Se = 36.2 ksi Sn = 36.20 ( 10 6
) = 53.35 ksi

305577
a = 3
= 19.55 ksi
(2.5)
Sn 53.35
n= = = 1.67 1.6
Kfa 1.63x19.55

d = 2.5 in.

Check yielding

Sy 90
n= = = 2.8 > 1.6 okay
Kfmax 1.63x19.55

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 49


Design Example Observations
Sn 56.5 12 6 6
n= = = .116 < 1.6
Kfa 1.6x305.577 d D = 1.5d

So d = 1.0 in. is too small A


R1 R2 = 7500
r (fillet radius) = .1d
Calculate an approximate diameter

Sn 56.5 So, your next guess


n= = = 1.6 d = 2.4 in.
K f a 1.6x305.577/d 3
should be between
2.25 to 2.5

Check the location of maximum moment for possible failure

Mmax (under the load) = 7500 x 6 = 45,000 lb-in

MA (at the fillet) = 2500 x 12 = 30,000 lb-in

But, applying the fatigue stress conc. Factor of 1.63,


Kf MA = 1.63x30,000 = 48,900 > 45,000
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 50
Example
A section of a component is shown.
The material is steel with Sut = 620 MPa
and a fully corrected endurance limit of
Se = 180 MPa. The applied axial load
varies from 2,000 to 10,000 N. Use
modified Goodman diagram and find
the safety factor at the fillet A, groove B
and hole C. Which location is likely to
fail first? Use Kfm = 1
Pa = (Pmax Pmin) / 2 = 4000 N Pm = (Pmax + Pmin) / 2 = 6000 N

Fillet

r 4
= = .16
d 25
Kt = 1.76
D 35
= = 1.4
d 25

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 51


Example
Using r = 4 and Sut = 620 MPa,
q (notch sensitivity) = .85

Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .85(1.76 1) = 1.65

Calculate the alternating and the


mean stresses,
Pa 4000
a = fK = 1.65 = 52.8 MPa
A 25x5
Pm 6000
m = = = 48 MPa
A 25x5

Fatigue design equation


a m 1 52.8 48 1
+ =
n
Infinite life + =
n
n = 2.7
Se Sut 180 620

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 52


Example
Hole
d 5
= = .143 Kt = 2.6
w 35

Using r = 2.5 and Sut = 620 MPa,


q (notch sensitivity) = .82
Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .82(2.6 1) = 2.3

Calculate the alternating and the


mean stresses,
Pa 4000
a = Kf = 2.3 = 61.33 MPa
A (35-5)5
Pm 6000
m = = = 40 MPa
A 30x5

61.33 40 1
+ =
n
n = 2.5
180 620

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 53


Example
Groove
r 3
= = .103
d 29
Kt = 2.33
D 35
= = 1.2
d 29
Using r = 3 and Sut = 620 MPa,
q (notch sensitivity) = .83
Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .83(2.33 1) = 2.1
Calculate the alternating and the
mean stresses,
Pa 4000
a = Kf = 2.1 = 58.0 MPa
A (35-6)5
Pm 6000
m = = = 41.4 MPa
A 29x5

58.0 41.4 1
+ =
n
n = 2.57
180 620
The part is likely to fail at the hole, has the lowest safety factor
Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 54
Example
The figure shows a formed round wire cantilever
spring subjected to a varying force F. The wire is
made of steel with Sut = 150 ksi. The mounting
detail is such that the stress concentration could
be neglected. A visual inspection of the spring
indicates that the surface finish corresponds
closely to a hot-rolled finish. For a reliability of
99%, what number of load applications is likely to
cause failure.
Fa = (Fmax Fmin) / 2 = 7.5 lb. Fm = (Fmax + Fmin) / 2 = 22.5 lb.

Ma = 7.5 x 16 = 120 in - lb Mm = 22.5 x 16 = 360 in - lb

Mc 32Ma 32(120)
a = = = = 23178.6 psi
I d 3 (.375)
3

Mc 32Mm 32(360)
m = = = = 69536 psi
I d 3
(.375)
3

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 55


Example
Calculate the endurance limit
-.718
Cload = 1 (pure bending) Csurf = A (Sut)b = 14.4(150) = .394
2
Ctemp= 1 (room temp) A95 = .010462 d (non-rotating round section)

Crel= .814 (99% reliability)


dequiv = A 95 / .0766 = .37d = .37 x.375 = .14

dequiv = .14 < .3 Csize = 1.0

Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Se) = (.394)(.814)(.5x150) = 24.077 ksi

a m 1 23178.6 69536 1
+ =
n
+ =
n
n = .7 < 1
Se Sut 24077 150000
Finite life
Find Sn, strength for finite number of cycle

a m 23178.6 69536
+ =1 + =1 Sn = 43207 psi
Sn Sut Sn 150000

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 56


Example

Se 24.077
N log ( .9S )
N log ( .9x150 )
Sn = Se ( 10 )
ut
6 43207 = 24077 ( )
106

N = 96,000 cycles

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 57