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Original Title: 11 - Fatigue Failure

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to a repetitive or fluctuating stress will fail at a

stress much lower than that required to cause

failure on a single application of load. Failures

occurring under conditions of dynamic loading

are called fatigue failures.

Fatigue failure is characterized by three stages

Crack Initiation

Crack Propagation

Final Fracture

Jack hammer component,

shows no yielding before

fracture.

Fracture zone

Propagation zone, striation

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 2

VW crank shaft fatigue failure due to cyclic bending and torsional stresses

Propagation

zone, striations

928 Porsche timing pulley

Fracture surface of a failed bolt. The

fracture surface exhibited beach marks,

which is characteristic of a fatigue failure.

agricultural equipment.

Material; AISI/SAE 4140 low

allow carbon steel

bicycle crank spider arm

considerable time to nucleate from a machining mark between the spider

arms on this highly stressed surface. However once initiated propagation

was rapid and accelerating as shown in the increased spacing of the 'beach

marks' on the surface caused by the advancing fatigue crack.

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 6

Crank shaft

Hawaii (1988), Aloha

Flight 243, a Boeing

737, an upper part of

the plane's cabin

area rips off in mid-

flight.

Metal fatigue

compounded by

corrosion

Fracture Surface Characteristics

Ductile Cup and Cone

Dimples

Dull Surface

Inclusion at the bottom of the dimple

Brittle Fracture

The cracks usually travel so fast that you can't tell when the material is about to

break. In other words, there is very little plastic deformation before failure occurs.

In most cases, this is the worst type of fracture because you can't repair visible

damage in a part or structure before it breaks.

Cleavage fractures

Brittle fracture surfaces

Brittle fracture in a mild steel (shinny surface)

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 12

Low temperatures can severely

embrittle steels. The Liberty ships,

produced in great numbers during the

WWII were the first all-welded ships. A

significant number of ships failed by

catastrophic fracture. Fatigue cracks

nucleated at the corners of square

hatches and propagated rapidly by

brittle fracture.

Striations (beach markes

Fatigue Initiation sites

Propagation zone

Final fracture zone

Fatigue Failure Type of Fluctuating Stresses

a = max

max = - min

a = Alternating Stress

m = Mean Stress

Alternating stress

max min

a = 2

min = 0

Mean stress

a = m = max / 2 max min

+

m = 2

Fatigue Failure, S-N Curve

rotating beam machine. The surface is

polished in the axial direction. A constant

bending load is applied.

Motor

Load

The standard machine operates at an

adjustable speed of 500 RPM to 10,000

RPM. At the nominal rate of 10,000

RPM, the R. R. Moore machine Bending moment capacity

20 in-lb to 200 in-lb

completes 600,000 cycles per hour,

14,400,000 cycles per day.

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 17

Fatigue Failure, S-N Curve

(Strength vs. # of cycles to failure)

Finite life

Infinite life

Se

Relationship Between Endurance Limit

and Ultimate Strength

Steel

Steel

0.5Sut Sut 200 ksi (1400 MPa)

Se = 100 ksi Sut > 200 ksi

700 MPa Sut > 1400 MPa

Se = 24 ksi Sut 60 ksi

160 MPa Sut < 400 MPa

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 19

Relationship Between Endurance Limit and

Ultimate Strength

Aluminum

Aluminum alloys

0.4Sut Sut < 48 ksi (330 MPa)

Se = 19 ksi Sut 48 ksi

130 MPa Sut 330 MPa

Copper alloys

Copper alloys

0.4Sut Sut < 40 ksi (280 MPa)

Se = 14 ksi Sut 40 ksi

100 MPa Sut 280 MPa

For N = 5x108 cycle

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

For materials exhibiting a knee in the S-N curve at 106 cycles

S = endurance limit of the specimen (infinite life > 106)

e

S Se

103 106 N

For materials that do not exhibit a knee in the S-N curve, the infinite

life taken at 5x108 cycles

Sf = fatigue strength of the actual component (infinite life > 5x108)

S Sf

MAE dept., SJSU

N 21

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Material exhibits a knee in S-N curve, infinite life at 106 cycle

Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Se)

Material does not exhibit a knee in S-N curve, infinite life at 5x108 cycle

Sf = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Sf)

Load factor, Cload (page 330, Nortons 4th ed. or page 362 in 5th ed.)

Pure axial Cload = 0.7

Pure torsion Cload = 1 if von Mises stress is used, use

0.577 if von Mises stress is NOT used.

Combined loading Cload = 1

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Size factor, Csize (p. 331, Nortons 4th ed. or page 363 in 5th ed.)

mainly due to the higher probability of flaws being present in

larger components.

0.3 in. < d 10 in. Csize = .869(d)-0.097

8 mm < d 250 mm Csize = 1.189(d)-0.097

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

For non rotating components, use the 95% area approach to calculate

the equivalent diameter. Then use this equivalent diameter in the

previous equations to calculate the size factor.

d95 = .95d d A95

dequiv = ( )1/2

0.0766

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 24

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

surface factor, Csurf (p. 332/3, Nortons 4th ed. or page 363/4 in 5th ed.)

components do not have a polished surface. Scratches and

imperfections on the surface act like a stress raisers and reduce

the fatigue life of a part. Use either the graph or the equation with

the table shown below.

Csurf = A (Sut)b

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Temperature factor, Ctemp (p.335, Nortons 4th ed. or page 367 in 5th ed.))

accurate results, use an environmental chamber and obtain the

endurance limit experimentally at the desired temperature.

temperature factor should be taken as one.

Correction Factors for Specimens Endurance Limit

Reliability factor, Crel (p. 335, Nortons 4th ed. or page 367 in 5th ed.)

uncertainty of material properties (endurance limit).

Fatigue Stress Concentration Factor, Kf

Experimental data shows that the actual stress concentration factor is not as

high as indicated by the theoretical value, Kt (depends on the geometry only).

The stress concentration factor seems to be sensitive to the notch radius and

the ultimate strength of the material.

Notch sensitivity factor

Fatigue stress

concentration factor

Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q

(p. 344, Nortons 4th ed. or p. 376 in 5th ed.)

Steel

Theoretical stress

concentration factor, Kt

Fatigue Stress

Concentration Factor,

q for Aluminum

Steel

q = .6 for r =.04 and

Sut = 50,000 psi

q = .52 for r =.04

and Sut = 50,000 psi

Design process Fully Reversed Loading for Infinite Life

Mean stress = 0

Determine the maximum alternating applied stress (a ) in terms of

the size for the selected cross sectional profile

Select material Sy, Sut

Choose a safety factor n

limit of the component Se (infinite life 106) or, Sf (infinite life 5x108)

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf , q and Kt

Use the design equation to calculate the size for infinite life

S Sf

Kf a = e or Kf a =

n n

Investigate different cross sections (profiles), optimize for size or weight

You may also assume a profile and size, calculate the alternating stress

and determine the safety factor. Iterate until you obtain the desired

safety factor

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 31

Fatigue Failure, S-N Curve

(Strength vs. # of cycles to failure)

Finite life

Infinite life

Se

Design for Finite Life

Strength for

finite number

of cycle

Sn = a (N)b equation of the fatigue line

A A

S B S B

Se Sf

Sn = .9Sut Sn = .9Sut

Point A Point A

N = 10 3

N = 103

Sn = Se Sn = Sf

Point B Point B

N = 10 6

N = 5x108

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 33

Design for Finite Life

Sn = a (N)b log Sn = log a + b log N

find the two constants a and b

2

(.9Sut)

a=

log .9Sut = log a + b log 103 Se

log Se = log a + b log 106 1 .9Sut

b= log

3 Se

S e

log ( .9S )

N

Sn = Se ( 10 )

ut

6

Sn

K f a = or Kf (na) = Sn Design equation

n

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 34

Nortons book (Machine Design) notations

Nortons book (Machine Design) notations

showing the knee

no knee. Select N2 and

look up the value for z

from the table

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 36

For material exhibiting an endurance-limit knee

Bending and combined load N1 = 103 and N = N2 = 106

2

(.9Sut)

a=

Se

1 .9Sut

b= log

3 Se

If infinite life is taken as 5x108 then,

(.9Sut)

a=

Se

1 .9Sut

b= log

5.699 Se

Review of fatigue strength notations

Se = corrected endurance limit, material showing a knee

Sf = corrected endurance limit, material showing No knee

Sm = Fatigue strength at N=1000 cycle

The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life

loading is of a repeating or

fluctuating type.

Gerber curve

Se

Alternating

stress Goodman line

Sy Sut m

Soderberg line

Mean stress

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 39

The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life

Modified Goodman Diagram

a

Sy Yield line

Se

Alternating

stress Goodman line

C

Safe zone

Sy Sut m

Mean stress

The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life

Modified Goodman Diagram

a

Sy Yield line

Se

Goodman line

C

Safe zone Safe zone

- m - Syc Sy Sut + m

The Effect of Mean Stress on Fatigue Life

Modified Goodman Diagram

a a m 1

+ = Infinite life

Se Sut nf

Se a m

a = n + = 1 Finite life

f Sn Sut

Yield Se

Syc Yield

a + m = n Sy

y

C

a + m = n

y

Safe zone Safe zone

- m - Syc Sy Sut + m

Applying Stress Concentration factor to Alternating

and Mean Components of Stress

Determine the fatigue stress concentration factor, Kf, apply directly to

the alternating stress Kf a

and multiply the mean stress by Kfm Kfm m

If Kf max > Sy then there is local yielding at the notch, material at the

notch is strain-hardened. The effect of stress concentration is reduced.

Calculate the stress concentration factor for the mean stress using

the following equation,

Sy Kf a

Kfm =

m

Fatigue design equation

Kf a Kfmm 1

+ = Infinite life

Se Sut nf

Combined Loading

All four components of stress exist,

Combined Loading

a m 1

+ = Infinite life

Se Sut nf

Design Example 10,000 lb.

12 6 6

A rotating shaft is carrying 10,000 lb force

as shown. The shaft is made of steel with d D = 1.5d

Sut = 120 ksi and Sy = 90 ksi. The shaft A

is rotating at 1150 rpm and has a R1 R2

machine finish surface. Determine the r (fillet radius) = .1d

diameter, d, for 75 minutes life. Use

safety factor of 1.6 and 50% reliability.

Calculate the support forces, R1 = 2500, R2 = 7500 lb.

Mc 32M 305577

Calculate the alternating stress, a = = = m = 0

I d 3

d 3

r = .1

d

Kt = 1.7

D

= 1.5

d

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 46

Design Example

Assume d = 1.0 in

q (notch sensitivity) = .85

Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .85(1.7 1) = 1.6

Crel = 1 (50% rel.)

Ctemp= 1 (room temp)

-.265

Csurf = A (Sut)b = 2.7(120) = .759

Se = Cload Csize Csurf Ctemp Crel (Se) = (.759)(.869)(.5x120) = 39.57 ksi

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 47

Design Example

Design life, N = 1150 x 75 = 86250 cycles

Se 39.57

N

log (

.9Sut

)

86250 log ( .9x120

)

Sn = Se ( 6 )10

Sn = 39.57 ( 6 10

) = 56.5 ksi

305577 Sn 56.5

a = n= = = .116 < 1.6

d3

= 305.577 ksi Kfa 1.6x305.577

Assume d = 2.5 in

All factors remain the same except the size factor and notch sensitivity.

Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .9(1.7 1) = 1.63

q (notch sensitivity) = .9

Design Example

36.2

log ( .9x120 )

86250

Se = 36.2 ksi Sn = 36.20 ( 10 6

) = 53.35 ksi

305577

a = 3

= 19.55 ksi

(2.5)

Sn 53.35

n= = = 1.67 1.6

Kfa 1.63x19.55

d = 2.5 in.

Check yielding

Sy 90

n= = = 2.8 > 1.6 okay

Kfmax 1.63x19.55

Design Example Observations

Sn 56.5 12 6 6

n= = = .116 < 1.6

Kfa 1.6x305.577 d D = 1.5d

R1 R2 = 7500

r (fillet radius) = .1d

Calculate an approximate diameter

n= = = 1.6 d = 2.4 in.

K f a 1.6x305.577/d 3

should be between

2.25 to 2.5

Kf MA = 1.63x30,000 = 48,900 > 45,000

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 50

Example

A section of a component is shown.

The material is steel with Sut = 620 MPa

and a fully corrected endurance limit of

Se = 180 MPa. The applied axial load

varies from 2,000 to 10,000 N. Use

modified Goodman diagram and find

the safety factor at the fillet A, groove B

and hole C. Which location is likely to

fail first? Use Kfm = 1

Pa = (Pmax Pmin) / 2 = 4000 N Pm = (Pmax + Pmin) / 2 = 6000 N

Fillet

r 4

= = .16

d 25

Kt = 1.76

D 35

= = 1.4

d 25

Example

Using r = 4 and Sut = 620 MPa,

q (notch sensitivity) = .85

mean stresses,

Pa 4000

a = fK = 1.65 = 52.8 MPa

A 25x5

Pm 6000

m = = = 48 MPa

A 25x5

a m 1 52.8 48 1

+ =

n

Infinite life + =

n

n = 2.7

Se Sut 180 620

Example

Hole

d 5

= = .143 Kt = 2.6

w 35

q (notch sensitivity) = .82

Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .82(2.6 1) = 2.3

mean stresses,

Pa 4000

a = Kf = 2.3 = 61.33 MPa

A (35-5)5

Pm 6000

m = = = 40 MPa

A 30x5

61.33 40 1

+ =

n

n = 2.5

180 620

Example

Groove

r 3

= = .103

d 29

Kt = 2.33

D 35

= = 1.2

d 29

Using r = 3 and Sut = 620 MPa,

q (notch sensitivity) = .83

Kf = 1 + (Kt 1)q = 1 + .83(2.33 1) = 2.1

Calculate the alternating and the

mean stresses,

Pa 4000

a = Kf = 2.1 = 58.0 MPa

A (35-6)5

Pm 6000

m = = = 41.4 MPa

A 29x5

58.0 41.4 1

+ =

n

n = 2.57

180 620

The part is likely to fail at the hole, has the lowest safety factor

Ken Youssefi MAE dept., SJSU 54

Example

The figure shows a formed round wire cantilever

spring subjected to a varying force F. The wire is

made of steel with Sut = 150 ksi. The mounting

detail is such that the stress concentration could

be neglected. A visual inspection of the spring

indicates that the surface finish corresponds

closely to a hot-rolled finish. For a reliability of

99%, what number of load applications is likely to

cause failure.

Fa = (Fmax Fmin) / 2 = 7.5 lb. Fm = (Fmax + Fmin) / 2 = 22.5 lb.

Mc 32Ma 32(120)

a = = = = 23178.6 psi

I d 3 (.375)

3

Mc 32Mm 32(360)

m = = = = 69536 psi

I d 3

(.375)

3

Example

Calculate the endurance limit

-.718

Cload = 1 (pure bending) Csurf = A (Sut)b = 14.4(150) = .394

2

Ctemp= 1 (room temp) A95 = .010462 d (non-rotating round section)

dequiv = A 95 / .0766 = .37d = .37 x.375 = .14

a m 1 23178.6 69536 1

+ =

n

+ =

n

n = .7 < 1

Se Sut 24077 150000

Finite life

Find Sn, strength for finite number of cycle

a m 23178.6 69536

+ =1 + =1 Sn = 43207 psi

Sn Sut Sn 150000

Example

Se 24.077

N log ( .9S )

N log ( .9x150 )

Sn = Se ( 10 )

ut

6 43207 = 24077 ( )

106

N = 96,000 cycles

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